Citrus maxima (Burm.) Osbeck, Reise Ostindien 250 1765. (syn: Aurantium decumana (L.) Mill.; Aurantium maximum Burm.; Citrus × aurantium var. decumana L.; Citrus × aurantium var. grandis L.; Citrus × aurantium f. grandis (L.) M.Hiroe; Citrus costata Raf.; Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck; Citrus grandis var. oblonga Hassk.; Citrus grandis var. sabon (Siebold) Karaya; Citrus grandis var. sphaerocarpos Hassk.; Citrus grandis var. yamabuki (Yu.Tanaka) Karaya; Citrus obovoidea Takahashi; Citrus sabon Siebold ex Hayata; Citrus yamabuki Yu.Tanaka; Sarcodactilis helicteroides C.F.Gaertn.) as per POWO;
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SIT-rus — Latinized form of citron
MAKS-ih-muh — largest (among the genus) … Dave’s Botanary
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commonly known as: Chinese grapefruit, pomelo, pompelmous, shaddockAssamese: ৰবাব টেঙা robab tengaBengali: বাতাবি লেবু batabi lebu, ছোলঙ্গ cholanga, জাম্বুরা লেবু jambura lebuGujarati: પપનસ papanasHindi: बतावीनीम्बू batawi-nimbu, चकोतरा cakotara, पपरमास papar-masKannada: ಚಕೋತ ಹಣ್ಣು cakota hannuKonkani: तॉरंद torandaMalayalam: കമ്പിളിനാരങ്ങ kampilinarannaManipuri: নোবাব nobabMarathi: बंपारा bampara, चकोत्रा cakotra, पपन्नस papannasaMizo: kamaloOriya: ବାତାପି batapiPunjabi: ਚਕੋਤ੍ਰਾ chakotraSanskrit: करुण karuna, मल्लिकापुष्प mallikapuspaTamil: மெதுக்கு metukku, பம்பளிமாசு pampalimacu, பொம்மாசு pommacuTelugu: పంపరపనస pamparapanasaTibetan: ma-tuUrdu: چکوتره cakotara
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Native to: s & s-e Asia; cultivated elsewhere
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Largest citrus fruit often reaching 25 cm in diameter, and green to pale yellow in colour when ripe, with sweet white (or, more rarely, pink or red) flesh and very thick pudgy rind.

The larger flowers, large winged petiole and big fruit are distinctive.

Fruit commonly used as dessert fruit and for jams and marmalades.

This plant doesn’t need any special care to grow and its fruits are relatively cheap source of vitamins & minerals for villagers who can’t afford to have an orange or an apple. I have heard that the fruit is beneficial to cure/recover from “jaundice”.
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Fruits and Vegetables Week: Citrus maxima, pomelo or shaddok: Citrus maxima (syn: C. grandis), pomelo or shaddok, largest citrus fruit often reaching 25 cm in diameter, and green to pale yellow in colour when
ripe, with sweet white (or, more rarely, pink or red) flesh and very thick pudgy rind
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It is also known as pummelo, pommelo, Chinese grapefruit, jabong, lusho fruit, pompelmous.
Very common in USA, also grown to limited level in India, photographed from Herbal Garden, Delhi and also from California.

– The first four photographs are from the same tree in Herbal Garden at Delhi. The first fruit from California looks similar to the one from Delhi, although the other two from California look different in texture of the rind.

Here are some Indian names of the fruit:
Hindi & Bengali: Chakotra, mahanibu, sadaphal
Guj: Obakotru
Mar: pains, papnasa
Mal: Pamparamasam
Kan: Chakotre, Sakkota
Tam: Pambalimasu
Tel: Pampalamasam


-What we call ‘pamblimas’ in Tamil is not sweet lime. Musambi is sweet lime (chaathukudi in Tamil). But now I am confused as to which Citrus sp. is pamblimas and which is sweet lime.


– I am not as familiar with all Citrus species, but luckily I have the book Useful Plants of India by CSIR. According to this Tamil name Pambalimasu and Telugu Pampalamasam both belong to C. maxima, the pomello or shaddock. Sweet lime is a different plant Citrus limettoides Tanaka. Tamil name for this is Kolumichangai, Telugu Gajanimma or nemumapandu. I hope that solves some confusion.


-But I don’t know the Tamil name of sweet lime you have given 🙁 I know about elumichangai and kodielumichangai, but not of kolumichangai. May be the name has been hybridised!! (Could actually be a dialect that I don’t know)


-The local names can often confusing at times, useful at others. The closest I could find elumichai in Tamil for C. autarantifolia, what we call kaghzi nimbu in Hindi, Nimma in Telugu, Limbe in Kanad, Erumichinarakam. May be this helps



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Rutaceae Week: Citrus maxima(Pomelo)-MN070512:

Sending photos of Citrus maxima (Pomelo) seen in a Plants exhibition.
Place : Byculla, Mumbai

Date : February 2009



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Rutaceae Week – Bangalore – RA – Citrus maxima – Grapefruit Tree: The pomelo is a citrus fruit, usually a pale green to yellow when ripe, larger than a grapefruit, with sweet flesh and thick spongy rind. The largest citrus in the world, the pummelo can reach 12″ in diameter. The pummelo tree may be 16 to 50 ft tall, with a somewhat crooked trunk 4 to 12 in thick, and low, irregular branches. Some forms are distinctly dwarfed. 
The young branchlets are angular and often densely hairy, and there are usually spines on the branchlets, old limbs and trunk.
Technically compound but appearing simple, having one leaflet, the leaves are alternate, ovate, ovate-oblong, or elliptic, 5-20 cm long, 2-12 cm wide, leathery, dull-green, glossy above, dull and minutely hairy beneath. Leaves have a distinctly winged stalk. The flowers are fragrant, borne singly or in clusters of 2 to 10 in the leaf axils, or sometimes 10 to 15 in terminal racemes 4 to 12 in long; rachis and calyx hairy; the 4 to 5 petals, yellowish-white, 1.5-3.5 cm long, somewhat hairy on the outside and dotted with yellow-green glands; stamens white, prominent, in bundles of 4 to 5, anthers orange. 
The pomelo is native to Southeast Asia and all of Malaysia, and grows wild on river banks in Fiji, Tonga, and Hawaii. It may have been introduced into China around 100 B.C. It is widely cultivated in southern China (Jiangsu, Jiangxi, and Fujian Provinces) and especially in central Thailand on the banks to the Tha Chin River; also in Taiwan and southernmost Japan, southern India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia, New Guinea, and Tahiti.
The pomelo is also known as a shaddock,” after an English sea captain, Captain Shaddock, who introduced the seed to the West Indies in the 17th century from the Malay Archipelago.
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Rutaceae Week: Citrus maxima_RKC_07052012: Citrus maxima (Burm.) Osbeck

Loc.: Tuting, Arunachal Pradesh (ca 700m)
Date: October, 2005
Local name: टेन्गा (Tenga); (In Assam and Arunachal Pradesh)
Whereas, in Bhagalpur district of Bihar we call the fruits as टाभा नींबू (Tabha Neembu).

Fruits are edible.


This is exactly how to put it. Local dialects or local vernacular is good to know as well as general names. I gather the language is Hindi ? It may be obvious to some people but not to some of us.


Let me make it clear that the word ‘Tenga’ in Assamese means ‘Sour’. It is referred for some other sour lemons and not specific to Citrus maxima only. (Thanks goes to … who reminded me to make it clear). In Arunachal Pradesh, more than 38 indigenous communities are there who often use ‘Assamese’ as a common language. In their own language, the names may differ.


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Rutaceae Week: Citrus maxima from Hooghly:

This is BAATAABI LEBU in Bengali, a common tree in Hooghly that can be found in backyard or in orchard in rural area. Since this is not the flowering time, also attaching an old flower pic that i might have uploaded earlier. Last November found female Common Baron butterflies feeding on its rotten fruit.
Species : Citrus maxima Merr.
Habit & Habitat : tree, garden variety
Date : 06-05-2012, 08-02-2012 (flowers), 15-11-2011 (butterflies)
Place : Nalikul (Hooghly), WB

This tree doesn’t need any special care to grow. Saplings are available all over south Bengal. Plant it and forget it… i think good quality saplings can produce fruits in 4 to 5 years span.



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Citrus maxima (Burm.) Osbeck from Delhi and California:  Citrus maxima (Burm.) Osbeck, Reise Ostindien 250 1765.

syn: Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck
Common names: Shaddok, pummelo, forbidden fruit
Hindi and Beng: Chakotra, mahanibu, sadaphal
Guj: Obakotra
Mar: Pains, papnasa
Mal: Pamparamasam
Kan: Chakotre, sakkota
Tam: Pambalimasu
Tel: Pampalamasam
Fruit commonly used as dessert fruit and for jams and marmalades.
The larger flowers, large winged petiole and big fruit are distinctive.
Photographed from Delhi and California.

 


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Rutaceae week: Citrus species for ID.: Citrus species for ID
Potted lemon plant purchased from nursery.
Flowers white small 2cm.


Appears to be Citrus maxima



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SIT-rus — Latinized form of citron
MAKS-ih-muh — largest (among the genus) …
Dave’s Botanary
Jan 11, 2009 … at Chinchoti, Maharashtra
commonly known as: Chinese grapefruit, pomelo, pompelmous, shaddockAssamese: ৰবাব টেঙা robab tengaBengali: বাতাবি লেবু batabi lebu, ছোলঙ্গ cholanga, জাম্বুরা লেবু jambura lebuGujarati: પપનસ papanasHindi: बतावीनीम्बू batawi-nimbu, चकोतरा cakotara, पपरमास papar-masKannada: ಚಕೋತ ಹಣ್ಣು cakota hannuKonkani: तॉरंद torandaMalayalam: കമ്പിളിനാരങ്ങ kampilinarannaManipuri: নোবাব nobabMarathi: बंपारा bampara, चकोत्रा cakotra, पपन्नस papannasaMizo: kamaloOriya: ବାତାପି batapiPunjabi: ਚਕੋਤ੍ਰਾ chakotraSanskrit: करुण karuna, मल्लिकापुष्प mallikapuspaTamil: மெதுக்கு metukku, பம்பளிமாசு pampalimacu, பொம்மாசு pommacuTelugu: పంపరపనస pamparapanasaTibetan: ma-tuUrdu: چکوتره cakotara
Native to: s & s-e Asia; cultivated elsewhere
References: Flowers of IndiaWikipediaDDSAENVIS – FRLHTM.M.P.N.D.
more views: Jan 11, 2009 … at Chinchoti, Maharashtra

Feb 20, 2012 … at Netorli, Goa


very nice, …, we have a few people at the local Hort who grow them in pots, look spectacular when a large fruit hangs unbelievably in a 8 inch pot … next time I’ll photograph it… and not pass it by as a common event.


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Kannada: Chakkotha;
Chandagal village, Mysore
Photo date: 09 May 2010
After photographing this chakkotha tree in the areca farm, Varshit our Chandagal farm owner’s son pulled out a few ripe fruits using small bamboo pole from the tree to take it back home. Previous day we had good summer rains Being inside the farm on a morning after a rainy night is a different experience. Later, we thought we could spend some time near the river (Cauvery) banks and also get to see some water birds. Soon Varshit got ready with Chakkotha fruits in hand bags, armed with salt and chilly powder, we headed for the river which was some distance away. An hour later, we were in the open fields with the sun shining right on top of our heads and the mercury rising to almost intolerable levels. We then reached the river and decided to lay down under the cool shades of the trees that grew by its side – pausey, mango, honge… A cool place to rest. Varshith, started peeling the chakkotha fruit to which we added salt and home-made red chilly powder. Looked at them expectantly as it had been ages since I had tasted them. It had a divine taste. 
While relishing the chakkotha fruit in this tranquil place, we watched medium-sized fishes splashing now and then in the middle of the river expanse. A few minutes later, our Raptor-friend crested serpent eagle, (a permanent resident in this riparian habitat) this time on the other side of the river’s bank came down from a dense tree and swooped down on something (probably a fish/crab/snake) along the aquatic weeds. It hopped a couple of times with wings spread fully open, with the victim in its talons. Very soon it silenced the victim and began to pull at its flesh. Everything happened in utter silence. (I admire these birds since they prefer such silent zones and they never come near to our town limits.) Later, it took back the victim to one of the trees close by. We could soon hear young one’s of the Raptor demanding for food. May their tribe increase !
By this time, we had finished eating both the chakkotha fruits. I realized then that I had eaten the Chakkotha fruit just three times in my life! Every since then, I have kept my eyes peeled for it!!

Pommelo is very good with a little salt and black pepper…
its also an obligatory fruit for Saraswati puja prasad… ie in spring/ feb march in Bengal



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Rutaceae week: Citrus maxima at Netravali, Goa: Sharing few photographs of “Citrus maxima“.
Family: Rutaceae
Location: Netravali, Goa.

 


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Rutaceae Week : Grapefruit : Mumbai : 130512 : AK-1: Grapefruits taken on the 24th of Oct,07 at Jijamata Udyan, Mumbai.

Fruits from the same small tree … had posted yesterday on our group.

Botanical name please.


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Rutaceae / Citrus week – “Tenga” for Citrus maxima (Burm.) Osbeck:   There is an interesting discussion developing, so I create this new topic.
… pointed out : “Local name: टेन्गा (Tenga); (In Assam and Arunachal Pradesh)
Whereas, in Bhagalpur district of Bihar we call the fruits as
टाभा नींबू (Tabha Neembu)”.
Then He and … point out “Let me make it clear that the word ‘Tenga’ in Assamese means ‘Sour’. It is referred for some other sour lemons and not specific to Citrus maxima only. (Thanks goes to … who reminded me to make it clear). In Arunachal Pradesh, more than 38 indigenous communities are there who often use ‘Assamese’ as a common language. In their own language, the names may differ.”
I had noticed “tenga” because some of my Assamese names include this word. I was not aware that it meant “sour” however. It feels correct when we talk about lime, lemon, some oranges, or citron but pomelo? I have never tasted any pomelo so I do not know if it is bitter or sour. Based on the Assamese names in Assam it points to some bitterness or sourness in the taste.
চকলা-টেঙা Sokola tenga (so.ko.la-te.nga) -> Citrus × aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swingle (Lime)
নেমু-টেঙা Nemu tenga -> Citrus × limon (L.) Burm. f. (Lemon)
কমলা টেঙা Komola tenga (Komolaa tegaa) -> Citrus × aurantium L. (Orange)
সুমথিৰা টেঙা Xumthira tenga (sumatʰiŕā ṭeṅā) -> Citrus × aurantium L. (Orange)
হুকুমা-টেঙা Hukuma tenga -> Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr. (Pomelo)
বিৰা টেঙা Bira tenga ->
Citrus medica L. (Citron)
Could the Assamese-speaking people among us validate all the above names.
Then an entry for C. maxima in Hindi may look like this :
HINDI : बतावीनीम्बू Bataawii niimbuu, चकोतरा Cakōtarā (Cakotaraa, Chakotra), Mahanibu, सनदाफल (Sanadāphala) Sadaphal, टाभा नींबू Tabha neembu (Bhagalpur district of Bihar), टेन्गा Tenga (Assam, Arunachai Pradesh).
The first 3 names have been confirmed by … in one of their romanized versions, can someone validate the same names in their scripted forms. Once validated this entry is ready to enter in the databases.



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Citrus maxima (Burm.) Osbeck @ VJBU, Mumbai: Citrus maxima (Burm.) Osbeck @ VJBU, Mumbai
..but the leaf morphology is bothering me as it does not match with other posts on the group.


The small tree in the picture is that of Grapefruit at VJBU.


are leaf variations of this nature acceptable?


I am not keen to diagnose or identify from photos, I much prefer live plants but I’ll have a shot at it.
If you mean differences in leaf colour between DSC00005 and DSC00013.
It does not look abnormal. The first shot shows perhaps a less healthy leaf. If a tree displays mostly healthy leaves and just a few of a less perfect green it is either nothing to worry about, a temporary deficiency or stress, or simply a younger leaf at a branch tip. I think I can see two tiny fruits. It is normal for some leaves to degenerate and go through various shades of green and yellow before falling. One has to visualise the whole tree. If a lot of healthy young shoots and plenty of tiny fruits are in evidence one has a healthy tree. Yellowing of a significant proportion of the foliage is something to pay attention to. I have had some shocking looks on my citrus trees at the end of a recent 10 years drought. This year after recovery I have harvested tens of kg of fruits. The good rainfall helped but I had to work hard to keep the plant alive before the rain came.
I hope I have answer the question.


Thanks for your detailed reply …
I was hinting at the absence of the winged petiole in my images in contrast to some other images of C. maxima (which had a winged petiole) posted during Rutaceae week.
You may comment on the above observation if you are comfortable.


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Citrus maxima (family : Rutaceae) Hooghly, WB: This is what we call BATABI LEBU (LEBU = any Citrus fruit) in Bengali. This plant doesn’t need any special care to grow and its fruits are relatively cheap source of vitamins & minerals for villagers who can’t afford to have an orange or an apple. I have heard that the fruit is beneficial to cure/recover from “jaundice”.

Species : Citrus maxima (syn. Citrus decumana) (family : Rutaceae)
Date : 08/Feb/2012, 9.23 A.M. & 15/11/2011 (the fruit with the butterflies)
I also attach a photo featuring Common Baron (female) butterflies feeding on its partly rotten fruit.

 


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SYMBIOSIS : 521 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1).

Attaching an image of a Red-vented Bulbul on the flowers of Citrus maxima (SHADDOCK PUMMELO/ CHAKOTRA/ BATABI).


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Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr. from Assam : 3 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (6).
Attached images may be  Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr. Please validate.   
Date :04.06.2014
Location: Assam
Family : Rutaceae
Genus & species : Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr
Vern. Name : Robab-tenga (Assamese)
Habitat: grown in  garden

Habit :Small tree


Yes, Sir, it looks like our BATABI LEBU


 


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Citrus Fruits For ID : Sri Lanka : 20SEP14 : AK-26 : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1).

Picture taken in Nov,2010.

Tree with Orange like fruits.


It seems Pummelo (Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck), it common in the western ghats area.


Thanks for the id.



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Fruit for Id – ID22122016SH2 : 7 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (1)
Fruit for Id pl. Is this Citrus maxima ?
Location –  Mawlynnong, Meghalaya.

Date – 18.10.2016


I agree with you.


efi page on Citrus maxima


I think it is citrus maxima.


The plant in the picture is Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr.



 

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BIRTH OF A LIME BUTTERFLY ( HOST PLANT CITRUS MAXIMA ) : 5 posts by 5 authors. Attachments (7)

I was observing  some empty pupal case and some dried up pupa on a small Citrus maxima tree for last two years. the tree was on the road side. to me the pupal case and the dried pupa seemed to be of Common Mormon. I have recorded  life cycle of Common Mormon earlier and knew that the host for that butterfly is Citrus species and Murraya koenigii ( CURRY LEAF TREE ).

This Citrus maxima ( Pummelo/Chakotra/ Batabi ) was on the way to my  daily movement. On 30-3-2019 , on closer observation of the leaves I found a green grown up larva on one of the leaves. I thought it to be a larva of Common Mormon. On 4-4-2019 I found the larva turned to a pupa. The shape of the pupa was like that of a common Mormon. On 5-4-2019 I brought that pupa to our house and hang it on the wall, so that I can observe the development regularly. On the tree I found number of Pupa which were dry and had holes on them. May be ants damaged those.
  It is only in the morning of 16-4-2019 , I realizes that the butterfly which will be released will be a Lime Butterfly ( not a Common Mormon ).
The release of the butterfly took place in front of me. What an experience ! This is the first time I recorded birth of a Lime Butterfly.

Attaching few images of the event.


Very interesting great details …..Thanks …


…, what a delightful event and you certainly are a very patient observant dedicated citizen scientist.



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Another Citrus Species seen at the Flower Show yesterday (21.1.20).


Citrus grandis

Pomelo
चकोतरा

‘Chakotha’ in Kannada – a variety.



Which Citrus species is this ? The flowers were fragrant.
Location – Mishmi Hills, Arunachal Pradesh
Date- 25.2.02.2015
Habitat –Wild

I am extremely extremely sorry ….
By mistake i have posted a wrong photo which i thought was of citrus species. I am rectifying my error by posting fresh photos for id again. Sorry for the lapse on my part.

Attachments (4)

Thank you Madam for the update. Your Citrus species looks like the one we have here – Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr. It is a tree, cultivated and sometimes grows on its own when seeds of a ripe fruit are thrown away in a suitable place. The flowers are fragrant and fruits are large. I have two uploads –

Please check probability.


in a nutshell: lime


Thanks … I had seen a similar species in Kakoijana, Assam –Citrus paradisi which is known as Grape fruit locally. The flowers of C.paradisi were resembling with C.maxima.


If the identity of this species is one of C. maxima and C. paradisii it can be determined by the size of fruit http://efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=107164#KEY-1-8 :-
(i) fruit 10 cm or more = C. decumana = C. maxima = C. grandis
(ii) fruit 10 cm or less = C. decumana var. paradisi = C. paradisii = Citrus x aurantium
Alternatively, you may use the KEY in FoP – http://efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=5&taxon_id=107164#KEY-1-9. The problem is descriptions in FoC and FoP differ a bit.

If your species is none of the above two then I have no idea what other Citrus it can be.


Thanks a lot for providing the key.


Second upload is actually Citrus with winged petiole and should be C. maxima as suggested by …



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Fruit Trees of Bangalore – RA – Citrus Aurantifolia – Grapefruit Tree:


Fruits looking more big than Citrus aurantifolia fruits……


I am not sure about name either. Must be a cut and paste error. I will check it out and update it


There seems some confusion, C. aurantifolia is Lime (Kagzi nimbu) with smaller fruit barely exceeding 4 cm in diam. whereas Grapefruit is C. paradisi which has fruits this size but petiole is broadly winged. To me it looks like C. sinensis or its cultivar


Citrus grandis Osbeck


For me … is correct.  The fruit is called chakotha in Kannada. Seen in many home gardens in Mysore & Bangalore.


Yes winged petiole in last but one image, C. grandis



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Citrus Fruit For ID : Flower Show,Mumbai : 220914 : AK-29 : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (1).

This large fruit was seen at the flower show in Jijamata Udyan.

Id please.

May be Citrus maxima.


As you have not provided any other inputs; can be PomeloCitrus maxima / grandis or it can be Grape fruit-Citrus x paradisi.


Thanks for possible ids. I checked for more pictures, but couldn’t find.

Only remember the size of the fruit to be big.

Citrus medica L.


Correction : Citrus grandis Osbeck


Citrus maxima is accepted name for C. grandis



References:  POWO  Catalogue of life (Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck)

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