1. Flowers tubulose-campanulate; limb 4.5-7 mm long. Style straight, sparsely scaly at base only. Perianth segments (2-)3-4 by 2-3.25 mm. Continental Southeast Asia …. Elaeagnus latifolia
1′ Flowers trumpet-shaped; limb 1-4 mm long. Style at apex hook-shaped….. 2
2 Limb 3.5-4 mm long, sometimes thickened at base. Style densely stellate-scaly, especially near the base. Perianth segments (1 —)1.5—2 by 1.5-2 mm …. Elaeagnus conferta
2′ Limb 1—3(—4) mm long. Style glabrous, rarely with some stellate scales at base. Perianth segments 2-4(-5) by 2-3 mm ….. Elaeagnus triflora

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Keys from Flora of Bhutan with Habitat, elevation and flowering- fruiting time:
1. Calyx tube tubular above constriction……….. 2
+ Calyx tube obconical above constriction ……. 4
2. Calyx tube above constriction 6mm or more; fruit pear-shaped 9- 10 mm, with small blunt beak at apex …. 4. E. pyriformis (Secondary subtropical and terai forest. 380m. October)
+ Calyx tube above constriction 5mm or less; fruit ellipsoid, 15 mm or more long, without beak ….. 3
3. Pedicels at flowering 1 -3 mm; leaves elliptic to oblong-elliptic, 2.3 cm or more wide …… 1. E. conferta (Subtropical forest, 550m. ?February)
+ Pedicels at flowering 5 – 7 mm; leaves lanceolate, 2.2cm or less wide …… 3. E. caudata (In Blue Pine scrub and in moist Oak/ Spruce forest, 2650 — 2790m. September – March)
4. Leaves 6.5 cm or more. scaly above when young; fruit 16 — 18 mm ….   2. E. infundibularis (Secondary scrub on hillside, 1840- 2100m. September)
+ Leaves less than 6.5 cm, stellate-hairy above when young; fruit 6.5 – 8 mm …  5. E. parvifolia (Roadsides and stream banks in dry valleys, among scrub or in Blue Pine forest, 1100 — 3200m. March — June)

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Images by Gurcharan Singh (Inserted by J.M.Garg) (For more images & complete details, click on the links)

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Images by Ashwini Bhatia (Validation by J.M.Garg) (Inserted by J.M.Garg) (For more images & complete details, click on the links)

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Elaeagnus indica Servett. (Endemic to Andhra pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamilnadu- Flower, fruit- March to June)

Elaeagnus latifolia L. (S-India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar [Burma] (Bago, Kachin, Kayin, Mandalay, Sagaing,
Shan, Yangon), Malesia, Andamans (Middle Andamans, South Andamans), Nicobars
(Central Nicobars, Great Nicobar Isl., Little Nicobar Isl.),
Pakistan (I),
Bangladesh
as per Catalogue of Life)- Karnataka, Kerala, Orissa and Tamilnadu- Flower, fruit- November to March)


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Flora of Peninsular India gives the following species with details as below:

Elaeagnus indica Servett. (Endemic to Andhra pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamilnadu- Flower, fruit- March to June)

Elaeagnus latifolia L. (Syn: Elaeagnus conferta Roxb.; Elaeagnus kologa Sch. in DC.) (S-India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar [Burma] (Bago, Kachin, Kayin, Mandalay, Sagaing, Shan, Yangon), Malesia, Andamans (Middle Andamans, South Andamans), Nicobars (Central Nicobars, Great Nicobar Isl., Little Nicobar Isl.), Pakistan (I), Bangladesh as per Catalogue of Life– Karnataka, Kerala, Orissa and Tamilnadu- Flower, fruit- November to March)

I could not find the difference between the two on net.

I could not find the difference between the two on net.
Going by this (Flower, fruit- November to March), most of the observations in our site at
Elaeagnus conferta Roxb. should be of E. latifolia

Can someone solve this mystery ?

What are the observations in Flora of Maharashtra ?


In one of the resources that I refer to – the entry is as follows: Elaeagnus infundibularis Momiy. (= Elaeagnus latifolia auct non L.; Elaeagnus conferta Roxb.)
Reference: The Gazetteer Departmentमहाराष्ट्रातील वनस्पतीशास्त्र आणि वनसंपदा
I am not aware of contents in Flora of Maharshtra.
Thus there is some connection of  Elaeagnus latifolia auct non L. with E. conferta Roxb. in Flora.

In sites like The Plants List, POWO, GBIF, the listing could be different.


Thanks, … I think Flora by Almeida ji may be of some help in this matter.


Useful Tropical plants on Elaeagnus latifolia says as below:
Elaeagnus latifolia, Elaeagnus conferta and Elaeagnos triflora are sometimes treated as three distinct species and sometimes as a single entity (under Elaeagnus latifolia). There is also disagreement over the range of the species, with Elaeagnus latifolia variously stated to be native to the Indian Continent or to continental southeast Asia. In this treatment the three are treated as distinct, following the Flora Malesiana.
Many taxa in this genus are separated only by quantitative characters, and better information on population variation is likely to lead to a significant reduction in the number of species recognized. Indeed, recent studies (Du, Fl. Yunnan. 12: 749-776. 2006) suggest that some species of Elaeagnus should be combined.
Synonyms given are as below:
Elaeagnus infundibularis Momiy.
Elaeagnus kologa ceylanica Servett.
Elaeagnus kologa grisebachii Servett.
Elaeagnus kologa macrophylla Servett.
Elaeagnus kologa wightii Servett.
Elaeagnus punctata Schltdl.
Elaeagnus rotundifolia Servett.

Elaeagnus thwaitesii Schltdl.


Thanks … I have not studied this matter; most probably I may not succeed !

There could be more than one E. latifolia described, and therefore the confusion.
As I said,  Elaeagnus latifolia auct non L. is considered synonymous with E. conferta Roxb.

Note in the book at Elaeagnus latifolia L. further says:
This taxon has often been segregated into two distinct species on the basis of perianth and anthocarp shape. The low altitude plants has been placed under E. conferta and higher altitude plants under E. kologa. As the species is a variable one, we have retained the broader Linnean species concept.
An excursion flora of Central Tamilnadu by K M Mathew (1995), gives following differences between two species as:
Leaves coppery below, Fascicle > 5-flowered, scales peltate, brown, Nut winged. Higher hills- E. kologa
Leaves silvery below, Fascicle < 4-flowered, scales stellate, silvery white, Nut not winged. Lower hills- E. indica

On furthers search, I found that our observations in efi site at Elaeagnus conferta Roxb. matches with those of Elaeagnus latifolia L. at
Also Catalogue of Life gives distribution for this species as S-India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar [Burma] (Bago, Kachin, Kayin, Mandalay, Sagaing, Shan, Yangon), Malesia, Andamans (Middle Andamans, South Andamans), Nicobars (Central Nicobars, Great Nicobar Isl., Little Nicobar Isl.), Pakistan (I), Bangladesh
Catalogue of Life gives distribution of Elaeagnus conferta Roxb. as China (Guangxi, Yunnan), India, Laos, Vietnam, Thailand, Java, peninsular Malaysia (Penang, Perak), Assam, Bangladesh, Myanmar [Burma], Bhutan, Darjeeling, Indochina, Andaman Isl., Nicobar Isl., Sumatra, Mauritius (I) – I think India here means other than south India.

Flora of Pakistan also mention Elaeagnus latifolia Linn. with distribution as Burma, Malaya Islands, Sri lanka, China, subtropical and temperate Himalaya, while there is no mention of this in Flora of China, which mentions both Elaeagnus conferta Roxburgh & Elaeagnus angustifolia Linnaeus (other two species mentioned in Flora of Pakistan), Checklist of Nepal and Flora of Bhutan.

In view of all this analysis, I feel our observations from South India and Maharashtra, should be taken as Elaeagnus latifolia L. with Elaeagnus kologa Schltdl. as syn. and other synonyms as per Catalogue of Life;

Finally I got the Keys from Flora Malesiana as below:
1. Flowers tubulose-campanulate; limb 4.5-7 mm long. Style straight, sparsely scaly at base only. Perianth segments (2-)3-4 by 2-3.25 mm. Continental Southeast Asia …. Elaeagnus latifolia
1′ Flowers trumpet-shaped; limb 1-4 mm long. Style at apex hook-shaped….. 2
2 Limb 3.5-4 mm long, sometimes thickened at base. Style densely stellate-scaly, especially near the base. Perianth segments (1 —)1.5—2 by 1.5-2 mm …. Elaeagnus conferta
There is an illustration of Elaeagnus conferta in Flora Malesiana, which looks different from our plant.

In view, I am taking our observations from South India and Maharashtra as Elaeagnus latifolia L. with Elaeagnus kologa Schltdl. as syn. and other synonyms as per Catalogue of Life;


Please have a look at the pictures of Elaeagnus latifolia at Flora of Peninsular India:

The flowers look different from those clicked by Dinesh. Distinct difference in the relative size of the inflorescence and the leaves. Flowers in flora-peninsula are very small compared to the leaves.


No. …, Pictures of Elaeagnus latifolia at Flora of Peninsular India at http://flora-peninsula-indica.ces.iisc.ac.in/herbsheet.php?id=3529&cat=7 look similar to those clicked by Dinesh.


I think I agree with you. I found a picture of Elaeagnus conferta here:

and the shape of the flowers is distinctly trumpet shaped, different from what we have on FOI, which should really be described as tubular.


No, … There is a lot of confusion on net between these species.

Pictures at http://ppbc.iplant.cn/tu/492336 are not of Elaeagnus conferta. Appears more like Elaeagnus parvifolia or similar species.
Pl. see correct at Elaeagnus conferta as per images, details and references herein.

 

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