Garcinia gummi-gutta (L.) Roxb.
Garcinia indica (Thouars) Choisy
Garcinia pushpangadaniana T. Sabu, N. Mohanan, Krishnaraj & Shareef (India (Kerala, Tamil Nadu) as per Catalogue of Life; SW India as per POWO)
Garcinia travancorica Bedd. (Vunerable; SW India as per POWO; India (Tamil Nadu, Kerala) as per Catalogue of Life)
Diversity of Garcinia species in the Western Ghats (pdf): JNTBGRI- Diversity of Garcinia species in the Western Ghats: Phytochemical Perspective- P. S. Shameer, K. B. Rameshkumar and N. Mohanan, (Abstract- The Western Ghats, being one of the hotspots of biodiversity, support an enormous plant wealth. The genus Garcinia is an important component of the flora of the Western Ghats and is well known for their edible fruits and nutraceutical properties. The present chapter elaborates the diversity and distribution of Garcinia species in the Western Ghats. Conservation status of Garcinia species of the Western Ghats has also been revised. Field surveys, herbarium examinations and literature references revealed that there are 9 species and 2 varieties of the genus indigenous to the Western Ghats of which 7 species and 2 varieties are endemic to the region. The diversity of floral morphology, leaf morphology and fruit morphology were elaborated along with a dichotomous key to the Western Ghats species)
Key to the Garcinia species of the Western Ghats :
Vegetative morphological characters among the Garcinia species of the Western Ghats were evaluated systematically to construct an identification key, which will be a valuable tool for identification of the Western Ghats species in the field.
1a Fruit surface smooth ….2
2a. Fruit less than 3 cm in diam. ……3
3a Fruit with 2 loculed ovary, rarely one …..4
4a Leaf linear-oblong with distinct closely arranged parallel veins ……G. travancorica
4b L eaf oblanceolate indistinct veins …..G. imberti
3b Fruit with more than 2 loculed ovary …5
5a Leaves linear-lanceolate, fruit size of a small cherry, with pinkish tinge …. G. wightii
5b Leaves elliptic, fruit globose or subglobose red ……G. morella
2b Fruit more than 3 cm in diam. ….6
6a Stem cut showing white exudation, fruit with stalk, yellowish green in colour …….G. talbotii
6b Stem cut showing yellow exudation, fruit without stalk, red or dark purple in colour ….…G. indica
1b Fruit surface rough ……….7
7a Fruit grooved ……8
8a Leaf ligule absent, fruit with 3-5 grooves, fruit conical …… G. gummi-gutta var. conicarpa
8b Leaf ligule present, fruit with more than 6 grooves, fruit ovoid-oblong or globose …….9
9a Fruit with 6-8 grooves, fruit ovoid-oblong with elongated beak ….G.gummi-gutta var. papilla
9b Fruit with 6-10 grooves, fruit, globose …G. gummi-gutta var. gummi-gutta
7b Fruit warty or echinate ….10
10a Leaves larger than 20 cm, thick coriaceous, indistinct veins, fruit warty, ca. 750 gm ……G. pushpangadaniana
10b Leaves less than 20 cm, coriaceous, distinct closely parallel veins, fruit with echines, ca. 100 gm …..G. rubro-echinata
BSI Flora of India with details & keys (Volume 3- 1993) (Distribution):
Garcinia acuminata Planch. & Triana (India: In evergreen forests from 610 to 1220 m. West Bengal, Assam, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram and Tripura; Bangladesh and Thailand)
Garcinia affinis Wallich (India: In tropical forests. Assam, Meghalaya; sometimes cultivated in West Bengal and Kerala; Bangladesh and Myanmar)
var. andamanica (India: Prefers damp places and proximity to water courses, almost at sea level. Andaman & Nicobar Islands (Andaman Islands))
var. pubescens King (India: Andaman & Nicohar Islands (Andaman Islands); Myanmar)
Garcinia anomala Planch. & Triana (India: In evergreen forests at between 900-1800 m. Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Nagaland; Bangladesh and Myanmar)
Garcinia atroviridis Griffith ex T. Anderson (India: Assam and Arunachal Pradesh; Myanmar, Thailand, Malay Peninsula and Malacca)
Garcinia brevirostris Scheff. (India: In primary forests on the slopes of hills. Andaman & Nicobar Islands (Andaman Islands), West Bengal (rare); Myanmar, Singapore, Indonesia and Malay Peninsula)
Garcinia cadelliana King (India: Andaman & Nicobar Islands (Andaman Islands))
Garcinia calycina Kurz (India: Andaman & Nicobar Islands(Kamorta Island))
Garcinia cowa Roxb. ex DC. (India: Frequent in evergreen, semievergreen and tropical forests up to 1200 m. sometimes along streams. Bihar, West Bengal, Sikkim, Assam, Nagaland, Tripura, Meghalaya, Orissa and Andaman & Nicobar Islands (Andaman Islands); sometimes cultivated in Botanic gardens; Bangladesh, Myanmar, China and Thailand)
Garcinia dulcis (Roxb.) Kurz (India: In inland forests at low altitudes. Andaman & Nicobar Islands(Andaman Islands); Malesia)
var. conicarpa (Wight) N.P. Singh, comb. nov. (India: Maharashtra, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu; rare)
var. gummi-gutta (India: Common in evergreen and semievergreen forests and also in Shola forests of Western Ghats up to 1830 m. Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala; often cultivated in botanic gardens)
var. papilla (Wight) N.P. Singh, comb. nov. (India: Western Ghats. Tamil Nadu and Kerala)
Garcinia hombroniana Pierre (India: Chiefly on sandy and rocky coastal areas. Andaman & Nicobar Islands; Thailand, Singapore and Malay Peninsula)
Garcinia imbertii Bourd. (India. Common in evergreen forests between 900 and 1100 m. Kerala (localised in South Travancore) and Tamil Nadu (rare in Tirunelveli district))
Garcinia indica (Thouars) Choisy in DC. (India: In tropical evergreen forests of Western Ghats: Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala(rare); often planted in southern Maharashtra, Nilgiris and Indian Botanic Garden, Howrah; Introduced in France, Bourbon and Mauritius)
Garcinia jelinekii Kurz (Doubtful)
Garcinia keenania Pierre (India: Assam (Cachar))
Garcinia kingii Pierre ex Vesque in DC. (India: Andaman & Nicobar Islands (Andaman Islands); rare)
Garcinia kurzii Pierre (India: Andaman & Nicobar Islands (Andaman Islands))
Garcinia kydia Roxb. (India: In tropical forests at lower elevations up to 600 m. Assam, Meghalaya and Andaman & Nicobar Islands; often cultivated for its fruits; Bangladesh, Myanmar and Malaysia)
var. lanceaefolia (India: Common as an undergrowth in evergreen forests, up to 915 m. Assam, Nagaland and Meghalaya; Bangladesh and Myanmar)
var. oxyphylla (Planch. & Triana) Lanessan (India: Fairly common in evergreen forests. Assam, Meghaiaya, Nagaland and Tripura)
Garcinia livingstonei T. Anderson (Cultivated in botanical gardens in West Bengal, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu; Native of Tropical Africa)
Garcinia loniceroides T. Anderson (India: Nagaland (Kungba, Naga Hills) and Manipur (Nungba); Myanmar) (is a synonym of Garcinia succifolia Kurz )
Garcinia mangostana L. (In India, this species prefers wet and humid climate and ca 600 – 700 m. Cultivation attempted in West Bengal, Assam, Maharashtra, Goa, Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Success-fully established in a small area only, and also very rarely recorded from Arunachal Pradesh and Andamans. Cultivated in Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia (Java), Malay Peninsula, Sunda Islands, Panama; semi-wild in Philippines, Singapore, Tropical Australia & other tropical countries. )
Garcinia merguensis Wight (India: In dense, evergreen forests. Andaman & Nicobar Islands (Andaman Islands); Bangladesh, Myanmar, Cambodia, S. Vietnam, Thailand, Malacca and Malay Peninsula)
Garcinia microstigma Kurz (India: Frequent in tropical forests. Andaman & Nicobar Islands)
Garcinia morella (Gaertn.) Desr. (India: In evergreen, moist and dry deciduous forests from plains up to 1000 m. Western Ghats and North-east India. Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Assam and Meghalaya; Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Singapore, Thailand and Malacca)
Garcinia nervosa Miq. (India: In dense mixed forests, sandy-loam, clay or rocky loam at almost sea level to 175 m. Andaman & Nicobar Islands; Singapore and Malaya)
Garcinia pedunculata Roxb. ex Buch.-Ham. (India: In evergreen forests up to 915 m. West Bengal, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur and Meghalaya; sometimes cultivated; Bangladesh)
Garcinia pictoria Roxb. ex Buch. -Ham. (India: Common in forests of Western Ghats up to 1100 m. Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala; Myanmar- This species is closely allied to G. morella (Gaertn.) Desr., under which it is sometimes sunk)
Garcinia rubro-echinata Kosterm. (India: In moist evergreen forests between 900 and 1830 m. Southern Western Ghats. Tamil Nadu and Kerala)
Garcinia sopsopia (Buch.-Ham.) Mabberley (India: In evergreen forests of Eastern himalayas and lower hills, ascending to 915 m. Sikkim, Assam, Nagaland, Tripura and Meghalaya; Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Myanmar)
Garcinia speciosa Wallich (India: In tropical evergreen, semievergreen and inland forests, almost at sea level. Andaman & Nicobar Islands (Andaman Islands); Bangladesh and Myanmar) (is a synonym of Garcinia celebica L.)
Garcinia spicata (Wight & Arn.) Hook. f. (India: In Western Ghats, Eastern Coast and north-east India at low elevations. Assam, Meghalaya, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala; sometimes cultivated; Sri Lanka)
Garcinia stipulata T. Anderson (India: Common in the valleys of Teesta river and its affluents and North-eastern region, in moist subtropical forests up to 1525 m. West Bengal, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Nagaland and Meghalaya; Bhutan)
Garcinia talbotii Raizada ex Santapau (India: In evergreen forests of Western Ghats: Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala)
Garcinia travancorica Beddome (India: In evergreen montane forests up to 1500 m. Kerala (Travancore) and Tamil Nadu (Tirunelveli))
Garcinia wightii T. Anderson (India: In evergreen and moist forests, usually near water courses at elevations up to 700 m; sometimes as rheophytes in Southern Western Ghats. Tamil Nadu and Kerala)
Garcinia xanthochymus Hook. f. (India: In evergreen, semievergreen, moist deciduous and in the lower hill forests up to 1400 m. Sikkim, Assam, Tripura, Meghalaya, Orissa, Maharashtra, Goa, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Andaman &. Nicobar Islands(Andaman Islands); Bangladesh, Myanmar, China, Thailand and Malay Peninsula; sometimes cultivated)
Garcinia zeylanica Roxb. (This endemic species of Sri Lanka was introduced in the botanic garden at Trao-quebar near Tanjore, Tamil Nadu and in Indian Botanic Garden, Howrah, West Bengal)
Diversity of Indian Garcinia – a Medicinally Important Spice Crop in India by U. Parthasarathy, K. Nirmal Babu, R. Senthil Kumar, G.R. Ashis, S. Mohan and V.A. Parthasarathy- Proc. 2nd Int. Symp. on Underutilized Plants Species “Crops for the Future – Beyond Food Security” Eds.: F. Massawe et al. Acta Hort. 979, ISHS 2013-
Abstract– The genus Garcinia has over 200 species distributed in the tropics of the world. About 35 species occur in India, many of which are endemic and economically important, with immense medicinal properties. Garcinia is the source for a natural diet ingredient Hydroxy Citric Acid (HCA) which is an anti obesity compound. However lack of awareness, coupled with habitat destruction, is leading to genetic erosion of this forest resource and many species are threatened. Work done in India, mainly at Indian Institute of Spices Research, Calicut (IISR), on survey and collection of Garcinia genetic resources; development of GIS (Geographic Information System) prediction models for locating the probable new areas of diversity; biochemical and molecular characterization for estimating the genetic diversity; identifying genotypes with high HCA content; and developing micro propagation protocols for multiplying the unique endangered species for their
conservation and utilization, was summarized in this paper.
Different species available in India (Krishnamoorthy et al., 2007).
Garcinia andamanica King Andaman Islands
G. anomala Planc. Khasi Hills
G. atroviridis Griff. North Eastern districts of Assam
G. cornea L. Bengal
G. cowa Roxb. (G. kydia Roxb) Eastern parts of India, Assam, Bihar, Bengal, Orissa, Andaman and Meghalaya
G. dulcis (Roxb.) Kurz Introduced into India from Malaysia
G. echinocarpa Thw. Tirunelveli forests
G. cambogia (Gaetn.) Desr. (G. gummi-gutta (L). Robsmall) Western Ghats, Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka,
Kerala, Shola forests of Nilgiris.
G. hanburyi Hook. f. South India
G. hombroniana Pierre Nicobar Island
G. imbertti Bourd South India
G. indica Choicy South India, Konkan region
G. lanceaefolia Roxb. Assam, Khasi Hills
G. livingstonei T. Anders. Introduced to India form East Africa
G. malabarica Talbot South India (is a synonym of Garcinia talbotii Raizada ex Santapau)
G. mangostana L. Introduced to South India
G. microstigma Kurz Andaman Islands
G. morella Desr. Assam, Khasi Hills, Western Ghats
G. paniculata Roxb. Foot hills of Himalayas, Assam, Khasi Hills (is a synonym of Garcinia sopsopia (Buch.-Ham.) Mabb. )
G. pedunculata Roxb. Assam, Manipur
G. speciosa Wall. Andaman islands (is a synonym of Garcinia celebica L.)
G. spicata Hook. [G. ovalifolia Hook. f.] Western Ghats form Konkan Southwards
G. stipulata T. Anders. Eastern Himalayas
G. succifolia Kurz South India
G. travancorica Beddome Western Ghats
G. wightii T. Anders. South Indian Forests
G. xanthochymus Hook. [G. tinctoria Wight; G. pictorius Roxb.] Eastern Himalayas (Assam and Meghalaya) Western Ghats, and Andaman islands
Species with description &
Forest Plants of Eastern India By Amal Bhusan Chaudhuri (1993)- Brief details with Keys-
Flora of Eastern Ghats: Hill Ranges of South East India, Volume 1 By T. Pullaiah, D. Muralidhara Rao, K. Sri Ramamurthy (2002)- Details-
Biodiversity in India, Volume 4 edited by T. Pullaiah (2006)- Details-
Garcinia : 1 post by 1 author.
I have updated eFI (efloraofindia) page on Garcinia
Attempts have been made to incorporate most of the species available in India & nearby areas with details & keys directly or through links as far as possible. It’s quite possible that there may be some discrepancy in the accepted names & synonyms taken from other links.
Species discussed so far in efloraofindia are given at the bottom of the page in the form of links against Subpages. On clicking them one can see all the details.
Any comments/ corrections are welcome.
Further updated eFI (efloraofindia) page on Garcinia
Garcinia (Clusiaceae) page with images of species in efloraofindia : 5 posts by 2 authors.
If you find any mis-identification, pl. let us know. If anybody can send images of other species of this genera (for incorporation in the website), if any, it will be really nice.
Also, if anybody is interested to take up the activity of inserting images on efloraofindia pages from efloraofindia posts, pl. let us know.
Its my pleasure that I am a part of your efloraindia. Dear the photographs have been taken are nice but some species are mis identify as per my knowledge.
First is photographs & identification of G. morella. The photographs which have been taken are G. acuminata & not the G. morella. Leaves of G. acuminata are long with acute apex (some what similar to Syzium cumini/jamun & appearance is very harsh) where as morella having oval shape with prominent veins; fruits are also totally different. G. acuminata having oval shape fruits with tapering towards lower side & having spikes means not smooth surfase but morella having round shape fruits & size is medium means lower than G. indica, colour is copper red with yellow pigmentation. it also has very false odour.
Dear I have given you details of these species you can cross check it with other expertise. Dear as you know i am also working on Garcinia sps. if you have any contacts who knows Garcinia sps. location please give me. I will request him to help me.
Thank you very much
Another mis identification of G. mangosteen. photographs of fruits are G. mangosteen but the twig photographs (1st photograph with leaves) is not G. mangosteen. It is G. hombroniana. You can verify it.
I like this page.
Your G. morela photo is not correct. The photo is not a garcinia species i think. I shall send you another 4 species photo.
Thanks, … I have corrected the page accordingly. Pl. have look at Garcinia.