IUCN Red List Status: Vulnerable (VU)
Garcinia indica (Thouars) Choisy , Prodr. 1: 561 1824. (Syn: Brindonia oxycarpa Thouars; Garcinia purpurea Roxb.);
butter tree, Goa butter, Indian tallow tree, kokam, red mango • Gujarati: કોકમ kokam • Kannada: ಮುರ್ಗಿನ murgina, ಪುನರ್ಪುಳಿ punarpuli • Konkani: भिरींड bhirind, कोकम kokam • Malayalam: കാട്ടമ്പി kaattampi, കൊക്കം kokkam • Marathi: भेरंड bheranda, भिरंड bhiranda, कोकंब kokamba, कोकंबी kokambi, रातंबा ratamba, रातंबी ratambi, तांबडा आंबा tambada amba • Oriya: tintali • Sanskrit: वृक्षामला vrikshamla;
gar-SIN-ee-uh — named for Laurent Garcen, French botanist who was active in India
IN-dih-kuh or in-DEE-kuh — of or from India
Endemic to: India (Konkan and Western Ghats); elsewhere cultivated
Edible use:

… pulp of ripe fruit (as FRUIT) … used for making sherbat
… pulp of slightly under-ripe fruit (as VEGETABLE) … used for making sol kadi served along with meal
… dried rind of fruit (as SPICE) … preferred substitute for tamarind in kitchens of Konkan
Clusiaceae (garcinia family) » Garcinia indica
Synonyms: Brindonia indica, Garcinia purpurea
gar-SIN-ee-uh — named for Laurent Garcen, French botanist who was active in India
IN-dih-kuh or in-DEE-kuh — of or from India

Endemic to: India (Konkan and Western Ghats); elsewhere cultivated
Edible use:
… pulp of ripe fruit (as FRUIT) … used for making sherbat
… pulp of slightly under-ripe fruit (as VEGETABLE) … used for making sol kadi served along with meal
… dried rind of fruit (as SPICE) … preferred substitute for tamarind in kitchens of Konkan





garcinia indica: Garcinia indica or kokum growing in the wild on a road side cliff in Goa
The tree was laden with fruit, a lot of which had fallen on the ground

It makes such lovely Kokam Sharbat. Very tasty and very good for health. In summer better to have this. or Limbu ( Lemon) Sharbat than to have any cold drink. The syrup can be easily made at home.
the left out pieces from Sharbat can be good candy to eat too

Garcinia indica (Thouars) Choisy (vernacular name: Kokkam) of Clusiaceae family.
The kokkam juice or sarbath is attributed to have properties to cure blood. Lots of anti cancerous drugs have been identified from the fruits recently.
A glass of juice made by putting the dry pericarp (fruit wall) overnight and consume it in the morning (empty stomach) is the practice among people in central Karnataka.





Garcinia indica: Garcinia indica photographed today ( 03.11.11) at herbal garden of BVP University , Pune.
It has flowering season of November-Feb. But it has no flowering till now.

nice and one of my favourite plant, plant fruits in month of april to may, so i guess it should flower during feb to march.. anyways thanks to plant it keeping you busy..

Nice to see this Kokum tree.
It is a coomon useful tree of Konkan. In Mayur colony Pune at least two trees are present in private bungalow.
I suppose the tree is dioceous….Male and female flowers on different plants? The male plant will not produce any fruits.

Garcinias can be recognized (in the absence of flower/fruit) in the field by their horizontal branches, yellow sap (when you slightly cut the bark), and leathery leaves.
There is a flower bud (or young fruit) near the top in the second picture. Somehow the leaves look different (from G. indica) to me. May be a variation?


Trees of Lalbagh, Bangalore – Garcinia indica – kokam Tree:  Kokum is a tree with a dense canopy of green leaves and red-tinged tender emerging leaves.

It is indigenous to the Western Ghats region of India, along the western coast.
The tree is large and handsome, having elliptic, oblong or oblong-lanceolate, deep-green glossy leaves, 5.5-8 cm long and 2.5-3 cm broad. The flowers are fleshy, dark pink, solitary or in spreading cluster. 
The fruit is brownish or brownish-gray, marbled with yellow, and is crowned by the 4-parted, stalkless stigma. There are from 6 to 8 seeds, and the pulp is juicy, white, and delicious in taste and odor. It is about the size of an orange. An average kokum tree bears hundreds of fruits during summer. When they are tender, they are green in color. As they ripen, they get the beautiful purple color. The fruits are plucked when they are ripe.
The tree is a source of kokam butter which is used in cosmetics and confectionary.

Flowering: November-February

An important ayurvedic fruit and tree…
not just for the sour drinks ..purported to save one from the sun on the beaches of Goa…
its Garcinol is a basis for a lot of pharmaceutical research for anticancer drug…
one such paper is here: http://www.jhoonline.org/content/2/1/38/about#citations-biomedcentral


Konkan, May 2014 :: Garcinia indica :: 12JUN2014 :: ARK-24 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (8).
Attached are pics of Garcinia indica cultivated near Devgad, Konkan coast, Maharashtra in May 2014.

Seen the flowers of this tree in the last week of December 2020 (near Devgad, Konkan coast, MH).

2 images.


Hypericaceae, Cluciaceae Dipterocarpaceae fortnight SN 06 : 5 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (3)

Garcinia indica (Thouars) Choisy, from IIHR Bangalore,

Kokam butter used in medicne,

i though c. cambogia and c. indica were the same?

are they not?

No, both are different. G gummigutta (=G.cambogia) is a bigger tree fruits with ridges and furrows, G. indica fruits used for making soft drink, seed fat is kokum butter.

oh thanks’

than wikipedia is wrong!!!

is it possible to buy these fresh in markets?

Garcinia indica (Thouars) Choisy

 fruiting twig and cut open fruits from the forest department garden, Sirsi, Karnataka.

Attached are pictures of Garcinia indica captured at Devgad, Maharashtra in May 2014.
Had posted this pics earlier on the forum as well.

Fairly common in these areas, fruiting around April-May (along with mangoes :)) when the fruits are harvested and dried in the sun to get ‘kokum’.

Nice set of pics of Kokum..

Images by tspkumar


TSP-MAY2016-20-349:Images of Garcinia indica (Clusiaceae) : 7 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (6

It is my pleasure to share few images of Garcinia indica (Clusiaceae

Ref: http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Kokam.html

Ref: http://florakarnataka.ces.iisc.ernet.in/hjcb2/herbsheet.php?id=1091&cat=1 

Habit: Tree 

Habitat: Evergreen forest 

Sighting: Chikmagalur, Karnataka, about 1200 msl 

Date: 12-08-2015, 28-11-2015, 25-03-2016 and 01-05-2016

What is the approximate diameter of the berries?

I did not measure them, but have a fair idea. It is between 2.5 – 3 cms. I brought home a few of them for my kids to taste.



Garcinia Species in Tripura- 1 : 4 posts by 1 author.

Please identify this
This is called Neirum in Kokborok
Location Rajnagar Kumarghat Unakoti district Tripura

Pl. check with images at Garcinia indica (Thouars) Choisy as per comparative images at Garcinia

Location Rajnagar Kumarghat Unakoti district Tripura

I sent two photos with leaves to you (The fruits have no ridges) along with other photos of Garcinia (The fruits with ridges).
The fruits without ridges are 90% sweet and 10% sour but the fruits with ridges are 70% sweet and 30% sour. Some people say both are same as over ripe fruits do not have ridges but green as well as ripe fruits have ridges.
I am looking for Garcinia paniculata syn Garcinia sopsopia which is said to be delicious

Please check Garcinia lanceifolia.

Illustrations of Garcinia lanceifolia available at

Yes Professor, it is Garcinia indica

Small Tree for ID : Lalbagh Botanical Garden, Bangalore : 27JAN20 : AK-35 : 4 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (5)
A small tree seen in Lalbagh last month.

Is it Garcinia indica?

May be as per images at Garcinia indica from Lalbagh

A fruiting tree found on top of the Gamayana gudda (Hill), Uttara Kannada.
Deer climb up the hill in search of this fruit.
Local  Name  (Kannada): Hanale Kai, Gamayana gudda, Western ghats, 25 June 2009

PS: I could not get the scientific name from the internet. Its a well-known fruit among locals.

… absolutely wild guess … some Diospyros species ?

Just a guess. may be a Garcinia fruit

I think it is Garcinia cambogia?

Is ‘garcinia cambogia’ any different from the kokum fruit one sees in the konkan region

Yes, it is different. See the following link: Parayilat

There seems to be something wrong in the blog cited by you. I wonder if … has tasted Mangosteen? I wonder how anybody who has tasted both kudampuli and Magosteen can make a remark that one is the other name of the other.
My apologies for being blunt. Magosteen is such a delightful fruit. Kokum is sour.

Please don’t react like that. Please read the blog carefully. … does not write Kudampuli and Mangosteen are same, he writes ‘It looks (Kudampulli) like inside of mangosteen fruit’. He also also correctly writes Kokum and Kudampulli are different.
As I understand from literatuture Kudampulli is G. Gambogia Desr. now correctly known as Garcinia gummi-gutta (L.) N. Robson. The fruits are edible, but too acidic and commonly pickled. Kokum is G. indica Choicy (also known as Kokum butter tree; Mangosteen oil tree) fruits sweet with agreeable odour, used in jellies and syrups. Mangosteen is G. mangostana L., eaten as dessert, used in jellies and squashes.

My appologies if I have offended anybody. It is not my intention to hurt anybody. My language was rather strong, I apologise for it. I was refering to the sentence I am copying here  “The scientific name for kokum is Gracinia indica. Some of the other names are amsul, katambi, panarpuli and mangosteen. Photo on the left shows two kokum fruits”.
I have seen Magosteen and it looks just like the fruits in his picture.
I have always maintained that I am not a botanist and am always ready to accept the verdict of eminent people like you and the others at indiantreepix.

Yes …, it is a mistake as you rightly pointed out. Let us enjoy the interactions on this group, and not get upset by mistakes by others. I being botanist, know there are so many wrong identifications on different websites, which confuse others. We have to tolerate them.
Just enjoy this group, and you will feel it is worthwhile.

This will be G. indica as per Diversity of Garcinia species in the Western Ghats (pdf): JNTBGRI- Diversity of Garcinia species in the Western Ghats: Phytochemical Perspective- P. S. Shameer, K. B. Rameshkumar and N. Mohanan. Pl. see Garcinia indica


Tree for ID : Mumbai : 03APR21 : AK-01: 3 images.
A tree seen in Mumbai today growing straight upwards.

Bark was dark in color.
Garcinia Species?

Pl. post high resolution images.

Adding one by one.

Can it be Garcinia talbotii, though it is very difficult to say in vegetative stage? 

I cannot say with these images, sorry.

Adding more pictures.
The leaves are thin, glossy.
The tree is growing straight almost as tall as the Coconut tree next to it.
Tender leaves are pink.
8 images.

yes Garcinia species for sure.

Thanks for supporting my suggested id of Garcinia.
The dark bark reminded me of Garcinia indica.
After you suggested Garcinia, I tried the fallen leaf which I had picked up earlier.
It is sour to taste.
So there is a possibility this could be Kokum, Garcinia indica.
Also, images on Eflora from a herbal garden in Pune are very close to this tree.

Yes, Garcinia indica is quite likely. This tree can grow very tall in crowded spaces. The colour of new leaves matches as well as the texture. G. talbotii on the other hand has thicker leaves. Sour taste is also an indication for G. indica.

You are correct.
There are many trees together.
Will look out for the flowers or fruits.
Garcinia indica came to my mind initially, because of the dark bark.




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