Ethiopia to Somalia, Socotra, Saudi Arabia (Sajid I.), Pakistan to China (Sichuan, Yunnan), Sri Lanka: Bangladesh, China South-Central, Ethiopia, India, Myanmar, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Socotra, Somalia, Sri Lanka as per POWO;
Bangladesh; China South-Central; Ethiopia; India; Saudi Arabia; Socotra; Somalia; Sri Lanka as per Catalogue of life;

bushweed, cool pot, Indian snow berry, thermacole plant, white honey shrub • Hindi: ¿ ऐंटा ainta ? • Konkani: parpo • Malayalam: ചെരിംക്ലാവ് cerimklaav • Marathi: पांढरफळी pandharphali • Sanskrit: भूरिफली bhuriphali, पान्डुफली panduphali, श्वेतकम्बुज shwetakambuja • Tamil: வறட்பூலா varat-pula, ள்ளைப்பூலாஞ்சி vellai-p-pulanci • Telugu: పులుగుడు pulugudu;

Keys in Flora of Pakistan:

1 A graceful shrub or small tree; branches usually reddish-brown, unarmed; leaves commonly more than 2.5 cm, obovate, rounded, obtuse or subacute Flueggea virosa
+ A rigid shrub; branches pale grey or whitish, thorny; leaves rarely exceeding 2.5 cm, often obovate-spathulate, sometimes retuse or obcordate Flueggea leucopyrus


A simple key from Dr. Almeida’s flora Vol IV-B pg 350:
1. Unarmed; leaves 2.5-8cm long —— Fluggea obovata (now Flueggea virosa)
2. Spinous; leaves rarely exceeding 2.5 cm long —-
Fluggea leucopyrus
As per efi thread :
Duthie in his document Flora of Upper Gangetic Plains has also mentioned these two species and differentiate them as-
Unarmed; leaves 1-3 inches long ………… F. microcarpa (now Flueggea virosa)
Spinous; leaves rarely exceeding 1 inch long ……… F.leucopyrus
He has mentioned its (F.microcarpa) distribution in Bengal also.
Spines in F.leucopyrus are not distributed all along the branch but slender angular branchlets ends in a sharp spine;
As per efi thread:
F.virosa has small prickles, but it not prominent in its life cycle, prominent in leucopyrus.


Flueggea leucopyrus Syn. Securinega leucopyrus
Observed on Vetal Tekdi Pune. Flowers tiny often missed but the white fruits are unmistakable.

I think so.


Flueggea sp. for ID??? – 02122013-PKA2 : Attachments (7). 8 posts by 4 authors.
This Shrub was spotted near Lonavala.
Pedicels were very short, almost sessile, flowers were 2 to 3mm in size. Could this be some Flueggea sp. (Family: Phyllanthaceae).
Date/Time: 1st December/ 10:30AM.

I am almost sure that it is Flueggea virosa, For me, the leaves are enough to confirm its identity

What about Maytenus rothiana?

If the flowers are 2-3 mm, then leaves are about 1 cm (pls confirm), branchlets are terminating in spines, pedicels are shorter than 1 cm. This is female plant of Fluggea leucopyrus.

Yes. Branchlets are ending into spines. Hence it is Flueggea leucopyrus and not F. virosa. Thanks to …

Yes it looks more like Flueggea leucopyrus. I was referring to my earlier pictures and made a wild guess. One important point mentioned here by …: Male and female flowers look very different. Here I can notice the ovary like structure rather than some stamens indicating a female nature of the plant.


Goa, May 2014 :: Requesting ID of this shrub/climber :: 19JUN14 :: ARK-35 : 5 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (4 + 1).
Requesting to please ID this shrub/climber growing wild by the roadside in Aguada, Goa in May 2014.

This is Securinega leucopyros [Pandharphal]. My photographs of this are available at these links :
Google Groups
Google Groups

You are most welcome. Sending one more photograph.

However, Flueggea leucopyrus has branches ending into spines. This character is clear in the photos.


Flueggea leucopyrus Willd SN 05 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (2).

Flueggea leucopyrus Willd, spinous shrub near Bangalore,
it is a common plant, image is looking nice, for this sake it is uploaded.

identification no 07012015sn1 : 3 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (4)
Wishing a Happy New Year and many more milestones in 2015!
some id. help please.
location:ambyvalley rd., lonavala, pune
plant habit:shrub?
height:5-7 ft.

Flueggea leucopyrus Willd.(= Securinega leucopyrus (Willd.) Müll.Arg), Euphorbiaceae

Yes it is Flueggea leucopyrus Willd. It’s another species with white and dry, 6 lobed fruits is F.microcarpa.


Flueggea leucopyrus Syn. Securinega leucopyrus.
Family : Phyllanthaceae… Earlier Euphorbiaceae.
This shrub is very common on Vetal tekdi and surrounding areas Pune. Many a times white fruits are observed but flowers are elusive. Yesterday I found many shrubs in the area with profuse flowering. Most of the flowers visible in my picture appear to be male flowers. In earlier thread in … pictures few female flowers can be observed.

I am attaching my pics of Flueggea leucopyrus
Shot from Madlouda Panipat where this plant was growing wild in roadside area. With height of about 7-8 feet it was a spreading shrub. Pls validate

Are you sure it is the same species. The flowers look quite different.
On second thought it seems that the flowers in my pictures are mostly male while in yours mostly female showing the stigmas and the ovaries below them.
Please share your thoughts.

… shrub definitely looks like Securinega leucopyrus [Fluggea leucopyrus], but if what … postulates is right, then his [female] flowers are much smaller than mine [photograph 3].
Sending a few of my photographs.
7 images.

… being dioecious shrub, thus separate: male and female plants.
… photo shows male plant … … and …, female plants.
Please correct me if wrong.

There seems to be some ambiguity here. What I meant was…. if … and mine are both female flowers then there seems to be a major size difference between the two.

Checking for a close species Flueggia virosa may help. (F. virosa available in the group’s archive)

after observing leaf size i also concluded that mine plant is F. virosa.
size of leaves varies from 2.5 to 7 CM whereas in F eucopyrus it is less than 2.5. leaf size in my plant’s case is about 7 cm. In F leucopyrus branchlets ending in spines

i think Flueggea obovata

Yes … it is synonym of Flueggea virosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) Royle is an accepted<http://www.theplantlist.org/about/#accepted>  name

efloraindia: 221011 BRS 70:

Pl. find the attached file contain photos for id. request.
Date/Time-Location- 15.10.2011,
Place, Altitude, GPS-Mangarai to Anaikatti Road Near Ashram.
Habitat- Wild
Plant Habit- Shrub

This plant seems to be Flueggea leucopyrus Willd. [Securinega leucopyrus (Willd.) Müll.Arg.]

Yes it appears to be Flueggea leucopyrus


Shrub 12 for ID plz.:
This image was taken in Chennai, South India …by the road side….about 7-8 ft in height….many plants in the area….branches spreading out….

Looks like some Securinega

yes, May be S. virosa???????

From the size of the leaves – this looks like Securinega leucopyros [Fluggea leucopyros]. My photographs of this for comparison are avilable in the archives of this group.

I also think this as Securinega leucopyros.


Euphorbiaceae fortnight :: Phyllanthaceae :: 05112013MR17 Flueggea leucopyrus from Pune –MR17 : Attachments (2). 4 posts by 3 authors.

sharing images of Flueggea leucopyrus from Pune
I had posted this small shrub earlier for Id at
This shrub has not flowered till date

Nice photo and correct identification.


Wild shrub for Id-230512-NS1:
This shrub was photographed today, near Darawali village ( Dist- Pune).
It has very attractive white fruits.
Shrub height- appx 8-9 feet
Leaves- Oval shaped, stalked, 3-4 cm long, Stipules present.
Fruits- Drupe, white.
Plz identify.


10012013 BRS 436:
Pl. find the attached file contain photos for identification.
Location: Sathy, Erode Dist.,
Date: November,2012
Habitat: Wild
Habit: Small tree.

This is Flueggea leucopyrus Willd. (syn. Securinega leucopyros) of Euphorbiaceae.
Tamil name: pulanji

Yes I agree with … Flueggea leucopyrus

For ID 020713GK : Attachments (4 + 5). 8 posts by 5 authors.
Kindly help in identification
Throny, woody bush found on wasteland.  Solapur
Pictures taken on 29June13, 7AM.

How about Flacourtia sepiaria Roxb. ?

It looks like Flueggia sp. syn Securinega.

Spelling should have been Flueggea not Flueggia.

This is species of Securinega (Fluggea)

are two species commonly found in Maharashtra & adjoining region
and they becomes distinguish by using the below characters as shown in
1. Branches spine tipped; female flowers solitary or 2-3 per glomerules ……. S. leucopyrus
1. Branches without spine tipped; female flowers 3-10 per glomerules .……… S. virosa

ID is doubtful, as the fruits of this species  are white and appear in bunches .  Even the  pictures when compared to those in flowersofindia.net  differ.  Need to wait till the fully formed photographs of fruits are  posted.

The identity is as follows:
Flueggea leucopyrus Willd., Sp. Pl. ed. 4, 4: 757. 1806; Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 5: 328. 1887.

Additional photographs from same plant.

Flueggea leucopyrus Syn. Securinega leucopyrus. The species name indicating white fruits.


Euphorbiaceae fortnight :: Phyllanthaceae :: Flueggea leucopyrus in Thane & Mumbai :: DV60 : 12 images. 3 posts by 2 authors.
Flueggea leucopyrus Willd. Phyllanthaceae, Euphorbiaceae s. l.
at Vaghbil and SGNP between JUL 07 – JUN 12



Euphorbiaceae Fortnight: Flueggea leucopyrus from Chennai BRS 015 : Attachments (2). 5 posts by 3 authors.
Sharing the images of Fluegga leucopyrus from Chennai.
This species I also noticed along the Sathyamangalam Forest Division.

Good photographs.

Flueggea leucopyrus : 4 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)- 1 Mb.
Flueggea leucopyrus

Yes to me also appear close to images at Flueggea leucopyrus

In case you need confirmation then the reply is yes.


”For Id 20122011MR1’’ shrub local language called kata mata Pune  : 
Kindly Id this small shrub growing wild on the border of a well at Pune

Dec 2011
Leaves Type/ Shape/ Size- green
no flowers or fruits
The care taker said it is called kata mata and is very useful to heal even the deep lacerating wounds
There was a fence around the well so I could not go closer for dimensions of the plant

Looks like one of the Flueggea species. Need flowers and fruits photographs for correct ID.

I does look like Flueggea leucopyrus.

Many thanks … I looked up … pics on Flowers of India now I know what to look for. The flowering season falls in April. I will remember to look for flowers and fruits then

Flueggea leucopyrus.


Climber for Id (i) :  8 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (3 + 4).  

Flowers minute, could not focus properly on it.
Photo taken in Bangalore on 15th May

It seems Flueggea leucopyrus Willd. (Securinega leucopyrus (Willd.) Muell. Arg

Some more photos

Retuse leaf tips and white stem confirms the identity as Flueggea leucopyrus Willd

It is not clear whether the branches are ending in spines.

Thank you all. tapas sir, i went back to where i found the plant and i checked and confirmed that they do end in spines.

Thank you very very much. There are opinions that spines do not develop at high altitudes. Please see the key characters of the species in Fl. of India vol. 23. I got the species with the leaf apex but I was waiting for confirmation.


Plant for Id – ID19122017SH1 : 7 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (2)

Plant for Id pl.
Location – Chiplun (Maharashtra)
Date – July 2014

Excellent images of Flueggea leucopyros.

Correct spelling: Flueggea leucopyrus 


For id 090718 VB3 : 7 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (3)
Date:- 27-06-2018
Place:- Kinhi, Parner, A.Nagar (MS)


Male flowers of a Flueggea sp. [Phyllanthaceae]. This appears to be Flueggea leucopyrus Willd.

I was hesitating to call this as Flueggea leucocarpus as I have never seen such elongated male pedicels.

Spelling: leucopyrus.

I guess correct ID by …


VB KINHI 4 : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (3)

Date:- 27-06-2018
Place:- Kinhi, Parner, A.Nagar (MS)

Identified as Flueggea leucocarpus in another post. 

Bush for ID, Vikarabad, Telangana NAW-DEC18-02 : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (4)
Kindly identify this bush with minute greenish white fruits. Bush about 2 metres in height. Photographed in September 2018 on a farm near Vikarabad, Telangana.

Perhaps Flueggea leucopyros.

Thanks, …, for the id. To me also appears close to images at Flueggea leucopyrus

Flueggea leucopyrus :: Puducherry :: 15 OCT 19 : 15 posts by 5 authors. 2 images.
Puducherry  near sea coast
Date: October 15, 2019 … Altitude range: about 0 – 3 m (0 – 10 feet) asl
Flueggea leucopyrus  Willd.

Why not Flueggea virosa ?

I do not have any reason to put forth.
The plant looked to me as Flueggea leucopyrus.
Do please let me know, if you believe it as Flueggea virosa; will correct my notes accordingly.

Because there are some indications that branches are ending in spines.

Thank you very much … I have corrected my notes accordingly.

As per … indication, I think it should be Flueggea leucopyrus only.

Oh, okay, … Will revert my notes.

I am following … on Flickr.

Thank you very very much …
I am doing my best to keep and make it error free to best of my belief, but I can always mistake.
Please correct me whenever you notice any error.

Woody Shrub for ID Rajasthan NAW-JUN16-02 : 4 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (3)
Kindly identify this woody shrub growing on a rocky hillock in the Ajmer District, Rajasthan. Photographed in April 2015.
Leaves about 1.5-2 cm long. Shrub about 1 metre in height.

I think its Securinega virosa (Euphorbiaceae).

I think the id by … is correct.

I feel it should be Flueggea leucopyrus, as per images and details herein.

Flueggea leucopyrus..


Flueggea leucopyrus—for sharing and validation :  1 post by 1 author. Attachments (2)
pic taken at Aambyvalley rd., Lonavala, Pune in July 14.


MS/JULY/2020/1 : ID of the tree. : 8 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (4)
Please ID the tree. Photos received from Tamil Nadu. Looks like Anogesis latifolia ?

How about Flueggea sp.?

First I thought so but the pictures are not clear and comparing the images it looked like Anogeisis. More over it is supposed to be a tree. I am waiting for few more closeup photographs. Now it is 50:50 situation !

Not any Anogeissus as per comparative images and details herein.

Appears to be Flueggea leucopyrus as per keys and details herein, as per genus suggested by …

Yes. It is Flueggea leucopyrus only. I received the photographs of fruits (received through whatsapp) which confirmed the ID. But I deleted it by mistake.


Plant2 for ID – Chikmagalur: 10/4/2021: 5 images.

Please help ID this plant. It was photographed in Chikmagalur.
Wild plant, about 4 feet in height, no flowers or fruits.
Location: Chikmagalur
Date photographed: 10/4/2021

Fluggea virosa

As the plant is armed, it should be Flueggea leucopyrus, as per keys herein.

Oh yes. Thank you very much

NO way …, Even virosa also has spiny when it’s young, then will grow as branches,

I think … can better clarify in this regard being an Expert on this family.

Need id assistance of JNU Campus plant12.04.2015SP : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (3)

I need id assistance of following three images belonging to a single taxon.
Date of Collection: 12.04.2015 (flower) & 28.04.15 (fruit)
Locality: JNU New Campus forest

Likely to be Flueggea sp.

I agree with … Flueggea virosa indeed.

Can it be Flueggea leucopyrus Willd. due to rigid branches as per keys at Keys in Flora of Pakistan ?

Possibly Flueggea leucopyrus, as judged from the first image.


Shrub For ID : Borgad Conservation Reserve : Nasik : 04AUG15 : AK-9 : 09/09 : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (2)
Shrub seen at the reserve last month with tiny green berries.
Fluggea Species?
Id please.

This is Flueggea virosa (Phyllanthaceae)

Can it be Flueggea leucopyrus Willd. due to rigid branches as per keys at Keys in Flora of Pakistan ?

Flueggea leucopyrus.





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