Flueggea virosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) Royle, Ill. Bot. Himal. Mts. 328 1836. (Syn: Acidoton virosus (Roxb. ex Willd.) Kuntze; Flueggea angulata Baill.; Flueggea arborescens Bojer; Flueggea comorensis Bojer; Flueggea obovata (Willd.) Wall.; Flueggea sinensis Baill.; Flueggea virosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) Baill.; Phyllanthus virosus Roxb. ex Willd.; Phyllanthus virosus Baillon; Securinega comorensis Bojer; Securinega virosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) Baill.; Securinega virosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) Pax & K. Hoffm.;                               Acidoton griseus (Müll.Arg.) Kuntze; Acidoton obovatus (Willd.) Kuntze; Acidoton phyllanthoides (Baill.) Kuntze; Bessera inermis Spreng.; Bradleia dioica (Schumach. & Thonn.) Gaertn. ex Vahl; Cicca obovata (Willd.) Kurz; Cicca pentandra Blanco; Conami portoricensis (Kuntze) Britton; Diasperus hamrur (Forssk.) Kuntze; Diasperus portoricensis Kuntze; Drypetes bengalensis Spreng.; Flueggea abyssinica (A.Rich.) Baill.; Flueggea angulata (Schumach. & Thonn.) Schrank; Flueggea microcarpa Blume; Flueggea obovata (Willd.) Wall. ex Fern.-Vill. .; Flueggea phyllanthoides Baill.; Flueggea senensis Klotzsch; Phyllanthus angulatus Schumach. & Thonn.; Phyllanthus dioicus Schumach. & Thonn.; Phyllanthus hamrur Forssk.; Phyllanthus leucophyllus Strachey & Winterb. ex Baill.; Phyllanthus lucidus Steud.; Phyllanthus obtusus Schrank; Phyllanthus polygamus Hochst. ex A.Rich. [Illegitimate]; Phyllanthus portoricensis (Kuntze) Urb.; Phyllanthus reichenbachianus Sieber ex Baill.; Securinega abyssinica A.Rich.; Securinega grisea Müll.Arg.; Securinega leucopyrus Brandis; Securinega microcarpa (Blume) Müll.Arg.; Securinega microcarpa (Blume) Pax & K. Hoffm. ex Aubrév.; Securinega obovata (Willd.) Müll.Arg.; Xylophylla obovata Willd.) as per The Plant Lists given in references at the bottom;
Africa, Tropical & Subtropical Asia: Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Borneo, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Mauritania, Mozambique, Mozambique Channel I, Myanmar, Namibia, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Oman, Philippines, Rwanda, Réunion, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Socotra, Somalia, South China Sea, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, West Himalaya, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe as per POWO;
Keys in Flora of Pakistan
1 A graceful shrub or small tree; branches usually reddish-brown, unarmed; leaves commonly more than 2.5 cm, obovate, rounded, obtuse or subacute Flueggea virosa
+ A rigid shrub; branches pale grey or whitish, thorny; leaves rarely exceeding 2.5 cm, often obovate-spathulate, sometimes retuse or obcordate Flueggea leucopyrus


A simple key from Dr. Almeida’s flora Vol IV-B pg 350:
1. Unarmed; leaves 2.5-8cm long  —- Fluggea obovata (now Flueggea virosa)
2. Spinous; leaves rarely exceeding 2.5 cm long ——
Fluggea leucopyrus
As per efi thread :
Duthie in his document Flora of Upper Gangetic Plains has also mentioned these two species and differentiate them as-
Unarmed; leaves 1-3 inches long ……… F. microcarpa (now Flueggea virosa)
Spinous; leaves rarely exceeding 1 inch long …….. F.leucopyrus
He has mentioned its (F.microcarpa) distribution in Bengal also.
Spines in F.leucopyrus are not distributed all along the branch but slender angular branchlets ends in a sharp spine;
As per efi thread:
F.virosa has small prickles, but it not prominent in its life cycle, prominent in leucopyrus.

large bush or small tree for id mm1 090911:
this small tree or large bush, varying from five to seven feet tall was growing commonly on road sides in goa
photographed towards the end of july
would be grateful for an id

Flueggea leucopyrus or any near species of Flueggea.

Agreed, but it looks more like Securinega virosa.

I think … is correct this plant has more similarity with Securinega virosa

I agree with  … Flueggea virosa rather than F.leucopyrus
I think somebody has posted this recently (probably …)

Yes … Flueggea virosa as leaves appears to be more than 2.5 CM


Flora of Panipat: Flueggea virosa from Sodhapur Panipat:
Flueggea virosa from Sodhapur Panipat
Wild Large Bush both male and female plant

Very interesting…  on the net at some sites I learned that The roots and fruits are believed to be an effective snakebite remedy and is  larval food for Charaxes butterflies.

At wiki I found that this is perhaps “native” indian? plant , and wiki did not have photos, only a BW line drawing from the following book: D. Brandis, Illustrations of the Forest Flora of North-West and Central India, 1874  The illustration must be from before 1874… I find that very interesting…. I Am enclosing the bw line drawing published in wiki…
This image (or other media file) is in the public domain  because its copyright has expired.* This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons. ommons is a freely licensed media file repository.
The figure itself is reduced from tab. 54 of D. Brandis, Illustrations of the FOREST FLORA OF NORTH-WEST AND CENTRAL INDIA, 1874 published by Kurt Stüber, http://www.biolib.de and the book is at http://caliban.mpipz.mpg.de/brandis_flora_of_india.pdf

Attaching an image of Flueggea virosa.The fruits are relished by some birds.

Attaching an image of Rufous Necked Laughingthrush with a fruit of Flueggea virosa on its beak.


EfloraIndia_261212PD05_Securinega virosa_Flora of Odisha]:
please find the images of Securinega virosa taken from ranpur, Nayagarh.

Name: Securinega virosa
Family: Euphorbiaceae
Place of collection: Ranpur, Nayagarh, Odisha
Habit: Shrub to small tree, up to 4 ft
habitat: Moist deciduous forests


Tree for ID : MNP,Mumbai : 100812 : AK-1:
Pictures taken on 22/7/12 in Maharashtra Nature Park, Mumbai.   A small tree, spreading out with very tiny white flowers. Id please.

I think this is Securinega virosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) Baill.

I think it is (a male plant of) Securinega virosa, too.
S. leucopyros usually has spine-tipped branchlets and smaller leaves.
The accepted name as per The Plant List is Flueggea virosa.

I had been to the park today.
Checked the same tree.There are no berries so it could be the plant with male flowers as suggested.


Attaching an image of a male Common Palmfly butterfly on the flowers of Floeggea virosa.

Attaching an image of a Redvented Bulbul on the fruits of Flueggea virosa.

Hooghly Today : Flueggea microcarpa Blume (Bengal Plants) : Attachments (8 + 2 + 3 + 1). 17 posts by 5 authors.
I think this is a shrub. But as i said earlier that villagers often cut or prune weeds, making it difficult to ascertain the status of a particular plant.
According to FoC it maybe Flueggea virosa (Roxburgh ex Willdenow) Voigt, Hort. Suburb. Calcutt. 152. 1845.
According to The Plant List and FoP it might be Flueggea virosa subsp. virosa.
Found no Bengali name.
Fruits are soft and juicy.

Nice set of photographs … The fruits similar to that of Flueggea leucopyrus.

While searching the ID of this plant, yesterday, i read the FoC and FoP. Both of those efloras inform that Flueggea leucopyrus is spiny (FoC) or thorny (FoP).
Did i miss the thorns/spines in reality? Or the plant itself lacks those? I grabbed one plant to take closer picture and didn’t feel any spine.
I was rechecking the high resolution images i have in my folder (i can send you). I think the blackish tipped small growths are stipules, in my species.
Bengal Plants has only one Flueggea.
Fl. Br. Ind. informs F. leucopyrus is distributed in “The Punjab Plain, Deccan Peninsula, from Canara southwards, Burma, Ceylon.”
I am not sure if some of F. leucopyrus have reached West Bengal in the past hundred years.

I have seen Flueggea leucopyrus which has white fruits similar to ones shown here (Hence the name) but the plant is not thorny. It may be Flueggea virosa with its synonym Flueggea microcarpa.
I have not seen the plant any time. Thanks for sharing ..with your clear observations.

Flueggea microcarpa is distributed throughout India, as per FBI-
  1. Book link
  2. Book link
Links of FoP and FoC –
May also like to visit –
  1. http://plantillustrations.org/species.php?id_species=442452
  2. http://plantillustrations.org/species.php?id_species=442479

Any further input?

Duthie in his document Flora of Upper Gangetic Plains has also mentioned these two species and differentiate them as-

Unarmed; leaves 1-3 inches long …… F. microcarpa
Spinous; leaves rarely exceeding 1 inch long ……. F.leucopyrus
He has mentioned its (F.microcarpa) distribution in Bengal also.
Spines in F.leucopyrus are not distributed all along the branch but slender angular branchlets ends in a sharp spine.
Both of these species are mentioned growing in Kumaon but I have seen only F.microcarpa which is a small shrubby plant and resemble closely to your plant.


This is a very nice and clear key.
As far as thornyness of the F.leucopyrus is concerned I believe that these are the sharp ends of the branchlets and not modified stipules or scales similar to what … has mentioned. So these are not true thorns.

Thank you very much.
As for shrub or not, Bengal Plants informs Flueggea microcarpa Bl. is a deciduous large shrub or tree weed.
As for thorns in F. leucopyrus you can check Flora Indica – Book link

Yes the book says same what I believe about thorns..”They may be called spinous tipped branchlets ”

Congratulations …, long ago i have admitted your power of observations.
But, why should the branchlets always be lengthy? Shouldn’t there be some short branchlets. just as have been illustrated in the bottom left of the plate in http://plantillustrations.org/illustration=150671?

Attaching few my pictures (3) of Securinega leucopyrus in flowering.
My analysis: A Shrub generally doesn’t have a single trunk. Classic case here. I have seen most of theses plants like this These branch like things arising from main stem/trunk/trunks are long often drooping. They produce small branches so probably called as branchlets in the said book. They have few leaves and never long what you are asking for….. Why the tips are thorny??? I can’t answer that. Protection mechanism …may be. Anyway the artist who has made this illustration seems to be good one preparing it so perfect.

Have you ever seen what happens to a tree or a shrub when its main trunk is cut at the very base?

Come on … Why are you asking such questions?
Let nature take its own course when some external forces are applied. We are interested here in something else…………..

ok Satish Sir, let’s return to the root issue. Which species is my plant?

Bengal Plants equates Flueggea microcarpa Bl. with two F. I. plants – Phyllanthus virosus and P. retusus. Let’s see what FI informs ( i will copy salient features i need to id) –
1) P. retusus R. : shrubby, berries pendulous, pure white, six seeded, seed two in each cell, or in all six, separated in to pairs by pulpy partitions
2) P. virosus Willd. : middle sized tree, berries succulent, white, pendulous, six seeded, fleshy pulp, three celled
3) P. leucopyrus Kon.: shrubby, armed, berry dry, six seeded. And you have reminded me what the name suggests
Now, you can tell us what you have observed about berries in your plant.
I have just taken a couple of snaps for your perusal

In the illustration of F.leucopyrus, the branchlets ends in thorn. Thorn is a modified branch or shoot. Whereas the ‘spine’ is a modified leaf or its part or even stipules. I have seen F. leucopyrus, which is one of the common members in a deciduous or semi evergreen forests in Kerala often with thorns. Accidently I came across the same species in evergreen forests , where the thorns are absent and ends with leafy branches. This may not be a constant taxonomic character (It is my opinion only).

Thank you Sir, Now i will be able to learn some abc of botany. Pity on FoC, they do not have you in their board.

Flueggea microcarpa Blume (?) from Kamrup district, Assam :  Attachments (11).  3 posts by 2 authors.
Attached images may be Flueggea microcarpa Blume (?) collected from Kamrup district, Assam. I have gone through Flueggea microcarpa Blume of … Images. I have found one interesting character in my species is that the young branches bear spines at the base of the leaf which are not found in old branches. So please ID the species.
Date : 20.05.2013
Location: Kamrup district
Family : Phyllanthaceae
Genus & species: Flueggea microcarpa Blume (?)
Habitat: Grows wild on hilly slopes.
Habit : Shrub
Flower : Not seen
Fruits : White in colour

efi page on Flueggea virosa (Syn: Flueggea microcarpa Blume)

It is Flueggea virosa ( syn Flueggea microcarpa).

Hooghly Yesterday : Flueggea microcarpa Blume, revisited : Attachments (9). 1 post by 1 author.
not thorny
not spiny
not prickly
not aculeate
not tubercled

Flueggea virosa (Roxb. Ex Willd.) Royle is a common dwarf shrub in Pantnagar.
Originally a small tree this plant adopt a shrubby appearance due to regular lopping of stem here.

Flueggea virosa. Good photos.

EUPHORBIACEAE FORTNIGHT:: Flueggea virosa? from Panipat for validation NS-13 : Attachments (6). 4 posts by 3 authors.
This is a common bush  of roadside shrubberies in our area (Panipat), this was identified as Flueggea virosa (Syn. Securingia virosa).. wanted to confirm if this is rightly identified..

Flueggea virosa.

Euphorbiaceae Fortnight : Phyllanthaceae : Flueggea virosa : MNP,Mumbai : 091113 : AK-58 : Attachments (3). 2 posts by 2 authors.
Seen at Maharashtra Nature Park, Mumbai.

Well. Okay.


Euphorbiaceae Fortnight : Securinega virosa : For ID Confirmation : Nasik : 101113 : AK-61 : Attachments (1). 3 posts by 2 authors.
Securinega virosa seen growing wild in Nasik.
Kindly validate.

Flueggea virosa.


Attached images are Flueggea virosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) Royle from Assam.
Date :20.05.2013
Location: Kamrup district

You are right.

Flueggea leucopyrus ???— 02122013- PKA1 : Attachments (7). 9 posts by 5 authors.
I had seen this Shrub here in Mumbai in June. Could this be Flueggea leucopyrus??

No. The inflorescence is very different.

I think Yes.

I was confused. It is indeed Flueggea virosa

I had also posted one more Flueggea (from Lonavala). The flower pedicel in my lonavala post were very small (almost sessile) where as the one i had posted here is having pedicels close to 1cm.
Is it that these are two different sp. of Flueggea

It a widespread and very variable species.

Leaves larger 3-5 cm (?), branchlets not terminating in spines, pedicels longer 1 cm. This is male plant of F. virosa.

Thanks … for the inputs. Good learning experience. Clear male flowers.
Plant Characters indicating F.virosa.

F.virosa seems very variable; so much so that male and female flowers may be on same plant (as I have seen here in Pantnagar) or may be on different plants as in this case (as indicated by …). The expert may have the final word.


Konkan, May 2014 :: Requesting ID of this shrub :: 01JUN014 :: ARK-03 : 5 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (7).
Requesting to please ID this shrub captured near Devgad, Maharashtra in May 2014.
Is it Euphorbiaceae?

Looks like some Phyllanthaceae sp.. Check for Flueggea

It looks like Flueggea virosa but the small spinules on the branches are puzzling.  Let us wait for the opinion of the expert on this genus.

Let me express my opinion. Unfortunately due to my frequent transfers, I lost the reprint on the monograph of Fluggea sent to me long back by Late G. L. Webster. However I confirm that it is not F. leucopyrus and it indeed represents F. virosa a variable and widespread species.  Even I have seen capsular and drupaceous fruits in this species. However, the prickles are never recorded on the branches and I myself have never seen it. Could it possibly represent a new variety on this character. Let the photographer decide it.


Tree for ID : Nashik, Maharashtra 23June : PP01: 8 posts by 5 authors. Attachments (3).
Plz Identify the tree.

Glochidion sp

In fact Glochidion has sessile and connate anthers.  It is therefore some other genus.

The leaves are like Flueggea virosa but the doubt is, the pedicels and filaments are longer that usual.  Nothing else comes to mind for the present.

Kindly ckeck the plant the morphology plant does not resemble with the Glochidon

Flueggea virosa

… can wait for the fruits to come up. Flueggea virosa has distinct white fruits, which are relished by birds. Attaching an image of a fruit bearing branch of Flueggea virosa. Attachments (1).


Fwd: SYMBIOSIS : 964 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1)
Attaching a collage of Jungle Myna feeding on the fruits of Flueggea virosa (DALME/ PATALA)


ID KANNUR 10  : 13 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (2)
Please identify this shrub.
Probably Euphorbiaceae from Kannur District of Kerala.

Most probably species of Flueggea.

This is identifiable to Breynia androgyna. However, please check whether the branchlets are winged.  In that case this will be B. saksenana, an endemic species occurring in Kerala which can be confirmed with certainty if male flowers are available.

Thanks, … But the images at Breynia androgyna look different from the posted plant. Also I could not find any image of Sauropus saksenanus Manilal, Prasann. & Sivar. (syn. of Breynia saksenana (Manilal, Prasann. & Sivar.) Chakrab. & N.P.Balakr.) on searching.

I know … As per suggestions of …, it is Flueggea which may be so but I am hesitating to call Flueggea as I am not seeing typical leaf venation. It is really sometimes difficult to assign names to images especially incomplete ones lacking flowers or fruits as in the present example. If flowers were there, then we could have assigned the name accurately.

Pl. check with the species we have so far in efi:

If this is Flueggea, then I will choose F. virosa.


Fwd: SYMBIOSIS : 965  : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1)
Attaching a collage of Asiatic Pied Starling feeding on fruits of Flueggea virosa (DALME/ PATALA).


Fwd: SYMBIOSIS : 966  : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1)
Attaching a collage of Red Vented Bulbul feeding on the fruits of Flueggea virosa.


identification of plant  : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (2)
I need help to identify the plant. please assist me identifying the below plant

Is it same plant or two different plants ?
Pl. furnish the details like place, date & wild/ cultivated for proper id as per Posting Guidelines
As per another thread:
F. leucopyros will have branches ending up in strong spines which I don’t see. If Flueggea then it should be F. virosa.


unidentified plant : 6 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (2)

I am unable to identify the below-photographed plant. please assist me to identify the plant
location: Pune
leaves:  Alternate, obcordate leaves with an entire margin, emarginate leaves
fruit: Drupe
flower: Axillary, solitary


F. leucopyros will have branches ending up in strong spines which I don’t see. If Flueggea then it should be F. virosa.


What is the name of this plant? : 6 posts by 3 authors.

Plant look like this – CLICK HERE
Leaf of the plant look like this – CLICK HERE
Sorry, I don’t find any flowers to capture the picture.
It is growing in South India.
Month of photo taken: June 2017.

Links are not allowed as per Posting Guidelines. You have to attach the images.
Also mention the place (instead of South India) accordingly.

I think this are new plants created in 2017 naturally.

But looking forward. which category will they place this plant.
Since I am owner of this plant, I want my name included in its scientific name.
Place: Vizag
Date: June 2017.
They are no flowers while capturing the picture
Attachments (2)

The leaves are similar to Flueggea virosa.

My plant leaves are very light but Flueggea virosa has dark green leaves.

Further I’d impossible with this sterile material. Please try to post images with flowers and fruits.


Nepali names of Flueggea virosa (Phyllanthaceae) : 3 posts by 3 authors.
Please let me know the Nepali names of Flueggea virosa.

Could not find !

I found the following names and wanted to confirm the same..
Flueggea Virosa: Nep.: Darim Pate, Phalame.

So far I know Darimpate is for Rosa sericea and Phalame for
Myrsine semiserrata and Rhamnuus virgatus.
Could you please take me to the source?

I do not now remember as to how I came across these names for F. virosa. May be through some literature.
Should I delete them?

Some of the plants have common Nepali Names like Phalame for 2 plants.
May be that is correct but could not authincate.

Could you please check the following links ?

Thank you.
I included these names in the Flora of India, Volume 23 from some source.
You are right.  Most probably these names are there in the Flora of Bhutan.
I will check the same in a few days in the Library of CNH.

Fwd: OBSERVATION : FLUEGGEA VIROSA FRUIT/HORNET/WASP/ANT : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1)
I have recorded different bid species feeding on the fruits of Flueggea virosa (PATALA).The fruits are sweet with a distinct flavor. But in the attached collage hornets, wasps and ants are gathering fructose from the ripe fruits of the plant.

Mumbai, MH :: Plant for ID :: ARK2020-020 : 6 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (6)

Saw this plant in a marshy area in Charkop, Mumbai, MH in October 2019.
Is this some Flueggea species?
Requested to please provide ID.

Yes, it’s Fluggea virosa,

Thank you … for the ID.
This plant has some small prickles, is this the case for F. virosa?

Yes, Flueggea virosa.

Thanks, …, What about small prickles on the stem ?

F.virosa has small prickles, but it not prominent in its life cycle, prominent in leucopyrus, I collected both sp. in Andhra Pradesh,


Tree for ID : Nashik, Maharashtra 23June : PP02 : 6 posts by 6 authors. Attachments (2).

Poor photos. Perhaps male flowers of Glochidion ellipticum with six sepals

Yeah it looks like Glochidion ellipticum

Or Flueggea sp.

it is Securinega sps

Please go through Flueggea virosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) Royle

Thank you for your mail. Yes, Flurggea virosa.


Need help with the id of this shrub : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (2)- around 900 kb each.
shot in bhopal on 6/5/2020.

Fluggea virosa, Phyllanthaceae,


I’d request : 13 posts by 3 authors. 4 images- 2 to 6 mb each.
Request for I’d of a wild shrub from Bilaspur. Photographed in July 2020.

A close up view of the axillary inflorescence attached.

Habit image attached.

Looks like Phyllanthaceae family member.

Yes …, I also think that it belongs to Phyllanthaceae.

Yes, I too agree with Phyllanthaceae …, take a look for Fluggea sp.,

Fluggea has white fruits, fruits are green in this plant.

In Fluggea, not ripened fruits are green only,

Can this be Bridelia tomentosa? Just a guess.

There is no that much long peduncle in Bridelia,

I will check when the fruits ripen.

Yes … the ripe fruits are white. Seems to be Flueggea virosa.

Yes, …, You’re right,



Identity of a plant from Goa:
Please do the needful

I guess some Euphorbiaceae member

This may be Flueggia virosa (female plant). Flowers in the picture not very clear, though.

Securinega leucopyrus (WILD GUESS)

I too think that this belongs to Euphorbiaceae family and might be very close to species of Fluggia, as … suggested. A clear picture of flowers would be helpful for confirming species.

Flueggea virosa



EUPHORBIACEAE FORTNIGHT:: S hrub for id from Chakrata NS-34 : Attachments (6).  9 posts by 6 authors.
This shrub was shot from Chakrata.. please help to id..

Phyllanthus reticulatus!

I am unable to identify this plant. Phyllanthus is a difficult genus and you need to dissect both male and female flowers and also sometimes it is also necessary to see the mature fruits also.

It somewhat looks like a young Securinega virosa. Pl check this link
Of course, this is just a guess!

Thanks for your kind inputs …, to me the proposal by … is not just a guess… this is really quite convincing…..

May be Flueggea virosa young plant also.

Lovely tiny flowers Thank you … for shearing this beautiful flowers

Flowers of Euphorbiaceae are rather inconspicuous. Not at all beautiful.

You’re right …


DV :: 14APR12 – 0733 :: armed woody shrub at Sagar Upvan:
Place: at Sagar Upvan, Colaba, Mumbai.
Time: April 14, 2012 at 7.33am
Habit: woody shrub, armed
Habitat: garden
Plant height: about 4 – 6 ft

Could this be a species of Flueggea of Phyllanthaceae family.

…. many thanks … Very convincing lead.

Fluggea virosa

Thank you very very much … for the ID !!! I have updated my notes at flickr.


Bead-like fruits from Buxa Tiger Reserve:

seen these bead-like white fruits inside the Buxa Tiger Reserve of North Bengal. (Himalayan foothill forests).
Attaching a pic of the leaves too for identification.
Pic taken on 10th June 2011.
what fruit is this?…plz help with the ID.

This could be Flueggea sp. of Phyllanthaceae family, probably Fluggia leucopyros

Supporting …

It could be Flueggea virosa but the leaves are so different.

I think Flueggea virosa only as earlier suggested by Tapas ji, as leaves are quite variable as per images herein. Flora of China says:
leaf blade elliptic, oblong, obovate, or rotund, 2-5 × 1-3 cm, papery, base obtuse to cuneate, margin entire, slightly revolute when dry, apex rounded to acute, mucronulate, white-green abaxially; lateral veins 5-8 pairs. “

Flueggea virosa subsp. virosa

ID required of tree from Pakistan : 4 posts by 3 authors. 8 images.
Dear experts, this tree is planted on jinnah garden lahore Pakistan, photos were captured today. Please identify this tree.

Flueggea sp., most likely F. leucopyrus. You check it against key and descriptions here
and let us know.

Thankyou … It resembles with Flueggea leucopyrus.

I think this is Flueggea virosa as per images and details herein.

Plant ID assistance SD01 : 9 posts by 5 authors. Attachments (5)
Please assist with plant ID.
Clicked near Kathlour Wildlife Sanctuary, near Gurdaspur, Punjab

Difficult to id with these low resolution images.
May I request you to pl. post original images.

The image IMG6 with the leaves reminds me of a Flueggea sp. Just a guess

Flueggea virosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) Royle ?

Thanks, …, for the initial id. Why not Flueggea leucopyrus ?

I also think F. leucopyrus.

I think this is Flueggea virosa as per images and details herein.

The leaves are similar to Flueggea virosa.


Bush For ID : Way to Kodaikanal : 300614 : AK-59 : 7 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (1).
An old picture of mine.

Recent discussion on Flueggea virosa reminded me of my picture.
This was taken growing wild, on way to Kodaikanal on 22/10/08..
Can this be Flueggea virosa?

Interesting plant. Is this from a scrub-land habitat?

This picture was taken when we were travelling from Munnar to Kodaikanal, by road on a mountain slope.
Not Flueggea virosa?

Yes, it seems to be Flueggea virosa.

To me it seems to be Flueggea virosa.

Plant ID from Bangladesh SM149 : 3 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (2).
Habit: Shrub
Habitat: Wild
Location: Bandarban
Fruiting: June

This is a Flueggea sp.
May be F. leucopyrus..

Flueggea virosa once again, a portean and variable species.


Sinhagad, Aug 2014 :: Requesting ID of this plant :: ARKAUG-12 : 6 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (4).
Requesting to please ID this plant captured at Sinhagad, Pune in Aug 2014. Is it some Flueggea species?

This is Pandarphal [Securinega leucopyros]. Please check the archives of this group for my photographs of this.

Any species of Breynia ?

Flueggea virosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) Royle (= Securinega virosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) Baill.)

Thank you …, I assume, since the branches do not seem to end in spines and they do not have spines, this is Flueggea virosa?

Fluggea virosa : For Validation : Bangalore : 04DEC14 : AK-11 : 6 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (5).
Seen in Bangalore on 29/7/14.
Experts kindly validate.

Going through … posts, is this Flueggea leucopyrus?
efloraofindia:34915] NATIVE :: Phyllanthaceae (leaf flower family) » Flueggea leucopyrus

Flueggea virosa ssp. virosa.

Thanks for validation.
What will be the common names?

Hindi: Dalme, Patala; Kan.: Bili-horli, Gada hallae; Mar.: Pandhar-palli, Perinclavu; Nep.: Darim Pate, Phalame; Tam.: Irubulai, Karumpoola-chedi, Varadbula.


ID request – 311214PC 1 : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (3).
Kindly identify this shrub growing outside JNU campus in Delhi. It was flowering in the month of August.

Flueggea leucopyrus, perhaps.

I think it is Flueggea virosa as F. leucopyrus has branches ending in spines which is not the case here.

Thank you …. for the identification. Seems to be a male plant.


Flueggea virosa : For Validation : 05AUG15 : AK-10 : 10/10 : 5 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (3)
Is this Flueggea virosa?
This was seen on way to Nasik growing wild on 30th June,15

Yes …, The obovate strongly nerved leaves and the axillary globose berries are giving the identity.

Thanks for the validation of this Flueggea.

A correction.  The fruits are not berries but drupes and tardily dehiscent.


Flower for Id- ID14032016SH2 : 9 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (1)
Id of a flower pl.
Location –Chiplun, Maharashtra
Date – July 2014

…, these are fruits of Flueggea leucopyrus.

Is it karvand? Which turns pink and gradually dark red ?

No …, this is not “करवंद”. This is “पांढरफळी” fruit. Securinega leucopyrus is synonym of Flueggea leucopyrus. as identified by …

Securinega leucopyrus

Fluggea virosa in fruits.

Yes, Flueggea virosa in fruits.  F. leucopyrus represents a form of relatively drier habitats wherein the branches are ending in spines.



Id plz SR1, June 2106 : 3 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (3)

Can anyone help me Id this shrub
Picture taken at Amboli MH
may 2016

What about Flueggea leucopyrus?

Lack of prominent spines gives benefit of doubt to F. virosa.
See the attached image.
Attachments (1)

EUPHORBIACEAE WEEK — Fluegggea revisited:
Are Flueggea virosa and leucopyrus one and the same ?

   For some time i believed that the pics attached here are those of Flueggea leucopyrus.  This specimen had grey-whitish branches, unarmed, except the ends of lower branches were spine tipped.  But chancing upon .. comment  (1st link  ) that  the spine tipped branches would be an indicator for which species, I re-checked the descriptions from the links below.
To my inexpert view , the two species descriptions are really close, and even overlapping; except for leaf size and the F.virosa leaf being mucronate, but according to one ref. even F.virosa may infrequently have spine-tipped branches. Pictues and illustrations avlbl online also seem to overlap wrt leaf blade /apex shape
Is presence of spine tipped brances  a definitve identifier, at least for the Indian species?  And are there other differences ?

– Would like to inform that as per Kew Plant List Fluggea species are now in the family Phyllanthaceae.  The species under discussion are two distinct species :
I) Fluggea leucopyrus Willd. (accepted name ) syn- Securinega leucopyrus (Willd) Muell-Arg
2) Fluggea virosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) Royle (accepted name ) syn – Securinega virosa (Roxb.ex Willd.) Pax. & Hoffm.

   Your picture appears to me as Fluggea virosa due to the description you have given of spines only in the lower main branches, and I can see small lenticular specks on the bark which is indicative of the species. In Fluggea leucopyrus the branches are somewhat straggling, branchlets angular, slender, and ending in sharp spines.
   A simple key from Dr. Almeida’s flora Vol IV-B pg 350:

1. Unarmed; leaves 2.5-8cm long—- Fluggea obovata (now Flueggea virosa)
2. Spinous; leaves rarely exceeding 2.5 cm long —-
Fluggea leucopyrus

– Attaching type specimens from  Kew herbarium of both the speices under discussion.

– Please note the correction in the generic name, it should read as Flueggea


Flora of haryana- Fluggea obovata From GT Road Bye pass Karnal near DWR fields:
Fluggea obovata
family Phyllanthaceae

Now it is almost clarified that this plant was correctly idfied but with old name as new name is Flueggea virosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) Royle


Id please: Ichalkaranji, MH:
Please help id this attached sapling tree.
Its auto sprouted in Ichalkaranji, MH.

Fluggea virosa, if possible send main tree pics


DKV Species ID Request for 210712: 1 image.

Requesting species id.
Plenty of these coming up in our garden. 
Is this Cleistanthus collinus by any chance?
Location Mhow, Dist Indore, MP

Please check Flueggea sp.

Fluggea virosa

Phyllanthus? : Attachments (1)
Please help my friend to id this plant.
Seems to be a species of Phyllanthus
collected from Road side Kasargode Kerala

I would rather think of Flueggea but the branches are sterile.

A personal communication from …:
If it is Phyllanthus, then “reticulatus“.
Kindly try to mention the stature of the plant while making a post!

I am extremely sorry … I haven’t got much information for the plant that is why I was not able to mention the details.
I shall try collect more information regarding the plant.
Thanks to … for yor kind efforts.

I think close to images at Flueggea virosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) Royle


Please identify: 1 image.
Please help me identify this plant.
I don’t have much details except that the plant can be seen growing near fields in Nashik District Maharashtra

I think it should be Flueggea sp.

I think it is close to the images at Flueggea virosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) Royle

Yes, Fluggea virosa,


Shrub: 1 high res. image.
I would like some help identifying this shrub being used as a nest by a bird
Location: Kaziranga National Park

It reminds me of Flueggea virosa [Phyllanthaceae].



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