Flacourtia indica (Burm. f.) Merr. ((India: Throughout in dry thickets, scrub jungles, dry deciduous and mixed forests, up to 1200 m. Common; Widespread in S.E. Asia and tropical Africa) as per BSI Flora of India);
(China (Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan), Cambodia, India (widespread), Pakistan (Pakistani Punjab, Murree), Pakistani Kashmir (Mirpur), Jammu & Kashmir (Jammu, Poonch), Andamans, Myanmar [Burma], Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Laos, peninsular Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, Java (incl. Madura Isl.), Philippines (Luzon, Mindoro), Sumatra (Bangka Isl.), Lesser Sunda Isl. (Bali, Leti Isl.), Sulawesi, Lakshadweep Isl. (Laccadives), Senegal, Mali, Burkina Faso, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, Bioko Isl. (Fernando Poo), Sao Tome, S-Chad, Equatorial Guinea, Central African Republic, Congo (Brazzaville), D.R.Congo (Zaire), Angola, Gabon, South Sudan, Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, S-Somalia, Rwanda, ?Burundi, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa (Limpopo, North-West Prov., Mpulamanga, KwaZulu-Natal, E-Cape Prov.), Namibia, Botswana, Madagascar, Comoros, Puerto Rico (I), Bahamas (I), Hispaniola (I), Jamaica (I), Virgin Isl. (I), Colombia (I), Society Isl.(I) (Tahiti (I), Moorea (I)), Cook Isl. (I) (Rarotonga (I)), Mauritius (I), Runion (I), Seychelles (I), USA (I) (Florida (I)), Trinidad & Tobago (I), Honduras (I) as per Catalogue of Life)
Flacourtia inermis Roxb. (Cultivated) ((Probably a native of Malaya, cultivated in some parts of Maharashtra, Kerala and elsewhere for the acidic fruits seems to be good for jams and pickles) as per BSI Flora of India)
Flacourtia jangomas (Lour.) Raeusch. ((India: Frequently semi wild in Brahmaputra Valley and adjoining areas in the North-east (probably originally from Bangladesh-Assam-Upper Myanmar), elsewhere cultivated. Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Assam, Meghalaya, Manipur, Tripura, Orissa and Andhra Pradesh; Widely cultivated in S.E. Asia and E. Africa) as per BSI Flora of India)
Flacourtia latifolia (Hook. f. & Thomson) T. Cooke ( (India: Semi evergreen and moist deciduous forests of Western Ghats, up to 1200 m. Maharashtra, Karnataka and Kerala) as per BSI Flora of India)
Flacourtia montana J. Graham ((India: Semievergreen and moist deciduous forests of Western Ghats, up to 1000 m (1800 m). Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala) as per BSI flora of India)
Details & keys In Flora ofIndia Vol-2 by BSI with distribution : The account of Flacourtiaceae is written by R.L.Mitra. This
1- Flacourtia helferi Gamble ex Ridley (India: Assam (Sibsagar, Moriani forest). Rare; Myanmar (Tenasserim))
2- Flacourtia indica (Burm. f.) Merr. (India: Throughout in dry thickets, scrub jungles, dry deciduous and mixed forests, up to 1200 m. Common; Widespread in S.E. Asia and tropical Africa)
6- Flacourtia inermis Roxb. (Probably a native of Malaya, cultivated in some parts of Maharashtra, Kerala and elsewhere for the acidic fruits seems to be good for jams and pickles)
3- Flacourtia jangomas (Lour.) Raeusch. (line diagram provided) (India: Frequently semi wild in Brahmaputra Valley and adjoining areas in the North-east (probably originally from Bangladesh-Assam-Upper Myanmar), elsewhere cultivated. Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Assam, Meghalaya, Manipur, Tripura, Orissa and Andhra Pradesh; Widely cultivated in S.E. Asia and E. Africa)
4- Flacourtia latifolia (Hook. f. & Thomson) Cooke (India: Semi evergreen and moist deciduous forests of Western Ghats, up to 1200 m. Maharashtra, Karnataka and Kerala)
5- Flacourtia montana Grahams (India: Semievergreen and moist deciduous forests of Western Ghats, up to 1000 m (1800 m). Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala)
7- Flacourtia rukkam Zoll. & Mor. (A native of Malaya, sometimes cultivated for the edible acidic fruits palatable by rubbing between palms)
No Flacourtia seems threatened in India as no species is mentioned in Red Data Book of Indian Plants by Nayar and Sastry (1987-90).
As stated by K.M. Matthew in his Excursion Flora of Central TN: The phenology of this tree (Flacourtia ramontchii) changes with altitude gradient; i.e., smallest in deciduous zone (lower), Medium at ca. 750msl, and exceptionally larger ones in sholas.
Some authors like Matthew accept this species (Flacourtia ramontchii) as distinct while some others consider it a form of Flacourtia indica. This is a high altitude replacement of the latter species, and quite distinct and its a tree with no spines on branchlets (only trunk spiny). F. indica is always a shrub of scrub jungles with prominent spines on branchlets.
Keys as per efloras of China:
F.indica: Pistillate flowers: ovary globose, placentas 5 or 6; styles 5 or 6, united only at base, radiating, 1-2 mm, slender. Fruit dull to blackish red, globose, 8-10 mm in diam
F.jangomas : Pistillate flowers: ovary bottle-shaped to globose, 2-3 mm; styles 4-6, united into a distinct column ca. 1 mm, not or slightly free at their apices; … Fruit brownish red or purple,….1.5-2.5 cm in diam.
Acc. Flora of BSI Mah (As per efi thread):
Styles absent (stigma sessile)… F. latifolia
Styles distinct and conspicuous:
Tomentose young twigs; leaves turning brown on drying …. F. montana
Glabrous young twigs; Leaves not turning brown …. F. indica.
From Cooke’s flora. the size of flower is a good additional differentiating character.
Drupe size of a cherry; scarlet when ripe ……………………….F. Montana
Drupe size of a plum; purple when ripe………………………..F.cataphracta (Syn. of Flacourtia jangomas (Lour.) Raeusch. as per GRIN)
Drupe size of a pea;
Stigmas 5-11…………………………………………………………F.ramontchii (syn. of Flacourtia indica as per GRIN)
Flora of Peninsular India with keys at species links:
Flacourtia indica var. innocua (Odisha- Puri nad Cuttack district)- syn. of Flacourtia indica (Burm. fil.) Merr. as per POWO
Species with description & pictures in Flowers of India as on 10.2.14:
Minor Fruit Crops of India: Tropical and Subtropical By Bibhas Chandra Mazumdar (2004)- Details-
Indian Medicinal Plants: A Compendium of 500 Species, Volume 3 : Details with keys–
Forest Plants of Eastern India By Amal Bhusan Chaudhuri (1993)-
An Excursion Flora of Central Tamilnadu, India By K. M. Matthew (1993)-
Flora of Guntur District, Andhra Pradesh, India (2000)- Details-
Indian Encyclopaedia, Volume 1 edited by Subodh Kapoor (2001)-
Flacourtia inermis Roxb.
Gardening in India By George Marshall Woodrow, G Marshall (1999)-
Flacourtia inermis Roxb.
Flacourtia : 3 posts by 2 authors.
I have updated eFI (efloraofindia) page on Flacourtia
Attempts have been made to incorporate most of the species available in India & nearby areas with details & keys directly or through links as far as possible. It’s quite possible that there may be some discrepancy in the accepted names & synonyms taken from other links.
Species discussed so far in efloraofindia are given at the bottom of the page in the form of links against Subpages. On clicking them one can see all the details.
If someone can provide complete list of Indian species with source references it will be wonderful.
Any comments/ corrections are welcome
I have added list of species of Flacourtia in India.
Salicaceae (including Flacourtiaceae) Fortnight: SALICACEAE basics (1) : 11 posts by 6 authors.
Family Flacortiaceae has following genera and species as per BSI Mah.
Apart from the native ones there are some other cultivated species too.
Species pages & genus page of Flacourtia are now with images : 1 post by 1 author.
Species pages & genus page of Flacourtia are now with images. I request you to pl. go through & point out mistakes, if any. I hope this will aid in identifications in future. If anybody can send images of other species of this family (for incorporation in the website), if any, or can identify unidentified images, it will be really nice.