Citrus maxima (Burm.) Osbeck, Reise Ostindien 250 1765. (syn: Aurantium decumana (L.) Mill.; Aurantium maximum Burm.; Citrus × aurantium var. decumana L.; Citrus × aurantium var. grandis L.; Citrus × aurantium f. grandis (L.) M.Hiroe; Citrus costata Raf.; Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck; Citrus grandis var. oblonga Hassk.; Citrus grandis var. sabon (Siebold) Karaya; Citrus grandis var. sphaerocarpos Hassk.; Citrus grandis var. yamabuki (Yu.Tanaka) Karaya; Citrus obovoidea Takahashi; Citrus sabon Siebold ex Hayata; Citrus yamabuki Yu.Tanaka; Sarcodactilis helicteroides C.F.Gaertn.) as per POWO;
Fruits and Vegetables Week: Citrus maxima, pomelo or shaddok:
Citrus maxima (syn: C. grandis), pomelo or shaddok, largest citrus fruit often reaching 25 cm in diameter, and green to pale yellow in colour when
ripe, with sweet white (or, more rarely, pink or red) flesh and very thick pudgy rind.
It is also known as pummelo, pommelo, Chinese grapefruit, jabong, lusho fruit, pompelmous.
Very common in USA, also grown to limited level in India, photographed from Herbal Garden, Delhi and also from California.
– The first four photographs are from the same tree in Herbal Garden at Delhi. The first fruit from California looks similar to the one from Delhi, although the other two from California look different in texture of the rind.
Here are some Indian names of the fruit:
-What we call ‘pamblimas’ in Tamil is not sweet lime. Musambi is sweet lime (chaathukudi in Tamil). But now I am confused as to which Citrus sp. is pamblimas and which is sweet lime.
– I am not as familiar with all Citrus species, but luckily I have the book Useful Plants of India by CSIR. According to this Tamil name Pambalimasu and Telugu Pampalamasam both belong to C. maxima, the pomello or shaddock. Sweet lime is a different plant Citrus limettoides Tanaka. Tamil name for this is Kolumichangai, Telugu Gajanimma or nemumapandu. I hope that solves some confusion.
-But I don’t know the Tamil name of sweet lime you have given 🙁 I know about elumichangai and kodielumichangai, but not of kolumichangai. May be the name has been hybridised!! (Could actually be a dialect that I don’t know)
-The local names can often confusing at times, useful at others. The closest I could find elumichai in Tamil for C. autarantifolia, what we call kaghzi nimbu in Hindi, Nimma in Telugu, Limbe in Kanad, Erumichinarakam. May be this helps
Sending photos of Citrus maxima (Pomelo) seen in a Plants exhibition.
Place : Byculla, Mumbai
Date : February 2009
Rutaceae Week – Bangalore – RA – Citrus maxima – Grapefruit Tree:
The pomelo is a citrus fruit, usually a pale green to yellow when ripe, larger than a grapefruit, with sweet flesh and thick spongy rind. The largest citrus in the world, the pummelo can reach 12″ in diameter. The pummelo tree may be 16 to 50 ft tall, with a somewhat crooked trunk 4 to 12 in thick, and low, irregular branches. Some forms are distinctly dwarfed.
The young branchlets are angular and often densely hairy, and there are usually spines on the branchlets, old limbs and trunk.
Technically compound but appearing simple, having one leaflet, the leaves are alternate, ovate, ovate-oblong, or elliptic, 5-20 cm long, 2-12 cm wide, leathery, dull-green, glossy above, dull and minutely hairy beneath. Leaves have a distinctly winged stalk. The flowers are fragrant, borne singly or in clusters of 2 to 10 in the leaf axils, or sometimes 10 to 15 in terminal racemes 4 to 12 in long; rachis and calyx hairy; the 4 to 5 petals, yellowish-white, 1.5-3.5 cm long, somewhat hairy on the outside and dotted with yellow-green glands; stamens white, prominent, in bundles of 4 to 5, anthers orange.
The pomelo is native to Southeast Asia and all of Malaysia, and grows wild on river banks in Fiji, Tonga, and Hawaii. It may have been introduced into China around 100 B.C. It is widely cultivated in southern China (Jiangsu, Jiangxi, and Fujian Provinces) and especially in central Thailand on the banks to the Tha Chin River; also in Taiwan and southernmost Japan, southern India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia, New Guinea, and Tahiti.
The pomelo is also known as a “shaddock,” after an English sea captain, Captain Shaddock, who introduced the seed to the West Indies in the 17th century from the Malay Archipelago.
Ref. Flowers of India
Rutaceae Week: Citrus maxima_RKC_07052012:
Loc.: Tuting, Arunachal Pradesh (ca 700m)
Date: October, 2005
Local name: टेन्गा (Tenga); (In Assam and Arunachal Pradesh)
Whereas, in Bhagalpur district of Bihar we call the fruits as टाभा नींबू (Tabha Neembu).
Fruits are edible.
This is exactly how to put it. Local dialects or local vernacular is good to know as well as general names. I gather the language is Hindi ? It may be obvious to some people but not to some of us.
Let me make it clear that the word ‘Tenga’ in Assamese means ‘Sour’. It is referred for some other sour lemons and not specific to Citrus maxima only. (Thanks goes to … who reminded me to make it clear). In Arunachal Pradesh, more than 38 indigenous communities are there who often use ‘Assamese’ as a common language. In their own language, the names may differ.
This is BAATAABI LEBU in Bengali, a common tree in Hooghly that can be found in backyard or in orchard in rural area. Since this is not the flowering time, also attaching an old flower pic that i might have uploaded earlier. Last November found female Common Baron butterflies feeding on its rotten fruit.
Species : Citrus maxima Merr.
Habit & Habitat : tree, garden variety
Date : 06-05-2012, 08-02-2012 (flowers), 15-11-2011 (butterflies)
Place : Nalikul (Hooghly), WB
ID help : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pomelo
This tree doesn’t need any special care to grow. Saplings are available all over south Bengal. Plant it and forget it… i think good quality saplings can produce fruits in 4 to 5 years span.
Citrus maxima (Burm.) Osbeck from Delhi and California:
syn: Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck
Common names: Shaddok, pummelo, forbidden fruit
Hindi and Beng: Chakotra, mahanibu, sadaphal
Mar: Pains, papnasa
Kan: Chakotre, sakkota
Fruit commonly used as dessert fruit and for jams and marmalades.
The larger flowers, large winged petiole and big fruit are distinctive.
Photographed from Delhi and California.
Rutaceae Week :: Citrus maxima at Thane and Netorli: 2 correct images as above.
Citrus maxima (Burm.) Osbeck
SIT-rus — Latinized form of citron
MAKS-ih-muh — largest (among the genus) … Dave’s Botanary
Jan 11, 2009 … at Chinchoti, Maharashtra
commonly known as: Chinese grapefruit, pomelo, pompelmous, shaddock • Assamese: ৰবাব টেঙা robab tenga • Bengali: বাতাবি লেবু batabi lebu, ছোলঙ্গ cholanga, জাম্বুরা লেবু jambura lebu • Gujarati: પપનસ papanas • Hindi: बतावीनीम्बू batawi-nimbu, चकोतरा cakotara, पपरमास papar-mas • Kannada: ಚಕೋತ ಹಣ್ಣು cakota hannu • Konkani: तॉरंद toranda • Malayalam: കമ്പിളിനാരങ്ങ kampilinaranna • Manipuri: নোবাব nobab • Marathi: बंपारा bampara, चकोत्रा cakotra, पपन्नस papannasa • Mizo: kamalo • Oriya: ବାତାପି batapi • Punjabi: ਚਕੋਤ੍ਰਾ chakotra • Sanskrit: करुण karuna, मल्लिकापुष्प mallikapuspa • Tamil: மெதுக்கு metukku, பம்பளிமாசு pampalimacu, பொம்மாசு pommacu • Telugu: పంపరపనస pamparapanasa • Tibetan: ma-tu • Urdu: چکوتره cakotara
Native to: s & s-e Asia; cultivated elsewhere
References: Flowers of India • Wikipedia • DDSA • ENVIS – FRLHT • M.M.P.N.D.
more views: Jan 11, 2009 … at Chinchoti, Maharashtra
Feb 20, 2012 … at Netorli, Goa
very nice, …, we have a few people at the local Hort who grow them in pots, look spectacular when a large fruit hangs unbelievably in a 8 inch pot … next time I’ll photograph it… and not pass it by as a common event.
The main posted picture as well as the following one – both seen on Jan 11, 2009 … at Chinchoti, Maharashtra are not of Citrus maxima (Burm.) Osbeck
He suggested it to be Crescentia sp.
I believe it must be Crescentia cujete L.
The other two photos of Feb 20, 2012 … at Netorli, Goa, are of Citrus maxima (Burm.) Osbeck
Regarding Kannada names : ಚಕೋತ ಹಣ್ಣು cakota hannu. Kannada name is correct. English transliteration need to be corrected as Chakotha hannu. This is the correct form.
Chandagal village, Mysore
Photo date: 09 May 2010
After photographing this chakkotha tree in the areca farm, Varshit our Chandagal farm owner’s son pulled out a few ripe fruits using small bamboo pole from the tree to take it back home. Previous day we had good summer rains Being inside the farm on a morning after a rainy night is a different experience. Later, we thought we could spend some time near the river (Cauvery) banks and also get to see some water birds. Soon Varshit got ready with Chakkotha fruits in hand bags, armed with salt and chilly powder, we headed for the river which was some distance away. An hour later, we were in the open fields with the sun shining right on top of our heads and the mercury rising to almost intolerable levels. We then reached the river and decided to lay down under the cool shades of the trees that grew by its side – pausey, mango, honge… A cool place to rest. Varshith, started peeling the chakkotha fruit to which we added salt and home-made red chilly powder. Looked at them expectantly as it had been ages since I had tasted them. It had a divine taste.
While relishing the chakkotha fruit in this tranquil place, we watched medium-sized fishes splashing now and then in the middle of the river expanse. A few minutes later, our Raptor-friend crested serpent eagle, (a permanent resident in this riparian habitat) this time on the other side of the river’s bank came down from a dense tree and swooped down on something (probably a fish/crab/snake) along the aquatic weeds. It hopped a couple of times with wings spread fully open, with the victim in its talons. Very soon it silenced the victim and began to pull at its flesh. Everything happened in utter silence. (I admire these birds since they prefer such silent zones and they never come near to our town limits.) Later, it took back the victim to one of the trees close by. We could soon hear young one’s of the Raptor demanding for food. May their tribe increase !
By this time, we had finished eating both the chakkotha fruits. I realized then that I had eaten the Chakkotha fruit just three times in my life! Every since then, I have kept my eyes peeled for it!!
Pommelo is very good with a little salt and black pepper…
Rutaceae week: Citrus maxima at Netravali, Goa:
Sharing few photographs of “Citrus maxima“.
Location: Netravali, Goa.
Rutaceae Week : Grapefruit : Mumbai : 130512 : AK-1:
Rutaceae / Citrus week – “Tenga” for Citrus maxima (Burm.) Osbeck:
Citrus maxima (family : Rutaceae) Hooghly, WB:
Species : Citrus maxima (syn. Citrus decumana) (family : Rutaceae)
Date : 08/Feb/2012, 9.23 A.M. & 15/11/2011 (the fruit with the butterflies)
ID help : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pomelo
I also attach a photo featuring Common Baron (female) butterflies feeding on its partly rotten fruit.
SYMBIOSIS : 521 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1).
Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr. from Assam : 3 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (6).
Attached images may be Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr. Please validate.
Family : Rutaceae
Genus & species : Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr
Vern. Name : Robab-tenga (Assamese)
Habitat: grown in garden
Habit :Small tree
Yes, Sir, it looks like our BATABI LEBU
Citrus Fruits For ID : Sri Lanka : 20SEP14 : AK-26 : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1).
It seems Pummelo (Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck), it common in the western ghats area.
Thanks for the id.
Fruit for Id – ID22122016SH2 : 7 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (1)
Fruit for Id pl. Is this Citrus maxima ?
Location – Mawlynnong, Meghalaya.
Date – 18.10.2016
I agree with you.
efi page on Citrus maxima
I think it is citrus maxima.
The plant in the picture is Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr.
BIRTH OF A LIME BUTTERFLY ( HOST PLANT CITRUS MAXIMA ) : 5 posts by 5 authors. Attachments (7)
I was observing some empty pupal case and some dried up pupa on a small Citrus maxima tree for last two years. the tree was on the road side. to me the pupal case and the dried pupa seemed to be of Common Mormon. I have recorded life cycle of Common Mormon earlier and knew that the host for that butterfly is Citrus species and Murraya koenigii ( CURRY LEAF TREE ).
This Citrus maxima ( Pummelo/Chakotra/ Batabi ) was on the way to my daily movement. On 30-3-2019 , on closer observation of the leaves I found a green grown up larva on one of the leaves. I thought it to be a larva of Common Mormon. On 4-4-2019 I found the larva turned to a pupa. The shape of the pupa was like that of a common Mormon. On 5-4-2019 I brought that pupa to our house and hang it on the wall, so that I can observe the development regularly. On the tree I found number of Pupa which were dry and had holes on them. May be ants damaged those.
It is only in the morning of 16-4-2019 , I realizes that the butterfly which will be released will be a Lime Butterfly ( not a Common Mormon ).
The release of the butterfly took place in front of me. What an experience ! This is the first time I recorded birth of a Lime Butterfly.
Attaching few images of the event.
Very interesting great details …..Thanks …
…, what a delightful event and you certainly are a very patient observant dedicated citizen scientist.
Pune 5th Nov 2009; 26-2-2010, fruit on 29-8-2010- Herbal Garden, Punjabi Bagh, Delhi;
Citrus Species for ID : Lalbagh Botanical Gardens, Bangalore : 21JAN20 : AK-28 : 7 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (2)
Another Citrus Species seen at the Flower Show yesterday (21.1.20).
‘Chakotha’ in Kannada – a variety.
Which Citrus species is this ? The flowers were fragrant.
Location – Mishmi Hills, Arunachal Pradesh
I am extremely extremely sorry ….
Thank you Madam for the update. Your Citrus species looks like the one we have here – Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr. It is a tree, cultivated and sometimes grows on its own when seeds of a ripe fruit are thrown away in a suitable place. The flowers are fragrant and fruits are large. I have two uploads –
Please check probability.
in a nutshell: lime
Thanks … I had seen a similar species in Kakoijana, Assam –Citrus paradisi which is known as Grape fruit locally. The flowers of C.paradisi were resembling with C.maxima.
If the identity of this species is one of C. maxima and C. paradisii it can be determined by the size of fruit
Alternatively, you may use the KEY in FoP – http://efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=5&taxon_id=107164#KEY-1-9. The problem is descriptions in FoC and FoP differ a bit.
If your species is none of the above two then I have no idea what other Citrus it can be.
Thanks a lot for providing the key.
Second upload is actually Citrus with winged petiole and should be C. maxima as suggested by …
Flower for Id – ID22012018SH2 : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (4)
Flower for Id pl.
Location – Mishmi Hills, Arunachal
Date – Feb 2015
Looks any Citrus sp. (Rutaceae)…
Fruits looking more big than Citrus aurantifolia fruits……
I am not sure about name either. Must be a cut and paste error. I will check it out and update it
There seems some confusion, C. aurantifolia is Lime (Kagzi nimbu) with smaller fruit barely exceeding 4 cm in diam. whereas Grapefruit is C. paradisi which has fruits this size but petiole is broadly winged. To me it looks like C. sinensis or its cultivar
Citrus grandis Osbeck
For me … is correct. The fruit is called chakotha in Kannada. Seen in many home gardens in Mysore & Bangalore.
Yes winged petiole in last but one image, C. grandis
Citrus Fruit For ID : Flower Show,Mumbai : 220914 : AK-29 : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (1).
This large fruit was seen at the flower show in Jijamata Udyan.
May be Citrus maxima.
As you have not provided any other inputs; can be Pomelo–Citrus maxima / grandis or it can be Grape fruit-Citrus x paradisi.
Thanks for possible ids. I checked for more pictures, but couldn’t find.
Citrus medica L.
Correction : Citrus grandis Osbeck
Citrus maxima is accepted name for C. grandis
SIT-rus — Latinized form of citron … Dave’s Botanary
MAKS-ih-muh — largest (among the genus) … Dave’s Botanarycommonly known as: Chinese grapefruit, pomelo, pompelmous, shaddock • Assamese: হুকুমা-টেঙা hukuma tenga, যম্বুৰা jombura, ৰবাব টেঙা robab tenga • Bengali: বাতাবি লেবু batabi lebu, ছোলঙ্গ cholanga, জাম্বুরা লেবু jambura lebu, তুরুনজা turunaja • Dogri: चकोदरा chakodara • Gujarati: પપનસ papanas, ચકોતરો chakotaro • Hindi: बतावीनीम्बू batawi-nimbu, चकोतरा chakotara, पपरमास papar-mas • Kannada: ಚಕೋತ ಹಣ್ಣು chakotha hannu, ಸಕ್ಕರೆಕಂಜಿ sakkarekanji, ಸಕ್ಕರೆನಿಂಬೆ sakkarenimbe, ತೋರಂಜಿ thoranji • Konkani: पप्नस papnas, ತೋರಂಜ thoranja • Malayalam: ബബ്ലൂസ് നാരകം bablus narakam, കമ്പിളിനാരങ്ങ kampilinaranna, മാതോളിനാരങ്ങ matoliinaranna • Manipuri: ꯅꯣꯕꯥꯕ নোবাব nobab • Marathi: बंपारा bampara, चकोत्रा chakotra, पपन्नस papannasa, तोरंजन toranjan • Mizo: kamalo • Nepali: भोगटे bhogate, सङ्खेत्रो sankhetro • Odia: ବାତାପି batapi • Punjabi: ਚਕੋਤ੍ਰਾ chakotra, ਚਾਲਾ chala • Sanskrit: करुण karuna, मधुराम्लफल madhuramlaphala • Tamil: மெதுக்கு metukku, பம்பளிமாசு pampalimacu, பொம்மாசு pommacu • Telugu: పంపరపనస pamparapanasa • Tibetan: མ་ཏུ ma-tu • Tulu: ಚಕ್ಕುಲ್ಲಿ chakkulli • Urdu: بتاوي نينبو batawi-nimbu, چکوترا chakotara, پپرماس papar-masbotanical names:
Bibliography / etymology
~~~~~ ENGLISH ~~~~~
~~~~~ ASSAMESE ~~~~~
হুকুমা-টেঙা hukuma tenga, যম্বুৰা jombura, ৰবাব টেঙা robab tenga
~~~~~ BENGALI ~~~~~
বাতাবি লেবু batabi lebu, জাম্বুরা jambura, তুরুনজা turunaja
~~~~~ DOGRI ~~~~~
~~~~~ GUJARATI ~~~~~
પપનસ papanas, ચકોતરો chakotaro
~~~~~ HINDI ~~~~~
बतावीनीम्बू batawi-nimbu, चकोतरा chakotara (or चकोतर chakotara)
~~~~~ KANNADA ~~~~~
ಚಕೋತ ಹಣ್ಣು chakotha hannu
ಸಕ್ಕರೆಕಂಜಿ sakkarekanji, ಸಕ್ಕರೆನಿಂಬೆ sakkarenimbe, ತೋರಂಜಿ thoranji
~~~~~ KONKANI ~~~~~
~~~~~ MALAYALAM ~~~~~
ബബ്ലൂസ് നാരകം bablus narakam, കമ്പിളിനാരങ്ങ kampilinaranna, മാതോളിനാരങ്ങ matoliinaranna
~~~~~ MANIPURI ~~~~~
ꯅꯣꯕꯥꯕ নোবাব nobab
~~~~~ MARATHI ~~~~~
बंपारा bampara, चकोत्रा chakotra, पपन्नस papannasa
~~~~~ MIZO ~~~~~
~~~~~ NEPALI ~~~~~
~~~~~ ODIA ~~~~~
~~~~~ PUNJABI ~~~~~
~~~~~ SANSKRIT ~~~~~
~~~~~ TAMIL ~~~~~
மெதுக்கு metukku, பம்பளிமாசு pampalimacu, பொம்மாசு pommacu
~~~~~ TELUGU ~~~~~
~~~~~ TULU ~~~~~
~~~~~ TIBETAN ~~~~~
~~~~~ URDU ~~~~~
بتاوي نينبو batawi-nimbu, چکوترا chakotara (or چکوتره chakotara)
~~~~~ x ~~~~~
Names compiled / updated at
Please help me by validating following Nepali names of Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr.
भोगटे is OK. Next I have to check. At present I am in UK.
Citrus maxima (Burm.) Osbeck @ VJBU, Mumbai:
The small tree in the picture is that of Grapefruit at VJBU.
are leaf variations of this nature acceptable?
I am not keen to diagnose or identify from photos, I much prefer live plants but I’ll have a shot at it.
Thanks for your detailed reply …
I was hinting at the absence of the winged petiole in my images in contrast to some other images of C. maxima (which had a winged petiole) posted during Rutaceae week.
You may comment on the above observation if you are comfortable.
Is this Citrus maxima?: 6 images.
Citrus maxima….. Pummelo……
Citrus maxima (Burm. ex Rumph.) Merr.: 4 very high res. images.
Location: Ranibari, Kathmandu
Date: 21 March 2023
Habitat : Cultivated
ID seems to be correct. A common plant here. Fruits are on sale right now in the market.
Yes, appears close to images at
POWO Catalogue of life (Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck) The Plant List Ver.1.1 BSI Flora of India Flora of China FOC illustration Annotated checklist of Flowering plants of Nepal Flora of peninsular India Flowers of India Wikipedia DDSA ENVIS – FRLHT M.M.P.N.D. Pummelo Citrus maxima – Meet the Plants – National Tropical Botanical Garden Plant Database Pummelo – Citrus maxima