Dicliptera foetida (Forssk.) Blatt., Rec. Bot. Surv. India 8: 361 1921. (Syn: Dicliptera bivalvis Nees; Dicliptera zeylanica Nees; Justicia foetida Forssk.; Panemata zeylanica Raf.);
India (peninsular India), Sri Lanka, Zimbabwe (I), Yemen (W-Yemen) as per Catalogue of Life;

Plant for ID : SMP2 15 Dec 2012:
Herb observed in Mahabaleshwar at various locations.
Nature prostrate. Leaves opposite. 3-5cm ovate elliptic. Bracts 1-1.5cm. Flowers tiny 2cm.
I think this is Dicliptera foetida. Pl. Validate.

Yes … the stinking foldwing (locally known as जिवणी jivani in Marathi) … Dicliptera foetida (family Acanthaceae).

Names of Plants in India :: Dicliptera foetida:
commonly known as: stinking foldwing • Marathi: जिवणी jivani
botanical names: Dicliptera foetida(Forssk.) Blatt. … synonym: Dicliptera zeylanica Nees

dye-CLIP-ter-uh — Greek: diklis (double-folding); pteron (wing) … Dave’s Botanary
FET-uh-duh — stinking … Dave’s Botanary

commonly known as: stinking foldwing • Kannada: ಗಬ್ಬು ನೆರಿಗೆರೆಕ್ಕೆ gabbu nerigerekke • Konkani: जिवणी jivani • Marathi: जिवणी jivani • Telugu: కంపు కుసుమ gabbu kusuma
botanical namesDicliptera foetida (Forssk.) Blatt. … accepted infraspecificsDicliptera foetida var. foetida • Dicliptera foetida var. ghatica (Santapau) M.R.Almeida • Dicliptera foetida var. kanarana M.R.Almeida … synonymsDicliptera bivalvis Juss. • Justicia foetida Forssk. … POWO … and Dicliptera zeylanica Nees in A.DC., Prodr. 11: 474. 1847; B.D.Sharma et al., Fl. Karnataka Anal. 204. 1984.

Bibliography / etymology

~~~~~ ENGLISH ~~~~~
stinking foldwing
~~~~~ KANNADA ~~~~~
ಗಬ್ಬು ನೆರಿಗೆರೆಕ್ಕೆ gabbu nerigerekke
  • Many thanks to Dr Mahadeswara Swamy for help with this name … efloraofindia … ಗಬ್ಬು ನೆರಿಗೆರೆಕ್ಕೆ gabbu nerigerekke = stinking foldwing
~~~~~ KONKANI ~~~~~
जिवणी jivani
  • name borrowed from Marathi (language from neighbouring region), for want of name
~~~~~ MALAYALAM ~~~~~
no given name
~~~~~ MARATHI ~~~~~
जिवणी jivani
  • Flowers of Sahyadri, a field guide to identify flowers of northern Western Ghats of India by Shrikant Ingalhalikar
~~~~~ TAMIL ~~~~~
no given name
~~~~~ TELUGU ~~~~~
కంపు కుసుమ gabbu kusuma
  • Many thanks to A Lalithamba for help with this name … efloraofindia
~~~~~ DISTRIBUTION ~~~~~
~~~~~ x ~~~~~

ID Request 160411SP06:
Location: Yeoor Hill, SGNP, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India


dicliptera foetida :  6 images. 2 posts by 1 author.
dicliptera foetida, mahabaleshwar
saw a few plants growing under shade
first week of march 2013

Dicliptera foetida (Forssk.) Blatt.
at Nakhind, near Matheran on November 27, 2011

Attached are pictures of Dicliptera foetida captured at Devgad in May 2014.
Was posted on the forum earlier and identified here.


Acanthaceae Fortnight :: Dicliptera foetida FOR VALIDATION :: Coorg :: DVMAR33/44 : 4 posts by 3 authors. 2 images.
¿ Dicliptera foetida ?
Another plant at Abbi Falls on same day, few metres way from the earlier plant – DVMAR32/43.
at Abbi Falls, Coorg on March 30, 2011

Yes to Dicliptera foetida.


Acanthaceae Fortnight :: Dicliptera foetida FOR VALIDATION :: Coorg :: DVMAR32/43 : 4 posts by 3 authors. 3 images.
¿ Dicliptera foetida ?
I hope this plant is Dicliptera foetida; please validate.
at Abbi Falls, Coorg on March 30, 2011

Yes, …

Acanthaceae fortnight SN 18 : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (2)
Acanthaceae herb for Id from Kerala Forest Research Institute area of Thrissur Dt

… some Dicliptera ?

Thank you … It is Dicliptera foetida (Forssk.) Blatt. (= Dicliptera zeylanica Nees), You have already posted it.

¿ Dicliptera foetida ?
I have labelled the posted plant as Dicliptera foetida; would like to take the opportunity of getting it validated during this fortnight.
along Mattighatta Road near Devanalli on December 15, 2012

For me the ID seems to be correct.

 ¿ Peristrophe / Dicliptera ? sp. DV14FEB10-1147 – efloraofindia | Google Groups : 4 images.
ID please … ¿ Peristrophe / Dicliptera ?
Date/Time : February 14, 2010 at 11.47am IST
Location Place : vicinity of Kanheri caves … Altitude : 117 m … GPS : 19°12’21.09″N, 72°54’15.10″E
Habitat : Wild … Type : under tree cover, forest clearing
Plant Habit : herbaceous small shrub … Height : about 50 -75 cm … Length : ;(

Leaves Type : simple and opposite … 
Leaves Shape : LOWER leaves: narrow, lanceolate, petiolate; UPPER 4 leaves: very close, seemingly sessile … 
Leaves Size : LOWER leaves: about 5 – 7 cm x 2 – 2.5 cm; UPPER leaves: 2 – 3 cm x 1- 1.5 cm
Inflorescence Type : do not know … Size : do not know
Flowers Size : about 2 – 3 cm long, not sure … Colour : white tube blending to lilac petals … Calyx : afraid to describe … Bracts : do not know

Fruits Type : do not know … Shape : do not know … Size : do not know … Seeds : do not know
Other Info :
Fragrance : do not know …  Pollinator : do not know …  Uses : do not know

This is Dicliptera.. but don’t know the species.

If you want to see an authentic specimen of Peristrophe paniculata, please go to this link of …
This plant was earlier also confused with Peristrophe, untill … pointed out to be Dicliptera, and I found Dicliptera bupleuroides in Manali. Plants of Dicliptera tend to be more robust with flowers more or less clustered, whereas in Perstrophe paniculata they form spreading panicle and are on long slender stalks.

I want to go with Peristrophe paniculata from the family Acanthaceae.

Agree with … It looks like Dicliptera zeylanica [D.foetida] to me.

… on going through the internet and Shrikant ji’s FOS, the description says the plant D. zeylanica (D.foetida) is a prostrate plant.
The plant posted by me does not look prostrate … or is such diffuse form accepted as a variation for D. zeylanica ?
Other aspects of the plant n the photographs tend to agree otherwise with the description.

Another option is D nasikensis but leaf morphology no match much as nasikensis have elliptic-ovate  leaves. D foetida may be a good choice

Many thanks … for the validation … me too hoping it to be Dicliptera foetida (D. zeylanica) … unfortunately, there is not much discussed about this species on the internet.

Thanks for re-sending the photographs. I concur. This is Dicliptera foetida [D.zeylanica].
Have seen this plant twice with Dr.Almeida – at Malshej and Mahabaleshwar.

Dicliptera foetida :: Kanakeshwar, near Alibag :: 25 DEC 19 : 3 posts by 2 authors. 5 images.
Kanakeshwar forest  near Alibag
Date: December 25, 2019 … Altitude range: about 200 ft (60 m) to 1200 ft (365 m) asl
Dicliptera foetida  (Forssk.) Blatt.

I cant thank you enough. This is a very timely help, these beautiful images !!!
Dicliptera species with axillary inflorescences are giving grief ….since this one has relatively bigger flower and inflorescence is not very compact, bracts are bigger too, this species is now easier to recognise and is ruled out as a possible id for my specimens which may be a single taxon or two, I do not know.

My pleasure … I think this one is common among the wild species in Western Ghats.
Please do post your Dicliptera spp.


up-feb-2 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (3).
Dicliptera leonotis– seen at Tamhini, a small shrub.

This is not Dicliptera leonotis Dalz. ex C. B. Cl. as per Publication pdf and GBIF

I think it is Dicleptira foetida only its only a variation

I will check pl.

Can it be Dicliptera cuneata Nees as per Plant illustrations and GBIFSpecimen 1 and Specimen 2 ?

This is the key as per FPM Gamble and T.Pullaiah:

1.Flowers in slender trichotomous/ divaricately branched lax panicles:
 a. inflorescence bracts minute, linear; flowering bracts and bracteoles minute; leaves almost glabrous: Dicliptera parvibracteata
 b. bracts ciliate, leaves minutely pubescent, bracteoles linear-lanceolate, inflorescence branches hairy: Dicliptera beddomei
2. Flowers in axillary peduncled clusters:
 a. leaves hairy, rounded or obtuse at base;  floral bracts obovate-oblong: Dicliptera cuneata
 b. leaves acuminate at both ends, floral bracts foliaceous: Dicliptera foetida
3. flowers in dense axillary and terminal sessile or subsessile clusters, leaves rhomboid: Dicliptera bupleuroides
4. Flower clusters mostly in axillary whorls, bracts-oblong-obovate; leaves glabrous, ovate: Dicliptera verticellata

Thanks a lot, …, for the keys.
Yes, now it is Dicleptira foetida only.

AR15,2010 : Attachments (2). 10 posts by 6 authors.
For possible id confirmation. Thanks a lot.
Found at Gundupalli near Tedlam/Chintalapudi on Eastern Ghats hillside in Feb.2010.
Height of plant around 50 cm, flowers 1cm width

Peristrophe sp. most probably paniculata.

…  Dicliptera and Peristrophe confuse me.

Yes sir, for me too it has been confusing …
Clarke in Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India (vol 4, page 389 – 390) writes:
Placentae rising elastically from the base of the capsule ———– Dicliptera
Placentae not rising elastically from the base of the capsule —– Peristrophe

I think Dicliptera foetida

Peristrophe paniculata….it looks like one

… does not look like Dicliptera foetida OR Peristrophe paniculata.
Dicliptera foetidahttp://www.flickr.com/search/?q=Dicliptera%20foetida
Peristrophe paniculatahttp://www.flickr.com/search/Peristrophe%20paniculata

These two taxa can also be distinguished based on the following simple morphological key:
# Cymes capitate; bracts spathulate……….. Dicliptera (for D. cuneata)
# Cymes divaricate; bracts linear……………. Peristrophe (for P. paniculata)
I think the posted plant is Dicliptera, most probably D. foetida as identified by …
…, could your flickr plant be D. cuneata? i am not sure but.

…, … as such … identified my plant, and am convinced that it is Dicliptera foetida (syn. D. zeylanica).
Attaching descriptions from Cooke’s Flora for quick reference.

Thanks …, for the literature. You and … should be correct. Let’s hear from other members too.


identification no 280812sn2:
Kindly Id. this herb. I presume it is Dicliptera foetida.

date/time: feb12
location: mulshi,pune
habitat: wild
plant habit:-
height: tiny

I second … on Dicliptera foetida

Dicliptera foetida—for sharing : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1)
Pic taken at Aambyvalley rd.,Lonavala,Pune in Jan.,15.


Herb ID request – RK99 – 15-Jan-2013:
Requesting identification of this herb from Tungareshwer. This plant is very short, maybe around 6 inches tall and looking at the flowers I thought it is Peristrophe paniculata as per this thread
I am confused because i was browsing the archives and I am unable to tell the differences bet. Peristrophe and Dicliptera. Request the experts to please throw some light on this.

… looks like the stinking foldwing, Dicliptera foetida syn. D. zeylanica (family: Acanthaceae).

Thanks again …


Flowers of yeoor – butterfly festival – indiantreepix | Google Groups : 1 correct image as above.
Although butterfly festival it was, but i couldn’t dare to look around without flowers. I clicked couple of such beauties in the yeoor forest raneg-Thane


Herb called JIVNI – indiantreepix | Google Groups : 1 image.
This was not tiny herb, but hard to locate or to find, is not very common in our wildlife region. This herb, we call it as Jivni or Dicliptera foetida, was shot at Mumbai’s Sanjay Gandhi National Park, in this february.

Konkan, May 2014 :: Requesting ID of this herb :: 10JUN014 :: ARK-20 : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (2).
Requesting to please ID this herb captured near Devgad, Maharashtra in May 2014.

Dicliptera foetida (Forssk.) Blatt. [Acanthaceae].

Dyschoriste nagchana (Nees) Bennet SN Sep 58 : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (2)
Dyschoriste nagchana (Nees) Bennet, wild herb from Bahamandala area of Coorg Karnataka

Thanks, … It does not look like Dyschoriste nagchana. Pl. see the link
Can it be Dicliptera foetida as per images at Dicliptera ?

It is Dicliptera foetida as per images and details herein.

Id please
Herb with quadrangular stem
Photographed at Kanakeshwar, Alibag

This is some Dicliptera species

I think this should be Dicliptera foetida as per images and details herein.


Seen this Dicliptera in a village near coastal Devgad, MH in the last week of December 2020.
Requested to please provide ID. Is it Dicliptera foetida?

Yes, appears so as per comparative images at Dicliptera

Any one among Dicliptera ghatica Santapau, Dicliptera heterostegia Nees and Dicliptera brachiata Spreng. ??


Giving name in Telugu to Dicliptera foetida (Forssk.) Blatt.:
Please check whether we can give a name to Dicliptera foetida (Forssk.) Blatt.
We have పింఛకుసుమ pincha kusuma for Dicliptera cuneata Nees
On similar lines, my attempt is కంపు కుసుమ gabbu kusuma.
You may please suggest any better name OR validate my suggested name.

a great idea, why not, go ahead, for local names are named by non-botanists; I enjoy your suggestion, I will have to update Flora Andhrika, for a few more species are known to occur in A.P.

Thanks very very much …
I will soon update the name compilation of Dicliptera foetida with the Telugu name – కంపు కుసుమ gabbu kusuma.


Giving name in Kannada to Dicliptera foetida (Forssk.) Blatt.:
Please check whether we can give a name to Dicliptera foetida (Forssk.) Blatt. on lines of the English descriptive name “stinking foldwing” given by dear Tabish (Flowers of India) – the name is derived from the scientific name.
My attempt is loose translation of stinking foldwing = ಗಬ್ಬು ಪದರುಪಕ್ಷ gabbu padarupaksha
You may please suggest any better name OR validate my suggested name.
I have used Google Translate and Alar – an authoritative Kannada-English dictionary corpus created by V. Krishna

  • ಗಬ್ಬು gabbu … noun … 1) a strong, offensive smell or odour; stink; stench; 2) any dirty, stinking material.
  • ಪದರು padaru … noun … a folded part; a fold; a layer.
  • ಪಕ್ಷ pakṣa … noun … one of the movable feathered or membranous paired appendages by means of which a bird, bat or insect is able to fly; a wing.

You may adopt any one of these suggested names. For me these names are more appropriate.
ಗಬ್ಬು ನೆರಿಗೆರೆಕ್ಕೆ  ( Gabbu Nerigerekke) or  ಗಬ್ಬು ಮಡಿಚುರೆಕ್ಕೆ (Gabbu Maḍichurekke )
Analysis :
ಗಬ್ಬು = Stinking or stink  ;  ನೆರಿಗೆ / ಮಡಿಚು =  Fold ;   ರೆಕ್ಕೆ= Wing.

Thank you very much … for this help with naming of Dicliptera foetida !!
I am going with the first one – ಗಬ್ಬು ನೆರಿಗೆರೆಕ್ಕೆ  gabbu nerigerekke


Giving name in Malayalam to Dicliptera foetida (Forssk.) Blatt.:

Please check whether we can give a name to Dicliptera foetida (Forssk.) Blatt. on lines of the English descriptive name “stinking foldwing” given by dear Tabish (Flowers of India) – the name is derived from the scientific name. As of now, there seems to be no name given to this species in Malayalam.

You may please come up with a better name; need not be on lines of the English descriptive name.