India (Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Central and Southern regions), Arabia, East Africa, Sri Lanka as per Synopsis of the Genus Ficus L. (Moraceae) in India Lal Babu Chaudhary*, Jana Venkata Sudhakar, Anoop Kumar, Omesh Bajpai, Rinkey Tiwari and G. V. S. Murthy- Taiwania, 57(2): 193-216, 2012;
commonly known as: Brahma’s banyan, forest sandpaper fig, rough banyan, sand paper fig• Kannada: ಅಡವಿ ಅತ್ತಿ adavi atti, ಗರಗತ್ತಿ garagatti • Konkani: खरवंट kharvant • Malayalam: തേരകം theerakam • Marathi: करवत karvat • Sanskrit: करपत्र karapatra • Tamil: மரம்தினிஅத்தி maramthinniatti • Telugu: కరక బొద్దు karaka boddu, కరసాన karasana, సిరి బొడ్డ siri bodda;
In F. heterophylla the stipules are 2 to each leaf, ovate, scarious and about half an inch long.
In F. exasperata the stipules are minute.

Images by tspkumar


TSP-APR2016-12-312: Images of Ficus exasperata (Moraceae) : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (6)

It is my pleasure to share few images of Ficus exasperata (Moraceae)  

Habit: Wild, Tree 

Habitat: Moist-deciduous forest fringe. 

Sighting: Chikmagalur, Karnataka about 1200 msl 

Date: 31-06-2016

Thanks, …, for the beautiful presentation.

Requesting to please ID this tree captured by the roadside in Aguada, Goa in May 2014.
Is it Ficus exasperata?

Affirmative. Now called Ficus ampelos [previously F.asperrima / F.exasperata]. Will send my photographs of this later.

Sending a few of my photographs. Attachments(5).

Thanks, …, As per Synopsis of the Genus Ficus L. (Moraceae) in India Lal Babu Chaudhary*, Jana Venkata Sudhakar, Anoop Kumar, Omesh Bajpai, Rinkey Tiwari and G. V. S. Murthy- Taiwania, 57(2): 193-216, 2012, both Ficus ampelas Burm. f., & Ficus exasperata Vahl are accepted species

All photographs are herewith confirmed as Ficus exasperata Vahl


identification no 291214sn1 : 9 posts by 7 authors. Attachments (4).
Your help in identification. My guess Ficus exasperata.

location:ambyvalley rd.,lonavala,pune
plant habit:tree
height:about 9-10ft.
leaves:seemed rough

Yes, looks very much like that of Ficus exasperata. Earlier discussions in our forum:

Yes, Ficus exasperata

Not aware of the species.
Will anyone please specify the characters observed here which indicate it to be F.exasperata?

Ficus exasperata to me too.
…, not aware of any characters; but quite familiar with the figs, their colour, their appearance all over the almost leafless tree.
Sandpaper tree – one of its common name – its leaves have abrasive texture.

Thanks … Even the visual impression …as you explained, is important. Botanically may not be acceptable 🙁

Now called Ficus ampelos. Please check this link : efi thread 1

Flora of Madh: Ficus exasperata Vahl – Leaves : VG-APR-04 : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (4)
Sharing some photographs of the scabrid leaves of Ficus exasperata Vahl.
The leaves are lobed when young. The tiny stipule is clearly seen in the first image. The leaves, when plucked, exude a clear, viscid sap unlike the milky white latex of some other Ficus spp.
Photographed on Madh Hill during September-October 2014.

SS 16-APR-2017:For ID : 5 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (3)

Please find images attached photos of the tree which is near my house but inaccessible due to the thick bushes and other trees. Please help me to ID this tree.
The tree is full of yellow fruits, and almost no leaves (except very few leaves at the tip of the branches)
Location:  Kandivali , Mumbai, Maharashtra
Date: 16 April 2017

Must be Ficus exasperata; please wait for comment(s).

This is Sandpaper Tree or Ficus exasperata Vahl the third most common Fig in Mumbai grows in wild, after F. hispida and F. racemosa.

Tree for ID: Devgad, Konkan, March 2016 – ARKOCT03 : 9 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (6)
Next to the tree posted earlier today, was this tree which seems to be a Ficus. Requested to please provide ID.
Is this F. exasperata?

Affirmative. This is Ficus exasperata now called Ficus ampelos.

Thank you … for validating.
I am attaching a couple of long shots of F. exasperata captured at a nearby location. This tree appeared leafless but was full of the yellow fruits. Again, the pics were taken in March 2016.
Many birds were feasting on its fruits, we can see a koel in the first pic.
Attachments (2) 

The photographs are confirmed as Ficus exasperata Vahl

This should be Ficus exasperata Vahl

id request 11052011PJ2:
Pl find attached photo which was captured at different months ( DSC _0242.JPG WAS TAKEN ON 6/05/11 WHERE AS COPY OF DSC_0042.JPG WAS CAPUTRED ON JUNE 2010 )  for id.
Date/Time-: 06/05/11   –    14:00
Location- Place, Altitude – Kaiga , Uttar Kannada ,Karnataka, 380 mtrs
Habitat- Garden/ Urban/ Wild/ Type-   wild
Plant Habit- Tree/ Shrub/ Climber/ Herb- Tree
Height/Length- 5m


Request for tree pics:
Can anyone kindly upload pics of ficus exasperata

Pls check this link … https://groups.google.com/group/indiantreepix/… 


… and, some more views …
[image: Ficus exasperata]<http://www.flickr.com/photos/dinesh_valke/4356179698/>

commonly known as*: Brahma’s banyan, forest sandpaper fig, rough banyan, sand paper fig • *Kannada*: ಅಡವಿ ಅತ್ತಿ adavi atti, ಗರಗತ್ತಿ garagatti • * Konkani*: खरवंट kharvant • *Malayalam*: തേരകം theerakam • *Marathi*: करवत karvat • *Sanskrit*: करपत्र karapatra • *Tamil*: மரம்தினிஅத்தி maramthinniatti • *Telugu*: కరక బొద్దు karaka boddu, కరసాన karasana, సిరి బొడ్డ siri bodda 

Sharing the images of Forest sandpaper fig (Ficus exasperata) from NBNP Garden, Coimbatore.
Date: July, 2011, Anaikatti, Coimbatore Dist., (640 MSL)
Habitat: Garden
Habit: Tree


Ficus for identification 070812MK02:  13 images.

Please help me to identify this Ficus species. The tree was almost 8 metre tall and the leaves measured 12×3 cm. The fruits measure 3cm across and mature ripe ones are red.
Characteristic feature: leaves are rough like a sand-paper
Date: 02 Aug 2012
Place: near Solayar dam, Valparai
Alt: 1088 m asl
Habitat: slope on edge of rain forest and tea-estate


Plz id this tree: pa61 – 18dec2012:
Plz id this tree of about 20 feet height from Yeoor region. The leaves are very rough and have latex. Flowers or fruits not seen.

Ficus sp., probably F. exasperata.

Agree with … This is Ficus exasperata [F. asperrima] locally called Kar Payar.


ID request – RD2 – Mumbai – 29th March ’13 :  4 + 4 images. 5 posts by 4 authors.
These pictures also were taken recently in the Sanjay Gandhi National Park in Borivli (Mumbai). Sorry the photos are not very clear … I would really appreciate if somebody can identify it. Thanks in advance.

This is Ficus exasperata … करवत [Karvat] in Marathi.

Agree with you …

Sharing a few pics (4 images) of F.exasperata shot at Badlapur, Thane dist on 31st March 2013.

ID Tree – 31032013MC001 :  4 images. 3 posts by 2 authors.
Pls help me identify this small tree.. 
Height : 10 ft.
Place : Badlapur, Thane dist
Seen with very few leaves and many fruits.


Ficus for id : 13 posts by 5 authors. Attachments (1).
It is a branched shrub about 1 mt tall. branches lenticellate. leaves alternate ovate, 10-20 cm, often deeply 3 lobed, serrate, coriaceous, rough. petioles 3 cm.

Ficus heterophylla

Ficus heterophylla

Thank you … Yes, there is similarity of this plant with F. heterophylla but it differs with it in following points.

1. Habit is densely branched erect shrub and not a slender diffuse trailing shrub.
2. Habitat is rock faces at high elevations and not on river banks
3. Leaves are rather large
I do not know if F heterophylla shows these variations.

I think same plant I have seen in Alibag before two days.
I also found this plant on rocky surface. Plant is about 3 feet long, Leaves 15.5 cm length(with petiole) & width 7 cm, ovate to lanceolate, slightly acuminate, mostly 3-lobed, margins irregular & both leaf surfaces are scabrous. I hope my plant is Ficus heterophyalla, Please add some focus on this also !! 🙂 Attachments (3).

As far as I have seen this plant is definitely not restricted to river banks. It is often a branched erect shrub. Leaves are often large.
I hope we are not talking about 2 different plants.

The leaves of a young Ficus exasperata are strikingly similar before transforming into their usually recognizable and mature shape. Have attached my photograph of the same.

The opinion of … also to be considered, because F.exasperata also shown the same characteristic during the juvenile stages. I am afraid to come again to F. heterophylla now. Let us wait for the other expert’s comments…..

In F. heterophylla the stipules are 2 to each leaf, ovate, scarious and about half an inch long.
In F. exasperata the stipules are minute.

Thanks …
I have checked stipules as suggested by … and they tally with F exasperata. The venation and leaf thickness also match with F exasperata.
My plant and … plant seem to be coppiced forms of A. Exasperata. Thanks for sharing this new observation.

There is a mention in T. Cooke flora about F asperrima having 3 lobed leaves rarely.


Flora of Madh: Ficus exasperata Vahl – Figs : VG-APR-05 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (7)

Sharing some close-up shots of the figs of Ficus exasperata Vahl. From what I’ve noticed, some of the immature green figs often tend to dehisce as can be seen in the last few images. I did not come across this phenomenon in any of the ripe orange figs.

Photographed on Madh Hill during February-March 2015.

Flora of Madh: Ficus exasperata Vahl – Roots : VG-APR-03 : 8 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (2)
Sharing a few pictures of the roots of Ficus exasperata deftly penetrating a rock face in Madh, North Mumbai. A few wildlings with lobed foliage can be seen at the bottom of the first image.
Photographed on Madh Hill in October 2014.

Thanks for sharing
Moraceae is difficult for me.
I am waiting for announcement of Moraceae and Anacardiaceae fortnights. 

nice pictures depicting the tenacity of the roots to get a hold …
strength of roots amazes me but the rock wall does not look like a monolith
rather it seems one of those very deftly nicely tightly  (god only knows how did they do it kind)  set square cut black basalt or granite rock pieces and the roots have found the even miniscule little clefts
the root tips sometimes in some can have acidic fluids I have read somewhere but i dont think they release h2so4 or HCL strong enough for long enough to drill a hole in granite face  and malic acid or the other inhibitory hormone that’s acid is not released out of its tip i dont think…
regardless, I see man’s handiwork that made the wall…
so no roots did not need the acid anyway

This tree is growing on a steep and entirely natural rock face. It is not a man-made “wall”.

how did those “fissures” appear ?
natural earth vibrations and quakes I guess…
Do you by any chance have the entire wall face photos, several of them?

I really don’t know how those fissures were formed in the rock face. Also don’t have any different photos to share.

I tried looking up the details od geology of the Madh hill but ran into details of  some beach and a old fort of some sort and resorts all over
same site mentioned malabar hills
is it that close?
I am glads you are documenting the trees that are there at present

Madh Fort (built by the Portuguese) is in the vicinity but Malabar Hill is a long way off in South Mumbai. Some of the finest beaches in Mumbai are en route Madh.


Flora of Madh: Ficus exasperata Vahl en masse : VG-APR-02 : 5 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (5)
In Mumbai, the frequently encountered Ficus spp. across different habitat types are Ficus benghalensis, F. religiosa, F. racemosa, and F. hispida. However, the most preponderant population of any single Ficus sp. in the wild can be seen in Madh where F. exasperata is the overwhelmingly dominant member of the genus. These trees are a delight in the summer when they are loaded with an abundance of figs.
In view of the acute dangers affecting the habitat, the survival of this unique Ficus population in Madh is highly improbable.
Photographed on Madh Hill during February-March 2015.


Request for ID. : 5 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (5)
make ID for the flora specimen-Photos in the attacement.
description: Habit: Small Tree.
Location: Nelliampathy Hills About 1000MSL, Westernghsts Palakkad Dt, Kerala.
Date : 01-04-2016.

Fruits belongs to Ficus sp. while leaves belong to a Loranthaceae member.

This could be Ficus exasperata

Bhagamandala – Thalacauvery Road Karnataka
Date: 22 FEB 2017 … Altitude range: ~ 907 – 1122 m (2976 – 3683 ft) asl
Ficus exasperata Vahl … (family: Moraceae)

I think matches with images at Ficus exasperata

Yes, thanks very much, … It must be Ficus exasperata.

ID request 30042017PC1 : 4 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (2)
Kindly identify this tree growing in Goa. Is it a species of Ficus? Unfortunately I do not have any more photos of the plant.

This should be Ficus exasperata Vahl


Unid tree : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments(1)- (2 MB).
please help for identification, round ball like flower head

Looks like some Ficus species ?

Plant ID for link below: efi thread
Though not so clear from photo, this should be Sandpaper Leaf Fig, Ficus exasperata, in fruiting leafless and with reddish brown bark.


HALDU 1 A & B 2014/12/20 : 4 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (2)
Please ID this tree with reddish brown fruit/ seed which are used as marking fruit/ seed tat gives an orange brown colour. Photo was taken in Sri Lanka in Mar 2013.
This ficus was observed in a riparian habitat at Karnala forest, Raigad, Maharashtra.
Location-Karnala Wildlife Sanctuary
Observed in- Sep 2021
Appx height-30 feet
Please help in identification.

It looks like Ficus exasperata

Thanks, …, for id as Ficus exasperata

This is Ficus exasperata Vahl
Common name: Sandpaper Fig, Kharvat, Kharvati


Requesting a tree id 140422-1: 1 high res. image.
Tree with alternate leaves and yellow fruits.

Fruits are not clear.
Can you post better close up details of the fruit?

Ficus exasperata

Hope these pictures will help you.
2 high res. images.


Tree for ID : Way to Nasik : 31MAY22 : AK – 12: 7 images.
Tree seen in Kasara Ghat with lots of yellow fruits.

Sorry for the bad picture quality since it was on the mountain slope and I couldn’t get closer.
Could be Ficus Species?
Ficus exasperata?

Pl. check images at Ficus exasperata

Yes, I too had suggested the same in my initial post.

Yes, Ficus exasperata