Datura inoxia Mill., Gard. Dict. (ed. 8) no. 5 no. 5 1768.;
by Nidhan Singh (Validated by Gurcharan Singh) & Gurcharan Singh (Inserted by J.M.Garg)


thorn-apple, downy thorn-apple, Indian-apple, moonflower, sacred datura, toloatzin, devil’s trumpet or toloache, Safed dhatura सफ़ैद धतूरा (Hindi), Sagol hidak (Manipuri), Ummata (Malayalam), வெல்லம்மட்டை vellum mattai (Tamil);
In both D. stramonium and D. metel the plants are glabrous, hairy in D. inoxia
The deciding difference between D. metel and D. stramonium is that mature fruit of D. metel is drooping, covered with short blunt tubercles barely exceeding 3 mm; in D. stramonium mature fruit is erect covered with long spines up to 5 mm long.
In addition the following may help. Plants of D. metel are generally taller less branched and erect often reaching 1.5 m and tend to have purplish stem, in D. stramonium plants are shorter, more branched and spreading, stems not purplish.
The leaves of D. stramonium are generally parted, whereas they are not parted in D. metel
Luckily you can distinguish them from vegetative plants and flowers also.
1. Plants glabrescent; calyx 5-angled; corolla less than 12 cm long; leaves sinnuate-dentate, anthers less than 5 mm long (capsule erect, 4-valved, with stout up to 5 mm long prickles)…D. stramonium
1a. Plants glabrescent or hairy; calyx cylindrical; corolla more than 12 cm long; leaves entire or sinuate but not
dentate, anthers longer than 1 cm (capsule deflexed, irregularly dehiscent)… 2
2. Plants gladular-pubescent, not purple; calyx 8-10 cm long; corolla 15-18 cm long, anthers 10-17 mm long (capsules deflexed, covered with slender prickles, pubescent, irregularly dehiscent)………………….D. inoxia
2a. Plants glabrescent, often purple; calyx 4-9 cm long; corolla 14-20 cm long; anthers 10-12 mm long (capsule deflexed, with short broad-based short prickles, irregularly dehiscent)……………D. metel
The two species can be conclusively differentiated from fruits and seeds. The capsules of D. ferox are on erect stalks, lower spines are much shorter, upper longer, seeds black or grey. In D. inoxia capsules are on recurved stalks, spines almost equally longer, seeds yellow or brown



Flora of Panipat- Datura innoxia from Village JATAL Panipat roadside area: Datura innoxia
From Jatal Panipat roadside area, Wild no fragrance




IDENTIFICATION OF FLOWER: (mixed thread): 1 correct image as above.
Could your group of experts please help identify and describe this wild
flower i photographed behind the sukhna lake in chandigarh. The area falls in the foothills of the lower shiwaliks and these flowers have just bloomed. I am writing about these flowers in the newspaper and would require your expertise.

Strangely, theplantlist ( http://www.theplantlist.org/browse/A/Solanaceae/Datura/) lists this in two
different spellings D. inoxia and D. innoxia, both as accepted names, with same author. However, one is presently ‘in review’.

I hope Datura inoxia


Datura inoxia:  Can the experts please help id this flower that i found blooming in the shiwalik foothills to the north-west of chandigarh, and provide some aspects of this flower or links for more info?

it seems to be the Indian apple flower, closely associated with the Shiv pantheon.


Datura inoxia







Convolvulaceae for ID (a) : 5 posts by 3 authors. Attachments(10).

Datura innoxia or Datura wrightii?
How to differentiate between both?
Bangalore, 28th April 2014.

My mistake, I meant to type Solanaceae and not Convolvulaceae.

efi page on Datura inoxia

I think as per Datura, Datura wrightii is not there.


Perhaps the difference lies in the distribution! Or maybe in claims :-

  1. Datura meteloides Dunal (see FoI) is … actually a syn of D. inoxia Mill., a Mexican plant having narrower flower with 10 teeth – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Datura_wrightii#Other_names
  2. D. wrightii Regel …. is conspecific with inoxiahttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=22389
  3. a variety or ssp. as in http://www.calflora.org/cgi-bin/species_query.cgi?where-calrecnum=2622 or in http://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=dawr2

Please wait for inputs from US.

You asked this question about 8 months ago! I responded without knowing anything. Here is the answer –
Can you please provide, in our database, the exact BSI list of  Indian Datura, all species and their synonyms?

On what basis this site claims – “Datura metel of India resembles this plant”?



Datura inoxia Mill. … corrected by some to “innoxia” to preserve historical usage … NPGS / GRIN

at Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary on February 16, 2013



Solanaceae Fortnight::Datura inoxia Feb-15 NSJ-06 : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (3)

Datura inoxia from Satara

Yes … Very good photographs



Datura innoxia. at Mumbai.

Datura innoxia at Mumbai.

Solanaceae Week: Datura inoxia from Delhi: Datura inoxia Miller, Gard. Dic. ed. 8. no. 5. 1768
syn: Datura metel auctt. non L. sensu Clarke
A South American weed, now common in tropical and subtropical climates. Distinct from D. stramonium in densely hairy plants and nodding capsules with prickles.


Datura for ID : 310111 : AK-2: Taken on the 20 July,08 at Pune, Maharashtra.
Smaller flower compared to other Daturas.

Flower looks unusually small. fruit should help. Leaves suggest. D. inoxia.

Nicandra don’t have petals with acute apex hence there it can be Datura innoxia 

Datura innoxia indeed

Solanaceae Fortnight: Datura inoxia from Delhi-GSFEB35/37 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (3)
Datura inoxia Miller, Gard. Dic. ed. 8. no. 5. 1768
syn: Datura metel auctt. non L. sensu Clarke
A South American weed, now common in tropical and subtropical climates.
Distinct from D. stramonium in densely hairy plants and nodding capsules with prickles.




Solanaceae Fortnight:: Datura innoxia from Panipat-NS Feb 17/17 : 8 posts by 5 authors. Attachments (6)

This is a common shrub in our area, I think this is Datura innoxia, this has longer spines on the fruit.. please validate..

I am afraid spines prove nothing. Fruits are different in FoZ – http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/cult/species.php?species_id=150820.

If we follow FoC, number of veins on leaf should be taken care of –

Why not it is Datura metel http://www.arkive.org/datura/datura-metel/image-G124728.html?

I don’t find any contradiction with links provided. The last link identification has to be still verified by experts as mentioned on the website. My experience is that plants of D. inoxia are pubescent so that older plants especially along roadsides become dirtier, capsules are usually deflexed with slender spines. In D. metel plants are glabrescent and stems and leaves usually shining, fruits usually erect with short blunt tubercles much more stouter than D. inoxia.

I think it is D. inoxia only.

Thanks … for raising your doubts which led to suitable explanation, thanks … for confirming the id..

(i) stamens not exserted; stigma well below anthers; spine on capsule upto 10 mm long; persistent base of calyx upto 20 mm long = inoxia

(ii) stamens shortly exserted; stigma above level of anthers; spines usually 3-5 mm long; persistent base of calyx to 10 mm long = wrightii


Solanaceae Fortnight:: Pune:: Datura :: SMPFEB24/24 : 4 posts by 3 authors. 3 images.
Datura inoxia??


Datura fastuosa

I think D. inoxia yes

On closer look yes, it is Datura inoxia

Solanaceae Fortnight: Datura inoxia : RVS02 : 4 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (4)

Sharing pictures of Datura inoxia/ innoxia growing in the medicinal plant garden of University of Mississippi.

yes. is there a 2nd way of spelling with to ns?





Datura for ID. no 011416sn1 : 10 posts by 5 authors. Attachments (7)

Your help needed to identify this plant.

location:Aambyvalley Rd.,Lonavala,Pune
plant habit:Climber?

Height:about 3-4 ft.

Datura species in eFloraofindia (with details/ keys from published papers/ regional floras/ FRLHT/ FOI/ Biotik/ efloras/ books etc., where ever available on net) 

It seems to be Datura ferox, Pandhara Dhotara, Family- Solanaceae.

looking at the fruits its certainly not D ferox, close up of fruits might help in identification

There are two species which are very nearer to each other Datura metel and Datura ferox. There are no purplish flowers.
So it may not be D. metel.

But the white flowers and sharp thorny fruits indicates towards the Datura ferox only.

I have attached 2 closeups of the fruit. I believe D. ferox has unusual long spikes. To my untrained eye this looks more like D.inoxa. yes thanks for your opinion appreciate it.

Matches with images of Datura inoxia (Naturalized) & not of Datura ferox (Naturalized)

Datura for validation :: Udaipur, RJ, April 2017 :: ARKJUN07 : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (4)
Saw this Datura plant by the roadside near Udaipur. RJ in April 2017. Apologies for the pic quality.
eFi pics indicate this may be Datura inoxia. Kindly validate.

To me also looks similar to images at Datura inoxia

Re: Datura species from Vijayawada : 3 posts by 2 authors. 3 images.
This is growing in our college of pharmaceutical sciences, Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh
Kindly confirm the species.

Pl. check

Datura inoxia :: urban Jodhpur :: 24 OCT 18 : 6 posts by 4 authors. 5 images. 5 images.

Jodhpur  urban

Date: October 24, 2018 … Altitude: about 230 m (750 feet) asl
Datura inoxia  Mill.
… the spelling of the epithet seems to keep changing between inoxia and innoxia 🙂


Bharatpur on 6th Jan.2009; Tungareshwar- Jan.’09?; in Hyderabad on 21/3/09; at Kovalam, Kerala in September 1995; February 7, 2009- Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary;   Datura inoxia – Dhotra? – indiantreepix | Google Groups For ID 110109ET58 – indiantreepix | Google Groups ID please – indiantreepix | Google Groups ID please – indiantreepix | Google Groups


Datura metal Linnaeus from Kamrup district (Metro), Assam : Attachments (6). 5 posts by 3 authors.
Hope attached images may be Datura metal Linnaeus. Please validate. 
Date :18.10..2013
Location: Kamrup district (Metro)
Family : Solanaceae
Genus & species : Datura metal Linnaeus
Habitat: Grows wild on waste places 
Habit : Shrub
Flower : White
Fruits : Not seen

efi page on  Datura metel

Without fruits it is difficult to identify the correct species.

Looks to be correct ID !

I think it looks more close to Datura inoxia
However, fruit will determine the final id.

Re: Datura innoxia or Datura wrightii? : 5 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (5)
Mettur Salem Tamilnadu
Kindly identify

I shall go for Datura innoxia but the 3rd image looks like belonging to Mr. Dinesh Valke !

Yes, … indeed the 3rd pic is from my collection. May be Digpati ji is making use of it for his study.

OK …


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