Carallia brachiata (Lour.) Merr., Philipp. J. Sci. 15: 249 1919. (syn. Baraultia madagascariensis Spreng.; Barraldeia madagascariensis Spreng., Bruguiera nemorosa Blanco; Carallia arguta Koord. & Valeton; Carallia baraldeia Arn.; Carallia calycina Benth.; Carallia celebica Blume; Carallia cerisopsitolia Miq.; Carallia ceylanica Arn.; Carallia confinis Blume; Carallia confinis var. latifolia Miq.; Carallia corymbosa Arn.; Carallia cuprea Ridl.; Carallia cuspidata Blume; Carallia densiflora Griff.; Carallia diplopetala Hand.-Mazz.; Carallia floribunda Miq.; Carallia integerrima DC.; Carallia integrifolia J.Graham; Carallia lanceifolia Roxb.; Carallia lanceolaria Wall. [Invalid]; Carallia lucida Roxb.; Carallia madagascariensis (DC.) Tul.; Carallia multiflora Blume; Carallia multiflora Miq. [Illegitimate]; Carallia obcordata Wight ex Walp.; Carallia octopetala F.Muell. ex Benth.; Carallia scortechinii King; Carallia sinensis Arn.; Carallia spinulosa Ridl.; Carallia symmetria Blume; Carallia timorensis Blume; Carallia viridiflora Ridl.; Carallia zeylanica Arn.; Demidofia nodosa Dennst.; Diatoma brachiata Lour.; Garcinia cymulosa Miq.; Karekandelia brachiata (Lour.) Kuntze; Karekandelia calycina (Benth.) Kuntze; Karekandelia celebica (Bl.) Kuntze; Karekandelia confinis (Bl.) Kuntze; Karekandelia cuspidata (Bl.) Kuntze; Karekandelia lanceifolia (Roxb.) Kuntze; Karekandelia multiflora (Bl.) Kuntze; Petalotoma brachiata (Lour.) DC.; Stalagmitis lamponga Miq.; Symmetria obovata Blume);
China (S-Guangxi, Guangdong, Hainan), India, Darjeeling, Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Laos, Madagascar, peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Vietnam, Bismarck Arch. (New Britain), Solomon Isl., Java, Australia (Western Australia, Northern Territory, Queensland), Andamans (Middle Andamans, South Andamans), Nicobars (Central Nicobars), Myanmar [Burma] (widespread), Philippines (Luzon, Mindanao), Palawan, Bangladesh as per Catalogue of Life;
kar-uh-LEE-uh — from the Telugu carallie, the name of Carallia lucidaPaxton’s Botanical Dictionary
brak-ee-AY-tuh — branched at right angles, arm-like … Dave’s Botanary
commonly known as: freshwater mangroveAssamese: ডাইনী জামু daini jamu, কাউ-থেকেৰা kau-thekeraaBengali: কিরপা kirpaGaro: thekra agaKannada: ಅಂಡಿಮುರುಗಲು andimurugalu, ಅಂಡಿಪುನಾರು andipunaruKhasi: dieng sohlangbali, dieng sohsyllihKonkani: पोनसी ponsiMalayalam: വല്ലഭം vallabham, വങ്കണ vankana, വറങ്ങ് varanguMarathi: फणशी phanshiMizo: thei-riaNepali: काठे केरा kathe keraSanskrit: वल्लभ vallabhaTamil: அந்திமிரியம் antimiriyamTelugu: గిజురు చెట్టు gijuru chettu, కారల్లి kaaralliTulu: ಅಂಡಿಪುನಾರ್ andipunar


Carallia brachiata: This one is large evergreen tree (10m).
Bot. name: Carallia brachiata
Common name: Freshwater Mangrove
Family: Rhizophoraceae
Location: Phansad Forest (near Murud, Maharashtra).
Date/Time: 20-03-2011 / 10:00AM


Location- Assam,
Habitat- Wild Type
Plant Habit- Tree
Leaves Size- 10-5 X 4-6 cm, Fleshy
Inflorescence – as seen in the photos

This is Carallia brachiata (Rhizophoraceae), I think.

How does a tree classified as a mangrove grow by itself in Assam? or is it by some one’s planting, ie by design?

I think there is little chance to plant this species in this virgin forests. Another point is that it is freshwater mangrove. This sp is used as herbal medicine in Assam

Requesting id: (Mixed thread): 4 correct images as above.

these photos were taken in Jog falls, Shimoga district, karnataka on 18th Sept 2011.

Yes it is Carallia brachiata (Lour.) Merr. (please note the spelling) of Rhizophoraceae family.


efloraindia: 191111 BRS181: Sharing the images of Carallia brachiata (mangrove plant) at the NBNP Garden, Coimbatore

Habitat: Garden

Habit: Tree

Great catch. Though it is a mangrove plant it is observed in forests I suppose?

Nice flowers. we saw the tree in the forest garden of Agumbe, but there were no flowers that time.

Freshwater Mangrove is a tree growing up to 10 m tall. Branches are brown, corky.
Stipules are 1-2.5 cm.
Leaves carried on 1 cm long stalks are elliptic-obovate, oblanceolate, or rarely circular, 5-15 x 2-10 cm, papery to thinly leathery. Leaf base is wedge-shaped, margin entire or toothed, tip pointed or shortly tapering. Inflorescences are 1-6 cm, often resinous, usually shining from secreted resin. Flowers are short-stalked or stalkless. Bracteoles are 2 or 3, partially fused into a cup. Sepals are 6 or 7, triangular, 3-4 mm. Petals are white, nearly round, 1.5 mm in diameter, notched at the tip and unevenly lacerate. Stamens are about 2 mm. Ovary is bulbous, 2 mm; style 2 mm; stigma discoid, apically 4-8-lobed.
Fruit is glossy pink to red round, 5 mm in diameter. Seeds are kidney-shaped.

Ref. Flowers of India

Good set of photos. I have noticed the flowering of this sp. few days back at the NBNP Arboretum.

Good set of photos
Family : Rhizophoraceae

Would like to validate the name of this plant in Kannada
ಅಂದಿಪುನಾರ್ andipunar
References: BiotikFRLHT / ENVIS

Would like to validate the name karalli in Tamil for this plant.
Which of these would be the correct spelling for karalli:
கரல்லி OR கறல்லி OR காரல்லி OR காறல்லி ?

‘karalli’ is a Telugu name, as per FRLHT database.
The script for Tamil name ‘Andimiriam’ (not familiar to me!) may be அந்திமிரியம்.

Many many thanks … for the clarity.
Me too thought so – karalli is a Telugu name given to Carallia lucida; and the genus name Carallia is derived from it … Paxton’s Botanical Dictionary.
Perhaps, due to proximity of regions, adjoining population of Tamil may have borrowed the Telugu name – I am referring to mention of karalli as Tamil name for Carallia integerrima … unless put in error.
My query arose because none of கரல்லி / கறல்லி / காரல்லி / காறல்லி are found in Tamil dictionaries or any web page on internet.
I am considering to drop this karalli as a name in Tamil for C. brachiata.
One observation: The Useful Plants of India (NISCAIR) has not put any name in Tamil for C. brachiata.
ஆண்டிமிரம் (antimiram) is found at Biotik …
Seems ambiguous because only Biotik and FRLHT mentions it … perhaps it is based on names in neighbouring languages, and relatively recent coined word.
I will take அந்திமிரியம் as a better form of ஆண்டிமிரம்.

Many thanks once again.

karalli is a Telugu name given to Carallia lucida; and the genus name Carallia is derived from it … Paxton’s Botanical Dictionary.
Would someone help me by providing the name in native script.
I tried all of these:
కరల్లి / కారల్లి / కరాల్లి / కారాల్లి / కరళ్లి / కారళ్లి / కరాళ్లి / కారాళ్లి … surprisingly not one of these discussed on the internet.
Totally stumped !
Another name put for C. brachiata is gijuru chettu ¿ గిజరు ? చెట్టు … hope this name helps to get to karalli.


Names of Plants in India :: Carallia brachiata (Lour.) Merr.: via Species‎ > ‎C‎ > ‎  Carallia brachiata (Lour.) Merr. … family: Rhizophoraceae

Flowers of India Discussions at efloraofindia more views in flickr more views on Google Earth
kar-uh-LEE-uh — from the Telugu carallie, the name of Carallia lucidaPaxton’s Botanical Dictionary
brak-ee-AY-tuh — branched at right angles, arm-likeDave’s Botanary
commonly known as: freshwater mangroveAssamese: daini jam, কাউ-থেকেৰা kau-thekeraaBengali: kierpaGaro: thekra agaKannada: ಅಂಡಿಮುರುಗಲು andimurugalu, ಅಂಡಿಪುನರ್ andipunarKhasi: dieng sohlangbali, dieng sohsyllihKonkani: पोनसी ponsiMalayalam: വല്ലഭം vallabham, വങ്കണ vankana, വറങ്ങ് varanguMarathi: फणशी phanshiMizo: thei-riaNepali: काठे केरा kathe keraTamil: அந்திமிரியம் antimiriyamTelugu: ¿ గిజరు ? చెట్టు gijuru chettu, karalli
botanical names: Carallia brachiata (Lour.) Merr. … synonyms: Carallia integerrima DC • Diatoma brachiata Lour. … Biotik

Update, \names revised / added …
commonly known as: freshwater mangroveAssamese: ডাইনী জামু daini jamu, কাউ-থেকেৰা kau-thekeraaBengali: kierpaGaro: thekra agaKannada: ಅಂಡಿಮುರುಗಲು andimurugalu, ಅಂಡಿಪುನಾರು andipunaruKhasi: dieng sohlangbali, dieng sohsyllihKonkani: पोनसी ponsiMalayalam: വല്ലഭം vallabham, വങ്കണ vankana, വറങ്ങ് varanguMarathi: फणशी phanshiMizo: thei-riaNepali: काठे केरा kathe keraSanskrit: वल्लभ vallabhaTamil: அந்திமிரியம் antimiriyamTelugu: గిజురు చెట్టు gijuru chettu, కారల్లి kaaralliTulu: ಅಂಡಿಪುನಾರ್ andipunar

Have you noticed that all plant names in Khasi start with a “Dieng”?

Good morning, … Yes, most of them do start with dieng. In the Khasi page of Names of Plants in India, we can see some exceptions.


Carallia brachiata: Carallia brachiata
Lonavala (Maharashtra, Western Ghats)
Description : Large evergreen tree, in evergreen forest at altitude 700 Mtrs (MSL). ID Credit
— …

ID : RDS : Lonavala : 16-12-12: ID help requested. Observed this large tree near Lonavala (Western
Ghats – Maharashtra),
in evergreen patch of forest at 700 Mtrs height altitude.

… confirmed it as Carallia brachiata


Tree for ID : 27032013 : RV 3 :  4 images. 3 posts by 3 authors.

Request to id this tree, about 12 to 15 ft tall, found in large number in Matheran, seems to me evergreen tree. Pictures taken on 23rd March and saw many birds relishing the red fruits of the trees.

Carallia brachiata

Yes it is Carallia brachiata



IDENTITY : 33 : Attachments (2). 1 post by 1 author.

The species has been correctly identified by … a forest officer from Guahati as Carallia lucida. Thanks to …


Tree For ID : Lalbagh,Bangalore : 271113 : AK-3 : Attachments (4). 6 posts by 4 authors.

Tree in bloom with tiny flowers.

Kindly id.

Carallia brachiata

yes it is Carallia brachiata

Carallia brachiata, (Lour.) Merr. <=> Freshwater Mangrove Tree

Thanks for confirming this id.
You have done a wonderful job of the trees in Lalbagh.
Your link is very useful.


Carelia brachiata (Lour.) Merr. : Attachments (2). 5 posts by 4 authors.

Carelia brachiata (Lour.) Merr., Fam: Rhizophoraceae

Small to very tall tree, both east and western ghats,
bark characteristic, branches nearly horizontal,
evergreen tree, beautiful tree, bark having medicinal application also

collected Talakona of Andhra Pradesh and Dharmasthala of Karnataka

Carallia brachiate

Help in identification : Attachments (4).  2 posts by 2 authors.

Please help me in identifying Small tree from Chakrasila WLS, Assam

Carallia brachiata belongs to Rhizophoraceae


8May2014NVR Tree from Goa for ID : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (5).

This is Carallia brachiataThe bark is typical.

ID01122015PHK : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (5)
Id please
A medium sized tree at Chikhalgoan, Dapoli Maharashtra
Thanks in advance
flower closeup.JPG
Trunk and roots.JPG


pictures of Carallia brachiata : 4 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (2)

sharing pictures of beautiful tree of Carallia brachiata (Lour.) Merr.

Family : Rhizophoraceae

Lovely pics …, very beautiful !!


Need Id Assistance for JNU Campus plant 010515SP 1-4 : 4 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (4)

I need id assistance for following images belonging to one species.
Date: 01/05/2015
Locality: JNU New Campus
With flowers
Habit: Tree (up to 4 m high)

It is Carallia brachiata (Rhizophoraceae member) the only species found in non mangrove land, others occurs in mangrove forests. The flowers are sticky.


Ficus Tree for ID, Kolkatta NAW-FEB17-02 : 6 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (4)
Kindly identify this tree at the Botanical Garden, Kolkatta photographed in Oct, 2016.

No figs sighted but trunk seems very distinctive.

Pl. send more images of leaves & foliage.

it looks like Carallia bractiata……

Certainly the roots and new leaves in the 2nd picture look like Carallia brachiata.
Please could you post images of the mature leaves for confirmation?

Thanks all. I am out of station right now and will look thru my pictures to see if i have better ones of the leaves when i get back home.

I was wondering if anyone could share pictures of Carallia brachiata. I just learned that this member of the Rhizophoraceae is known as the freshwater mangrove, and I’m having difficulty finding more information.
Does it have prop roots or viviparous seeds? Can it survive significant inundation? Are there any other members of this genus with these features?

Any help would be most appreciated.

Some of my pictures of Carallia brachiata at flickr … you may go ahead to download any of the pictures for your use.

Thank you for sharing! These are really nice pictures.

Do you know why this species is called the freshwater mangrove?

No, I do not know the reason why this plant is way from mangroves, yet has some aspect(s) which led to getting included in a genus – almost all of whose species have their habitat in mangroves.

Thinking otherwise, this plant far from mangroves, seems to have no connection with “freshwater” either.

I was wondering if anyone had information on the physiology or morphology of Carallia brachiata (Rhizophoraceae). I’ve heard it called the freshwater mangrove, and I was wondering what mangrove-like adaptations it has (salt tolerance, inundation tolerance, viviparous propagules, prop roots, etc.) Also, are there other members of this genus with similar adaptations?

Any help would be excellent!

Images & details already available at efi page: Carallia brachiata

Tree for Id -ID18112017SH1 : 8 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (4)
Tree for Id pl.
Location – Botanical Garden, Kolkata

Date – November 2017

I think difficult to id with these images.

May I request you to pl. post original image of IMG_7600 – Copy.JPG to see the details.

Sending original copy again for id as per your suggestion. Attachments (1)- 5 MB.

Posting original copy of the tree for details. I found the arrangement of the branches very beautiful and peculiar. Interesting tree.

Attachments (1)- 7 MB.

Appears to be Carallia brachiata– same as at Ficus Tree for ID, Kolkatta NAW-FEB17-02


Matheran plant for id: please help to identify this wild plant found in deep evergreen forest at Matheran. It is found at several locations where the forest is rich in species.
So far have not found mature plant. This may be a creeper.
Leaves are dark green, glossy, glabrous, c. 12-15cm long, with fine sharp serrations on the margins. Stems are all warty and rough. Branches quite flexible.
Could it be Salacia sp?

It looks like a sapling of Carallia brachiata

Yes, it does, but what about the serration?
I’ve grown seedlings of the Carallia and although the leaf shape was similar the leaves were entire.

In natural habitat (mostly under shade) leaves of Carallia brachiata is serrated.

Thank you so much for that information. I’ve been puzzling over this one for weeks!

Carallia integerrimaRhizophoraceae, This is another interesting species seen at Amboli, Maharashtra last week.
All Rhizophora are coastal, but this is the only species found away from the sea. Amboli is at 3000 altitude. Fruit is edible and tastes like Phalsa !

Very Very interesting plant , something very new about this family for me.

Yes …, amazing tree! In fact there was no water around the spots we saw this tree!

There is a small patch of landlocked mangroves (just 0.7 ha with about 36 trees) in Shravan kavadia, 40 kms from Bhuj, Gujarat.
This is an evidence of an ancient shoreline in the region. Geomorphologic changes in the region is obvious due to the transgression of the sea.
This is supposed to be a sacred grove and the trees are over 100 years old.
I have misplaced the photographs. If i am able to locate them, i shall post it later.

it was a memorable day for us with Dr.Almeida Sir in Amboli last year. Our group is with Dr.Almeida Sir. That time he showed that plant. Which may be the same as yours. It is on the right side, just road side coming straight from the Police check post. he told us that there are only one or two plants are in Amboli. Any way thanx for posting.

Good  pictures, … Thanks for sharing and bringing Dr. Almeida on ITP !  We saw the tree at two three place, but missed the one you have mentioned.

I see Santosh Yadav in the pic too. Another orchid guy and a good friend. By the way, what are those small things on the branches?….orchids?? or some Selaginella?
Thanks for sharing the pics. We haven’t left with much of good taxonomists in India these days who still go to field.

Field trip with Almeida sir is always  great experience!!

In his last visit, i told him, i want to see Ceropegia … Actually he was busy in preparation for seminar still he came with me to Amboli and he stopped searching only when finally we found the plant.
He knows, i love orchids so whenever he found orchid he would call me ..’see … your fv’ plant.. He is ‘gem of person’

That was loveliest day of my life :):)


common name   – fresh water mangrove
malayalam – vankana/ kara kandal [mangrove seen on land]/ vallabham/ valovam/ varangu
tamil – andimiriam
kannada – andipunar/ andamuria
latin – Carallia brachiata
Family  – Rhizophoraceae
synonym :
Diatoma brachiata/ Petalotoma brachiata/ Carallia integerrima.

Thanks …

After all we got its name. I have the satisfaction of getting the family name correct. My source gives Varanga Malayalam name but not Vankana. Here are a few others:
Beng: Kierpa
Mar: Panasi, punschi
Tel: Karalli
Assam: Kanthekera
Andamans: Mantiawya
Trade: Karallia wood

The glossy upper surface of leaves, opposite simple leaves and red wood is characteristic for this huge tree. In addition to being a prized timber plant, fruits are edible, leaves used for preparing a tea like beverage; seeds yield an edible oil.

Requesting for ID of a tree from Matheran–Maharashtra.

Check Calophyllum inophyllum

I hope it is Carallia brachiata RHIZOPHORACEAE

It is Carallia brachiata locally called Phansada. It is the food plant of a Day-flying Moth.

yes it is Carallia bracheata fam: Rhizophoraceae. The lone member of the family which is not a mangroove species.

‘Carallia brachiata’ syn. ‘C. integerrima’ is called ‘Phanashi’ ‘फणशी’ or ‘Phanasi’ ‘फणसी’ in Marathi.


Tree for Id from Udupi, Karnataka : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (3) – around 1100 kb each.

Height of tree appx- 30 feet
Area- Udupi, karnataka
Plz help in identification.

Carallia brachiata,


Sadasivakona hill tree: 2 images.
Found near waterfalls in Sadasivakona hill of Eastern ghats in Chitti district of AP.

Leaves look like Carallia brachiata

Yes, it’s Caralia brachiata, I agree with …


Attaching a few images of Carallia lucida.


Tree for Id_Forests of Goa: 3 images.

Tree height- 70-80 feet
No fruits or flowers were observed.
Observed in the forest area of North Goa.
Can this tree be identified?
Plz help.

Does it possess the aerial roots arising from the stem ?

It reminds me of Carallia brachiata (Lour.) Merr. [Rhizophoraceae].

Yes, it’s …, you’re right,



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