India (Throughout up to 3,500 m), Bhutan, China, Indochina, Malesia, Nepal, Queensland in Australia, Sri Lanka as per Synopsis of the Genus Ficus L. (Moraceae) in India Lal Babu Chaudhary*, Jana Venkata Sudhakar, Anoop Kumar, Omesh Bajpai, Rinkey Tiwari and G. V. S. Murthy- Taiwania, 57(2): 193-216, 2012;
Domur, Daduri, Hairy Fig, devil fig, opposite-leaved fig-tree, rough-leaved fig • Hindi: गोबला gobla, कगशा kagsha, काला उम्बर kala umbar, कटगूलरिया katgularia, फल्गु phalgu • Marathi: बोकेडा bokeda, बोखाडा bokhada, बोखेडा bokheda, धेड उंबर dhed umbar, काळा उंबर kala umbar, करवती karavati • Tamil: பேயத்தி peyatti • Malayalam: എരുമനാക്ക് erumanaakk, കാട്ടത്തി kaattaththi, പാറകം paarakam • Telugu: బొమ్మమేడి bomma-medi • Kannada: kada atthi • Konkani: खरवोटी kharvoti • Gujarati: ધેડ ઉંબર dhed umbar • Sanskrit: काकोदुम्बरिका kakodumbarika, मलयूः malayuhu, फल्गु phalgu, फणिका phanika • Nepali: खोथया दुमरी kothaya-dumari; 
When it comes to colour and size of figs, I think the variations are possible in some of the Ficus species.
This F. hispida too – have seen them – about as less as 20mm dia to 40mm dia; colours too varying.
There is also considerable colour variation in this species from golden yellow to medium green.

Images by tspkumar


49-TSP-ID-30APR2016-2: Ficus sp (Moraceae) for ID : 4 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (5)

Kindly identify this Ficus sp (Moraceae)……Fruits were seen even at the ground level from rootlet like appendages…! 

Habit: Tree 

Habitat: Wild, Evergreen forest 

Sighting: Vanagoor, Sakaleshpur, Karnataka, about 1000 msl 

Date: 28-06-2016

This looks like the opposite-leaved Ficus hispida L.f. Sharing a photograph from Mumbai for comparison.

And….I think your image of the fruits matches. Thanks again

Request For ID …..:
Pls help me with ID & nature of the plant

Ficus for ID : 100511 : AK-3:
Taken at Jijamata Udyan, Mumbai, Maharashtra on the 7th of April, 2011.
A medium sized tree growing wild.

… this is Ficus hispida (syn. Ficus oppositifolia), the hairy fig.

Opposite leaves – YES
Finely toothed margin – NO
Mature leaves hairy especially on veins below – NO
Twigs hollow when younger – !!
Figs ribbed – YES
Can anyone please clear my doubts on this!! 

… leaves of F. hispida are not abrasive … the upper surface has minute coarse hairs, feels rough though not abrasive … lower surface too is hairy, feels comparatively softer.
You may be referring to F. exasperata (syn. F. asperrima), the sandpaper fig, (tender OR) dried leaf of which can certainly cause abrasion.

Ficus hispida produces fruit also on the roots, young saplings may show alternate leaves

One as a botanist should not think of flowers or fruits arising from roots. In so called stemless plants, the reduced stem elongates at the time of flowering into a scape which produces flowers.
    In Ficus hispida the inflorescence (hypanthodium) and consequently the fruit (fig or syconus) arise from short branches which hang from main branches. They can’t be called as roots.

Its just for the information of the people i quoted that the plant produces fruit on the roots too… its nothing to do anything about the botanist here, however any systematic botany student must know every character of the
    i can definately differentiate the hanging branches and the roots of the plants… so please accept that F. hispida produces inflorescence on the roots too…  whoever dont know…

Ficus semicordata, I have seen stalks with figs coming out from the  root on the ground. Dont know of any other species.

Yes I know abt stalks coming from the lower part of main trunk which is not very unsual for Ficus semicordata. But what I am talking about is the root branches IN THE GROUND, when they spread up. I have seen stalks coming from them. I was also very much surprised. I will see if I have any such picture. Otherwise, I will request Mr. .., if he can drive uptill zoological garden in Ranchi (Ormanjhi) and if the tree is still there, he would be able to send fresh pictures. Its there on the right hand side of the enterance at around 50 m from the main gate.

Let us not confuse shoots/branches with roots. About Ficus semicordata: This if from eFlora of China ” Figs on pendulous, eventually prostrate, leafless branchlets, ± underground at maturity,”
    And this is from eFlora of Pakistan “Hypanthodia on 5-8 mm long peduncles, borne in pairs or clusters on long usually leafless, scaly branches borne from the trunk or main leafless branches”
    The fruits may arise from branches or peduncles from underground branches, but as botanists we should not use term root in the same way we can’t use term root for potato tuber, Alocasia corm or Ginger rhizome.
    The point under discussion is can fruits arise directly from roots or not.
    My botany says not possible.

To me it was hard to believe that it was stem. I just checked, Forest Trees of Northern Thailand just now, I would like to quote a line from there, which may explain what I might have seen… but I truely remember what I saw was not coming from the top but from below the ground and the, what I thought to be root stalk was running till the
base of the main trunk.
    “Figs clustered along slender stems which start on the trunk but droop downwards and often reach the ground, forming runners upto 1 m long, just below the surface.”

That won’t be unusual once we have known that branches may go underground and stalks arising from them bearing fruits as mentioned in eFlora of China. There is no disgreement on that.

Your quoted three last lines clinch the issue.
It was a really interesting discussion.
I am reminded of our discussion on Ranunculus hirtellus which dragged whole night (yours) and my day in California.

I have special interest in Ficus hence thought of answering this. Ficus hispida is known to have opposite leaves USUALLY, not COMPULSORILY.
    Most of the Ficus dont have such leaves and secondly, in young condition, it’s always tough to identify a Ficus because all the keys for this genus are based on the location of figs on the plant part!!

‘Ficus hispida is known to have opposite leaves USUALLY, not COMPULSORILY…. ‘ None of flora quote this statement.. what ever i have seen…
    I also have interest in many things including Ficus… and also working in one small forest area on it…
in many local floras i can show you its written in description and also in keys…. that F. hispida (opp. leaves)
    young stage mean atleast 1-2 year plant…
    Now actually am confused with terminology,,,, because i thought underground branches are also a part of roots,, infact i have seen inflorescence on the butresses of F. hispida in forest areas.. please help anyone…

i dont go by what is written in some foreign floras,, like F. hispida shows opposite leaves written in some book and i come across alternate leaf in Young stage of plant,, i will surely point out that difference… what i have seen in the field will surely point out whenever possible,,, i may have mistaken with some terms,, but still my question
remains, branches from the roots are not roots???
    hope i have taken any foto of that part,, will search and surely upload if i get that…

The reference which I used right now uses the word USUALLY and I added the word COMPULSORILY, because that was obvious.

    As for your query, frankly, I am to some extent still on your side because I still cant imagine what I had seen on Ficus semicordata was stem only. Because as I said in above post that it was leading to the base of the main trunk very clearly as it was very thick and almost 30 % of the cylindrical stem or root whatever it was, was above ground.
But the same reference justifies it differently.
But I am still searching more reference to confirm.
    My reference was from Trees of Northern Thailand. If you can acquire a copy of it, then trust me you will be happy to own this. I was gifted this on one of my birthdays by one of the authors of the book, Dr.
Anusarnsunthorn from Chiang Mai University. One of her students, Dr. Pranee Palee is one of my very good friends and she illustrated Figs and Oaks in the book.


request for ID …:
please provide ID for the 2 attached pics ….. are they same ??
NB – sample 1 , I have taken the shot at my friends place ….. I collected a branch of the plant & planted in my garden which died and dried….. after 2 months I suddenly discovered that a new plant (sample 2)  is born 100% exactly at the same place where I planted the branch …. are they same ???

2nd photo is Ficus hispida. not sure about 1st one


ID 210911:
Is this Ficus hispida?!!
Taken from quite a distance…

looks like Ficus hispida. Try break the tender stem and see whether the center is hollow or not? If
hollow most probably this is Ficus hispida.

yes Ficus hispida… ya the only Ficus with opposite leaf “in Maharashtra“.. there are more species of Ficus with opposite leaf but are exotics or outside Maharashtra.


Figs Of Bangalore – RA – Ficus hispida – Hairy Fig Tree:
Hairy Fig is a coarsely hairy shrub or small tree.

Ovate-lanceshaped stipules are usually 4, and are visible on leafless fruiting branchlets.
Oppositely arranged leaves, on 1-4 cm long stalks, are ovate, oblong, or obovate-oblong, 10-25 cm long, 5-10 cm wide, thickly papery, covered with coarse hairs.
Leaf base is rounded to wedgeshaped, margin is entire or bluntly toothed, tip is pointed.
Figs appear in leaf axil on normal leafy shoots, sometimes on leafless branchlets, solitary or paired, yellow or red when mature, top-shaped, 1.2-3 cm in diameter. Figs are covered with short hairs
Flowering: June-July.

identification no151112sn1:
Kindly help in identification of this plant. Looks like some Ficus sp.

date/time: april12
location: amby valley road lonavala/mulshi, pune
habitat: wild
plant habit: Tree?
height: about 12-15 ft.

This is Ficus hispida.


Request for ID 2:
one more post for Plant ID.

looks like Ficus hispida

Request Tree ID 146: Bangalore – RA – Is it golden hairy fig: (7 pictures)

Looks like Ficus hispida,

Agree with Ficus hispida L.f.

efi thread
This one differs from the above by its color

… me too with Ficus hispida.

I too feel, it is Ficus hispida. though one of the photos show fruit on the trunk like Ficus glomerata

I still feel there is some difference between the link, and the images in this thread.
This one is smaller fig, and darker green color, with yellow hairs,
the other one is bigger, lighter green, and colorless hairs
Leaves look identical.

When it comes to colour and size of figs, I think the variations are possible in some of the Ficus species.
Good example is Ficus racemosa; have seen as small as 15mm dia to 30mm dia with different colours and hues depending on stage of ripening.
This F. hispida too – have seen them – about as less as 20mm dia to 40mm dia; colours too varying.

There is also considerable colour variation in this species from golden yellow to medium green.


Ficus hispida : For ID Confirmation : Mumbai : 080713 : AK-1 : Attachments (2). 4 posts by 3 authors.
Picture taken on 12/9/2010.
Kindly confirm id.

Ficus hispida

Ficus hispida L.f. SN Feb – 25 :  Attachments (2). 1 post by 1 author.
Ficus hispida L.f., Fam: Moraceae
Common shrub or small tree near water bodies/ canals

Ficus hispida—-for sharing and validation : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1).
Pic taken at ambyvalley rd., lonavala, pune in mar 13


Ficus ID from Bangladesh SM072 : 7 posts by 3 authors.  Attachments (1 + 1).

May I request you to pl. post a bigger picture to see any details.

Please find the picture

The photograph send by you is tentatively identified as Ficus hispida L.f.

This looks like our very common DUMUR, a sort of weed, Ficus hispida L. f.

Hooghly-sept-sk11 : please id this Ficus sp : 6 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (7).
A 12 ft tree, common here, photographs recorded a while ago. (30.9.14)

This is a wild plant.

Seems to be Ficus hispida

Ficus hispida

Thank you Sir, it is a weed here.


Hooghly-sept-sk13 : please id this Ficus sp (3) : 5 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (2).
This is another young wild plant, with opposite leaves, photographed today.  (30.9.14)

this looks like Ficus hispida. 

I remember reading somewhere in Eflora that this is the only ficus with opposite leaves.

Ficus hispida


Hooghly-sept-sk12 : please id this Ficus sp (2) : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (5).
This is two wild young plants, with alternate leaves, photographed today.

This may be Ficus hispida (seedling stage). These alternate leaves later become opposite.

Sir, they may become opposite, may not be. Some seedlings have opposite from the very beginning, some both (last pic attached herewith).


Hooghly-sept-sk14 : please id this Ficus sp (4) : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (3).
This is yet another wild tree, about 18 ft. Leaves are like those of my previous uploads (a little while ago). Photographed on 9-April-2012. In the third pic the trunk of the tree is at the extreme right side.

May be Ficus lyrata?

Sir, I think this is Ficus daemonum Koenig.


ANDEC46 Is this Ficus hispida? :  8 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (4).

Chimmony Wildlife Sanctuary, Kerala
November 2014

Ficus racemosa, perhaps. In F. hispida, the leaves are usually opposite.

Thank you sir.
Here are the same set of leaves but shot from another angle where it can be seen that they are opposite.
Can you please confirm?

I think, F. hispida only

fruits are hanging on a long stalk… is that characteristic of either of these ficus trees?
last picture of the first set

Yes to Ficus hispida.

Ficus?/ABDEC40 : 3 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (4)
I initially thought it to be Goolar (Ficus racemosa) because of its fruit directly coming out of the trunk, but I am not so certain as its trunk was straight with little distortion. The leaves were slightly toothed and the fig had a milky sap. Please advise.
Dharamshala, HP
21 December 2014

Ficus hispida L. f., I think.

It may be Ficus hispida


For ID;Moraceae-130914,RT : 17 posts by 5 authors. Attachments (5).

Friends Please ID this fig-Moraceae.
Place-Thatekkadu bird sanctuary; Kerala.
Habitat-not sure wild or planted.
Height-20 ft.
Fruit clusters borne on very long drooping green stalks-upto 12feet.
Fruit size-1 inch.

Isn’t it Ficus hispida? (Or I have been thinking that it is for this long)

Does it look like –

  1. nhm ?
  2. plantillustrations ?

Thank you

It do look similar to the pic in link no.1  ;but as you can see from my pics the fruits are borne on very long stalks.

I think this is Ficus hispida.
Close up pictures of leaves would have helped.
The leaves are large, broad and has a very rough surface.

Sorry for not posting the close up of a leaf. It is not Ficus hispida– what we call ‘kattathi”with the characterstic leaf you have described.

Yes, Dada, I do agree very much, it is very unusual…. else our Ficus lovers would have identified it much earlier.
My guess was sort of wild, based on a couple of points though – 1) overall appearance 2) deciduous nature 3) appearance & size of figs….. far fetched imagination no doubt …. yet found two little support – i) the usual figs can be found in IMG_8869 and ii) one photograph donsmaps.jpg at the site http://donsmaps.com/yamcamp.html
I would be very happy to know the correct ID of this fig tree.

Three are at least 3 species with long drooping branches in phytoimages and one in plantillustrations, of-course exotic …. please see if matches, though I have doubt for discrepancies in either leaf or in fig.

Thanks a lot dear … Can be Ficus mauritiana; this is the closest id suggestion.

Please check whether the leaves are opposite or not. If it is opposite, it is Ficus hispida and if it is alternate it is Ficus mauritiana

To my understanding the chance of F. mauritiana is remote, if not absurd, but the KEY, alternate or opposite leaves, does not hold much value. Please check Prain or Haines.

Or Roxburgh too

Thilakan …, pics/images are there, but after a lot searching found only little description – bibdigital.pdf.

The photographs are identified as Ficus hispida L.f.

Thank you … for the update. Thank you … again, I am happy that the ID of your species has finally been more concretized.


Ficus hispida L. fil. (accepted name) ??? : 4 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (4)
Sharing some pictures I  guess is Ficus hispida L. fil. (accepted name) shot at Kurintar Nepal on 30 Dec 2013 at 900 ft.
Nepali Name: खस्रेटो Khasreto /  कोथ्या दुमरी Kothyaa Dumari /  टोटे Tote 

Looks Ok as per fruit images of … at Ficus hispida

Correct Nepali Names :
खस्रेटो Khasreto / ठोट्ने Thotne  / कोठाया डुम्री Kothaayaa Dumree 

SK167OCT28-2016:ID : 5 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (4)
Sharing some pictures of Ficus sp. for ID at Chitwan, Nepal on 10 August 2014 at 600 ft.

Pl. Check Ficus hispida

DSC 0233,0235,0236 and DSC 0237 confirmed as Ficus hispida L.f.


Ficus hispida L. fil. (accepted name) ?? : 5 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (5)
Location: Pokhara, Nepal
Altitude:  2600 ft.
Date: 27 July 2015

Does not appear to be this species.

The photographs are confirmed as Ficus hispida L.f.


SK417 12MAR-2017:ID : 4 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (5)
Location: Chobhar, Nepal
Date: 30 May 2016
Altitude: 4500 ft.
Ficus hispida L. fil.  ???

I think yes.

Ficus hispida L. f.


SK551 08 JUN-2017:ID : 5 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (5)
Location: 12 Mile, Kalimpong, India
Date: 23 May  2017
Altitude: 4000 ft.
Ficus ….???

Pl.  Search for Domur in bengali in efi site.

This is Ficus hispida L.f.

I agree with …


Ficus hispida L.f. ??? : 4 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (7)
Location: Thula Khet, Pokhara, Nepal
Date : 10 August 2017
Altitude : 2800 ft.

Yes sir, this is Ficus hispida L.f., a most common fig species in Himalayan hilly areas along with Ficus auriculata.


SK768 03 OCT-2017:ID : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (6)
Location :  Pokhara, Nepal 
Date : 13 August 2017
Altitude : 2600 ft. 
This too Ficus hispida L.f.  ??

Photographs are temporarly identified as Ficus hispida L.f. form.


Please visit  the link below  and browse down for the shloka. According to the information given here there are eight trees upon its plantation in eight directions; improves the fertility of the fields/farm.
It is Marthi newspaper “LOKSATTA”, have written down the names; for your immediate reference,
at East                       : Banyan (वड)
North                         : Chilla (पिंपरी )
North east(Ishanya)    : silk cotton tree         (काटे सावर )
West                           : Ficus religiosa Linn.( पिंपळ )
North west(Wayavya)   : Neem           (कडूलिंब )
South                          : Ficus hispida  ( उंबर)
South east (Agneya)    : Garlic pear tree, Caper tree,(वरूण  )
South west (Nairutya)  : Indian Cherry  (भोकर )
Courtsey: search engine, while confirming the english/commmon names for the above; came across this PDF file-book; since it was not found in the list compiled by.. ; have added the link below:
name of file: COMMON TREES, Dr. H. Santapau, INTRODUCTION


Ficus id:
Please help in identifying this ficus plant. Photographed at Worli, Mumbai

– This is Ficus hispida, the only species of Ficus with opposite leaves.

SK166OCT28-2016:ID : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (4)
Sharing some pictures of Ficus sp for ID at Naubise, Nepal on 9 August 2014 at 4300 ft.

I think there two species:
DSC 0011,0014 – Near to Ficus hispida L.f.
DSC OO12,0014 – Figs looks like Ficus variegata Blume
But all should be verified physically for final confirmation.

It is the same plant.

I agree with … They are different.

Images shot at same location and there was only one plant.
4 images shot at same time at 1118, 1119, 1120 and 1120 AM.
Ficus variegata is not listed in Nepal and the plant is not a big tree but small shrub type.
Remaining option is F. hispida.

This should be Ficus hispida L.f. (Leaves are opposite).

Images 11 and 14 confirmed as Ficus hispida L.f.

Images 12 and 13 need to be verified with leaves.


Makutta Ghat Karnataka
Date: 24 FEB 2017 … Elevation range: ~ 87 – 263 m (288 – 865 ft) asl
Dear friends,
Not sure whether just these two pictures of scandent shrub suffice to get us know ID even to genus level. The structure looks clearly like some fig (though may not be); it was quite far away and out of reach; could not get any better close up.

I think its a fruiting branch of Ficus hispida. Its the only fig in the Western Ghats which produces figs on such specialized leafless branches.

Thank you very very much … for the clarity and ID.
The fig sure looks like it. The branch of leaves in foreground misled me … I thought it belonged to the fruiting branch !!
Branch with leaves must be Calycopteris floribunda !!


Please identify naturllay grown rough leaves tree : 5 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (4)
Please help identify plant genus, species of attached plant.
Matured leaves are rough like sand paper. Matured leaf length is nearly 9 inch..
It is grown naturally. May be seeds dispersed by bird droppings.
Seems Ficus Hispida. Please confirm.

Location Mumbai, 09-Apr-2018.

To me also appear close. Pl. see Ficus hispida at /species/m—z/m/moraceae/ficus/ficus-hispida


I am posting images of Ficus sp. taken on 21june2018 from Panjab University, Chandigarh. Kindly help me in the id please..

Ficus glomerata

I find these more closer to images at Ficus hispida rather than those at Ficus racemosa (syn. Ficus glomerata Roxb.)

The photographs are confirmed as Ficus hispida L.f.

Plant ID: Ficus hispida L.f.

Yes sir its more close to Ficus hispida. Thank you very much..!!


Ficus for ID from Dalhousie-GS01022022-2: 7 high res. images.
Ficus for ID photographed from Dalhousie, 28-4-2015

Ficus hispida L.fil.


Is this Ficus hispida?: 7 images.
Date: 2022/Feb/13

Location: Manampathy Lake, near Chennai, Tamil Nadu.
May I know if this is F. hispida?



Tree ID Need help with this tree: 4 images.

I saw this tree near ITC Flyover, Cox Town, Bangalore.
Do you see the white bugs/infection on it? I’ve added photos and videos in this album link.
Also, wanted to know if this a Ficus family or Magnolia. Please help.

It is a Ficus species.

Ficus hispida looks like !


Requesting a tree id 210422-1: 2 very high res. images.
A handsome tree with cauliflorous figs.

Ficus hispida


Identification of Ficus from Sindhudurg:
Kindly help me identity Ficus species collected from Sindhudurg, Maharashtra. A plant with linear long separate branches with figs (climbing and on main trunk both show figs.)

Ficus hispida L.fil. !

Yes, possible as per images at


identify this ficus species: 2 images.

Ficus hispida L.fil.


Ficus hispida L.f. :: Thane, Maharashtra :: Mar 17, 2007 · JUN23 DV482: 2 images.

Ficus hispida L.f.
Thane, Maharashtra :: Mar 17, 2007 · 12:27 PM IST :: about 11 m (36 ft) asl
Many thanks to Radha Veach for correcting the ID at iNaturalist


Moraceae: Ficus hispida: 6 high res. images.
Ficus hispida from Andhra University campus, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh


Moraceae: Ficus hispida L.f.: 2 high res. images.
synonym: Ficus hispidioides S.Moore
location/date (both): Semadoh, Melghat Wildlife Sanctuary, Amravati Distr., Maharashtra, November 1994

I think it looks different from images at

Plant ID: Ficus hispida L.f.


Ficus sp. from Assam KD 20 Aprl. 24: 5 images.
Attached images are Ficus sp. from Assam. Please Id of the plants.
Date : 04.04.2024
Location: Assam
Family : Moraceae
Genus & species : Ficus sp.
Habit :   Tree

Ficus hispida L.fil.

Yes, appears close to images at

Attached images are of Ficus hispida L.f.




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