India (Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Peninsular region, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim), Australia, Bhutan, China, Indochina, Japan, Malesia, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Taiwan as per Synopsis of the Genus Ficus L. (Moraceae) in India Lal Babu Chaudhary*, Jana Venkata Sudhakar, Anoop Kumar, Omesh Bajpai, Rinkey Tiwari and G. V. S. Murthy-   Taiwania, 57(2): 193-216, 2012;
Laurel Fig, Chinese Banyan, Malayan Banyan, Indian Laurel, Curtain fig • Hindi: कामरूप Kamarup • Manipuri: খোঙনাঙ Khongnang • Tamil: Kallichchi • Malayalam: Itti, Kallithi, Ittiyal • Telugu: Plaksa • Kannada: Peeladamara • Konkani: Dhavidekgol;

Images by tspkumar


17-ID-TSP-25DEC2015-1: Ficus sp (Moraceae) for further ID : 4 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (5)

Kindly identify this Ficus sp. Could this be Ficus microcarpa….?? 

Habit: Tree 

Habitat: Dry decidous forest 

Sighting: Chikmagalur, Karnataka, about 1000 msl 

Date: 06-02-2015

Yes, it is Ficus microcarpa L. f.  

Ficus Species For ID : Ficus tinctoria? : Lalbagh,Bangalore : 27JAN17 : AK-12 : 15 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (4)
Ficus tree seen in Lalbagh in the first week of Jan.
Couldn’t find any fruits.
Is this Ficus tinctoria?
Experts, kindly validate.

It looks like Ficus retusa syn, Ficus microcarpa

Thanks … I was going by the link….
And … link from Bangalore….
Figs Of Bangalore – RA – Ficus tinctoria – Dye Fig Tree

your posted plant is not Ficus tinctoria,

Ficus microcarpa & Ficus retusa L. (Catalogue of Life) appears to be two different accepted names

Ficus microcarpa L.f.

In biotik.org F. retusa  L. is given as a synonym of F. microcarpa L.f.
If we read King, Talbot, Cooke as well as any number of older Floras this tree is known as Ficus retusa. In some more modern sources it becomes F. microcarpa. It is clear from descriptions that they refer to one and the same species.
Can you explain the differences between the 2 which have led to a change in the name?

Ficus retusa var. pisifera (Miq.) Miq. is given as a syn. of Ficus microcarpa L. fil. as per Catalogue of Life
The Plant List Ver. 1.1 also gives many varities & formas as a syn. of Ficus microcarpa L.f.

Yes, all this is available online.

This is something based on nomenclature principles; Principle III : Priority Principle [ICBN]
If a taxonomic group has been given two or more names, the correct name is the first name that meets the Code’s standards for publicationBasically, this means that the priority of a name dates from the time that it was first published and made known to other botanists.
e.g. in Ficus microcarpa

Ficus microcarpa L.f. [1782]
Ficus retusa var. pisifera (Miq.) Miq. [1867]
Ficus retusa f. parvifolia Miq. [1867]
Ficus retusa var. nitida King [1887]
Ficus retusa var. crassifolia W.C.Shieh [1963]
So, there are 5 different names for one species, if an author describes or reports a species with other name, submitted herbarium samples later studied and validated at Authorised Herbariums (viz. KEW, NYBG etc.) and later based on code’s standards and sample authenticity new names or synonymy decided.
Whereas, Ficus microcarpa L.f. and Ficus retusa L. both are distinct species [according to TPL].
According to Chaudhary et. al, It is said that F. retusa L. is a native of Java and does not occur in India (database of Grin, Tropicos, eFloras and Berg and Corner (2005)). The Indian materials are referred to F. microcarpa L. f. (Rao, 1986). However, after examining F. microcarpa L. f. and its allied taxa it has been felt that the Indian materials need to be re-examined from throughout their range of distribution to know the correct identity and occurrence of F. retusa L. in India.


Ficus benjamina L. ??? : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (5)- around 800 kb each.
Location: Kathmandu, Nepal
Date : 6 April  2017
Altitude : 4400 ft.

Sir, Photos are identified as Ficus microcarpa cultivar.

Ficus- 240417CSS-2 : 5 posts by 2 authors.
I have seen a ficus tree in Peddamandyam mandal, Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh. Please find attached the pictures as Unknown -2 

It is Ficus microcarpa L.f., of Moraceae

Ficus microcarpa L.f.

Ficus Species For ID : Lalbagh,Bangalore : 05MAY17 : AK-05 : 7 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (3)
This is another similar Ficus tree to the one posted by me earlier.
A huge tree.
Is this also Ficus microcarpa?
This is probably the same tree in Flowersofindia shown as Dye Fig. FOI

this is ficus microcarpa or ficus panda 

Thanks a lot … Then the id in Flowersofindia seems to be wrong.

need confirmation from other experts.

This is Ficus microcarpa L.f. not Ficus tinctoria subsp. gibbosa (Blume) Corner

Incidentally, I had the pleasure of meeting … during my recent visit to Nasik and also visit the Nature India Nursery, where we find only native plants.

Looks like Dye fig

This has been identified by … and earlier … as 
“This is Ficus microcarpa L.f. not Ficus tinctoria subsp. gibbosa (Blume) Corner”
The name in Flowersofindia seems to be wrong.


Ficus for Id-130512 – NS1:
plz Id this ficus sp. , photographed at Pune University Campus.
I couldnt spot any fruits.
Dated- 07.05.12

I could see figs in one f my pics. attaching cropped image.
Leaves- stalked, oval, dark green above and a little light green below.
Fig- Paired,reddish , appearing on leaf axil.

I am not sure, but could this be Laurel Fig (Ficus microcarpa)

Indeed its Ficus microcarpa only….


For ID :: DV :: 25 JAN 09 – 0941 :: Ficus ¿ microcarpa ? at Zirad:
Zirad, Alibag … about 50 ft asl
ID please.

Date & time: 25 JAN 09 … 09:41AM
Habitat: rural area, ¿ planted ? along road
Habit: medium sized tree, about 12 – 15 m high, fig 10 – 15 mm across

It look like F.microcarpa only…

I am convinced it is Ficus microcarpa.


Ficus ID from Bangladesh SM064 : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (4).

Habit: Tree
Habitat: Garden

Location: Dhaka City
Flowering: February

Ficus microcarpa


ANOCT06 Please identify this Ficus sp. : 7 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (3).

Nandi Hills
1st October 2014

More photos- Attachments (5)

It may be Ficus microcarpa.

Ficus microcarpa

Ficus microcarpa to me, is it in Garden/Park?

It was growing wild on a hill slope 60 kms outside Bangalore.


18-ID-TSP-25DEC2015-2:Ficus sp for further ID : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (6)

Kindly identify this Ficus sp. Could this be Ficus microcarpa again….?? 

Habit: Tree 

Habitat: Occurring by the road side in a deciduous forest block 

Sighting: Chikmagalur, Karnataka, about 900 msl 

Date: 07-02-2015 and 06-07-2014

Most Likely Yes


Request for ID- Yeralwadi 2 : 15 posts by 10 authors. Attachments (4)

Request for ID…
Photographed at Yeralwadi येरळवाडी, Dist. Satara सातारा, Maharashtra.
Date- 06th January 2010.

..A species of Ficus again… .. But lacking the fig characters…

Looks like Ficus mysorensis to me, but the back of leaves in your pics is not as pubescent perhaps because they seem to be new young leaves. Will post Pics for comparison separately.

Without figs but from leaves and short arial roots it can be F. amplissima

Looks much closer to F. microcarpa than F. mysorensis to me. Do we know the leaf dimensions?

Yes I also agree it looks much closer to F. microcarpa. The short roots hanging from branches and about 2 inches leaf petioles besides the shape matches more with F. microcarpa. Last Sunday saw what I think is F. microcarpa at Sagar upvan in Mumbai which also matches with this tree.

Thanks a lot … …so I am locking it as ‘Ficus microcarpa’

Ficus microcarpa L.f.


Ficus sp for ID help : Attachments (2).  5 posts by 2 authors.
Please helps me to identify this ficus species as attached here.

may be Ficus microcarpa ??????

Thanks … for your reply
But as per my observation, there is more similarity for F. obliqua.
needs experts comments

ok let us wait for further ids

Ficus microcarpa L.f.


Figs Of Bangalore – RA – Ficus tinctoria – Dye Fig Tree: 7 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (7)
Dye Fig is a climbing strangler, forming a tree with prop-roots, to 25m. Alternately arrange leaves, to 18×9 cm, are oval, glossy dark green above, pale green below, and have rounded tip and base. Leaves are often asymmetrial. Stalks are thick, to 1.5 cm. Fruit is a fig, appearing in leaf axils, usually paired, round, to 1.5 cm, ripening through orange to red or purple. The fruit of dye fig are the source of a red dye used in traditional fabric making in parts of Indonesia.


More- Attachments (3)

It appears to be Ficus retusa

This should be Ficus microcarpa L.f.


Ficus Species : 01OCT17 : AK-02 : 6 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (3)
Another set of old pictures, found while going through some folders.
Seen in a cultivated garden in Muscat.
Pictures taken in the month of January.

Ficus microcarpa OR Ficus panda

The photographs are temporarly identified as Ficus microcarpa cultivar ‘panda’

This should be Ficus microcarpa L.f., there is no species F. panda.

Request for ID : 050111 : AK-2: 1 image.
Taken at Muscat, Sultanate of Oman in one of the gardens on the 12th of November, 2010. A garden plant in the form of a small bush.

This could be Ficus jacquinifolia

Ficus jacquinifolia

For the above link please go through reconsideration for species for me this is not Ficus americana, this should be a cultivated variety of Ficus microcarpa L.f. (Green Island Fig – Variety) a popular bonsai fig variety in South East Asia and now in India.

Thanks …. I think you are right.

Although to me it looks more like Ficus microcarpa var. fuyuensis.
I have seen it at Jijamata Udyan in Mumbai too, in their Plant Nursery.


241211 BRS 281: (6 images) Pl. find the attached file contain photo of Ficus for species confirmation.

Location: PSGRK College, Peelamedu
Date: 24.12.2011
Habitat: Garden
Habit: Tree

Ficus benjamina L.

Is it Ficus nitida?

Looks different from images of Ficus benjamina

It looks like Ficus microcarpa, it is not F.benjamina

Thanks, … You appears to be right. Images look similar to those at Ficus microcarpa L.f.

This should be Ficus microcarpa




Attachments (5)

I think look close to images at Ficus microcarpa

Yes, Ficus microcarpa; F.amplissima leaf is different, it lacks aerial roots

This should be Ficus microcarpa (variety and garden name – Green Island Fig)

Ficus Id from Bangladesh_SM_1400 : 13 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (3)
Habitat: Along the river (freshwater)
Local name: Bot/ Jeen

Any chance of it beind Ficus concinna or is sub spp?

Could be Ficus concinna. I never seen it before, however in Bangladesh it (if Ficus concinna) has not been reported more than 100 years. However, I have found 2 big and one small tree of this species and observed epiphytic characteristics. Please fine more image.

6 images.

Request you to kindly check for these specific characters which should be present in Ficus concinna var.subsillis (that is found in Meghalaya); can see a few of these characters in the photographs but others need to be chkd in the specimen :
1. Leaves alternate – True
2. Leaves entire – True
3. Leaves narrowed, cuneate at base – not properly visible
4. Leaves 3-7 nerved at base – not properly visible
5. Stipules 6-10 cm long – not properly visible
6. Receptacle sessile – kndly verify from specimen
7. Receptacle not enclosed in calyptrate involucre – not properly visible
8. Receptacles black when ripe – not properly visible

Thank for your very significant remarks. I will check it out while conducting next field.

I think we are getting closer. However, since I am not very closely familiar with the spp, I would have to rely on the spp characters mentioned in the literature.
Request you to kindly get a sample of the specimen, take close up photos of all structures. This would be very good when the spp is flowering/ fruiting. Also you may cut the fls / frt and photograph those. Check for the ripe fruit characters as well.
If it has not been collected in the last 100 yrs, you may think of getting it published!!

The photographs are near to Ficus microcarpa L.f. which shows parallel venation of leaves, sessile small figs and produce numerous aerial roots. Some times these aerial roots become trunks like Ficus benghalensis.
Need to be verified physically.


It is a small to medium sized tree, some here and there available. mostly it will grow with some other tree or on rock. Ficus microcarpa is a big tree and leaves and figs are smaller. efi thread

I had already sent an email almost two years back for correction, FOI team had accidentally forgotten to correct.
This is Ficus microcarpa just seen last week at Lalbagh in Ficus section. 

Sorry …! Indeed your correction was not attended to. It was sent in May 2017. 🙂
Without good closeup of leaves and fruits, the existing pictures anyway do not convey much. So I guess they should be removed.
Ficus microcarpa is anyway represented at FOI.
Thanks to all for investing their time in examining this.

SK1459 21 Sep 2018 : 6 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (8)
Location: Lantau, Hong Kong 
Date: 14 August 2018
Elevation: 3000 ft.
Habit : Seems cultivated
Which Ficus ..??

Sir i think Ficus benjamina

This should be Ficus microcarpa.

Matheran Ficus : 5 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (6)
Please find attached picture of some Ficus.
Location: Matheran
Date: Mid December 2018

Leaves: Petiolate, Ovate. Apex is cuspidate, curved towards underside for leaf. Leaf base is roundish. Leaves has waxy coating which shine in sun with good reflexion. Leaves look are bit thick, leathery.
Phyllotaxy: Alternate, spiral.
Fruits: Two or one fruits are seen at auxiliary position of leaves. On ripening one fruit was yellowish.
Adventitious roots: Like all ficus tree, trunk has prop roots.

Thanks, …, Pl. check comparative images at Ficus

This should be Ficus microcarpa

don’t you need leaf dimensions?

Thanks … Compared the link Ficus you given, but, at time, could not conclude it as Ficus microcarpa, because attached pictures does not have such bright red leaves as in our Ficus link.
If looked carefully at attached DSCN7255_Scaled_CR.jpg, it seems red color still left into the leaves. It seems, young leaves were red and now they turned green. As per info in few books, red colors
are due to pigments to repel insects from foraging on leaves. And in December, there are no much insects available in nature. May be reason leaves are not very brightly coloured. Please correct if going wrong.
Leaf shape, venation, apex, petiole, leaf base exactly match with our Ficus link. Fruits are arising from auxiliary position of leaves in attached pictures and in our Ficus link.
So Ficus microcarpa is matching with attached pictures.

MS Feb,2019/02 Ficus sp. (retusa or microcarpa ?) for id/confirmation : 3 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (1)
Location : Lengpui, Mizoram
Date : 15-11-2012
Habit : Middle-sized evergreen tree
Habitat : Cultivated, also growing wild
Mizo : Ri-hnim

I think Ficus microcarpa

Ficus for ID :: Mumbai, Jan 2017 :: ARK2019-17 : 4 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (7)
This ficus was seen in a public park in Mumbai in Jan 2017. Requested to please ID.

Pl. check comparative images at Ficus

This should be Ficus microcarpa, for more confirmation it needs to be in fruiting stage.

Ficus Id from BD _SM 611 : 6 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (2)
Habitat : Wild Bush
Location : Saint Martin’s Island, Bangladesh
Fruiting: Jan,2019
Photo taken : Jan, 2019

Ficus curtipes ??

I am not sue as per images at Ficus curtipes

This should be Ficus microcarpa.

Pali near Khopoli, MH :: Ficus for validation :: ARK2019-61 : 5 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (4)
This ficus was seen by the roadside at Pali near Khopoli, MH in Aug 2019.
It was suggested that it was ‘Nandruk’ in Marathi or Ficus microcarpa.
Requested to please validate.

Ficus microcarpa

Ficus benjamina ??

Ficus microcarpa

You’re right …, F. microcarpa only,

at Sagar upvan (BPT) gardens, Mumbai on 21 Feb. ’10; in rocky area at an altitude of 900msl in Satyamangalam WLS: 09 Feb 2010;

Ficus for id 1002MK3 – efloraofindia | Google Groups
Ficus microcarpa – efloraofindia | Google Groups
tree for ID – indiantreepix | Google Groups

Ficus microcarpa – green figs :: Kanakeshwar, near Alibag :: 25 DEC 19 : 1 post by 1 author. 4 images.
Kanakeshwar forest  near Alibag
Date: December 25, 2019 … Altitude range: about 200 ft (60 m) to 1200 ft (365 m) asl
Ficus microcarpa  L.f.

Ficus microcarpa – orange-yellow fig :: Kanakeshwar, near Alibag :: 25 DEC 19 : 1 post by 1 author. 5 images.
Kanakeshwar forest  near Alibag
Date: December 25, 2019 … Altitude range: about 200 ft (60 m) to 1200 ft (365 m) asl
Ficus microcarpa  L.f.

Ficus : 6 posts by 3 authors. 2 images.
This leaf is from a tree growing on the rock face at Uma Maheswaram near Achampet, Telangana. Can you please identify the ficus tree? This tree is commonly found in nallamala in habitats such as Uma Maheswaram, Malala teertham, ahobilam where water is available almost throughout year. I do not have any other picture.

Ficus microcarpa only,

Please post the habit picture to correctly identify the species. Such postings lead to doubtful IDs (unconfirmed).

Please find attached.
Attachments (1)- 456 kb.

Yes, its microcarpa


Ficus for ID : Oman : 250612 : AK-2:
A cultivated Ficus, with tiny white fruits, the size of green pea.

The tree is of medium height.
Ficus microcarpa?
Kindly confirm id.

Looks like Ficus virens to me.
Pl wait for more comments.

Thanks for a possible id.
The leaves of this Ficus are much smaller in size, similar to Ficus benjamina.
Let us wait for more comments.

As per Trees of Delhi book, it appears to what you mentioned “Laurel Fig” Ficus microcarpa 

This could be Ficus microcarpa but white fig confuses me.

Yes, it’s, Ficus microcarpa

Ficus retusa: 4 high resolution images.
I wondered when I saw that there is no discussion on Ficus retusa in eflora of India. In fact,  as per my observation, it is one of the important species in the Ficus genus  and very  distinct from F microcarpa but often mistook as the same. I hope you’ll agree with me .

I agree with you,…

Yes, I agree with you sir

This is Ficus microcarpa L. fil., a common Ficus species found in Maharashtra and used as fodder species.
Ficus retusa L. is a species found in Java and South Borneo there is no natural record for this species in India.

Is Ficus microcarpa native species in India.

Ficus microcarpa and Ficus benjamina are non native species as far as Maharashtra is concerned. These two species used only in Gardening and avenue tree plantation.
Many sites have  mentioned that Ficus benjamina is called नांदरूक/ नांदरूख in Marathi .
But in reality Ficus retusa is called नांदरूक in Maharashtra. I have seen one specimen on a hill near Aurangabad MH. I don’t know whether it is natural or Planted.
I assume that photos I sent above are of  Ficus retusa, a large evergreen tree with hanging roots like Ficus benghalensis but so strong. Please confirm its identity.

Ficus retusa 

Please confirm the ID.
3 high resolution images.

As per Flora of Maharashtra state there is no record for naming नांदरुख to Ficus retusa L., but locally and in literature F. microcarpa has been described as नांदरुख, नांदुरि.
Ficus retusa L. is different species as species named “retusa” denotes retuse leaves, whereas in F. microcarpa has acute leaves.
The link below will help in providing a satisfactory identity and details about Ficus retusa L.:

This is Ficus microcarpa L.f.

Thank  you for providing me the above link.
I referred the link. My specimen do not match with Ficus retusa shown on the same. But now I came to conclusion that this is neither Ficus microcarpa nor Ficus retusa. Please correct me if I am wrong.


210509 Request for ficus species id from Mhow, Indore Dist MP: 2 high res. images.

As the combined size of both the attached photographs is above the upper limit of 8MB for our google group am taking the liberty of sending you this directly.
Apologies for any inconvenience caused.
2021/05/09 Request for ficus species id from Mhow Tehsil, Indore district, MP
Growing on a rock face near a perennial stream. No figs seen.
Could it be ficus microcarpa ?

Yes it’s F.microcarpa

Gadasi, Chinese banyan, laurel fig, बेलिया पीपल, फाँस, नांद्रुक |  Scientific name Ficus microcarpa.
In his book Jungle Trees of Central India Pradip Krishen shares some fascinating details about this species. Sharing a few:
“No other tree in our jungles compares with gadasi for its exceptional ability to grow and prosper on bare, impossible rock.”
“You are most likely to encounter gadasi growing in rocky ravines with water not too far below.” Pradip also adds that its aerial roots are poorly developed as compared to the banyan’s.


MS,Aug., 2021/11 Ficus sp.(microcarpa or retusa) for id.: 2 images.
Location : Ailawng, Mizoram

Date : 02-03-2019
Habit : Middle-sized tree
Habitat : Wild/ Cultivated

This should be Ficus microcarpa L.f. (=F. microcarpa var. nitida F.C.Ho)


Ficus Tree for ID from Las Vegas-02052022-1: 5 high res. images.
Please help with ID of this Ficus tree photographed from Las Vegas, 30-12-2010

Please check Ficus microcarpa L. fil.!

Yes, some possibility as per images at Ficus microcarpa

Ficus microcarpa


Id for Ficus sps.: 1 image.
Planted about 70 years ago growing in a village called Bhanvad Dist. Devbhumi Dwarka

It may be Ficus microcarpa પ્રાગવડ 🌿
Please add more image for final verification

Thank you … It is Pragvad only wanted to confirm the species. Will try to add more images as and when possible.



ID REQUEST : Ficus microcarpa ?: (Mixed thread): only one correct image as above.
Observation: 26/04/23. Riung District, Flores, Indonesia.
Description: All those photos have been identified as one single plant from the local guide (named Kekas in local language). It seems like it’s a Ficus species, maybe Ficus microcarpa ? But is it possible to have those kind of leaves polymorphism ? I was also thinking about Ficus virens and Ficus virgata.
This is a big tree, that has yellow little fig fruit and has a sour smell. It’s a kind of like banyan species has she has a lot of roots and can grow on rocks.
Habitus : Dry tropical forest
First ID : Ficus microcarpa

Not sure about the ID but looks other than F. microcarpa.

Here are three different species as identified Ficus microcarpa, Ficus virgata and Ficus virens.
There is no such leaf polymorphism in Ficus microcarpa where so much difference can be seen.
For vernacular names they differ for one or can be same for many.

I might think of Ficus virens as it is described by the local people as a strangler fig with yellow fruit when they are mature

It’s looks like the pictures are of different sps.

First image reflects Ficus microcarpa.
Second image is completely different from Ficus sps.
Third image is of Ficus concinna.
For more information go through the images attached



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