Holarrhena pubescens Wall. ex G. Don, Gen. hist. 4:78. 1837 (syn. (=) Chonemorpha antidysenterica G. Don; (=) Echites antidysentericus Roth; (≡) Echites pubescens Buch.-Ham.; (=) Holarrhena antidysenterica (G. Don) Wall. ex A. DC.; (=) Holarrhena febrifuga Klotzsch);
commonly known as: bitter oleander, cavessi bark, common holarrhena, coneru, conessi bark, dysentery rose bay, easter tree, ivory tree, kurchi bark, Tellicherry bark, white angel • Assamese: dhulkari, dudkhuri • Bengali: kurchi, কুটজ kutaja • Gujarati: drowda, kudakari • Hindi: कडवा इंद्रजव karva indrajau, kurchi, कुटज kutaja • Kannada: koodsaloo, korchie • Konkani: कुडॉ kudo • Malayalam: കുടകപ്പാല kutakappaala • Marathi: इंद्रजव indrajav, kodaga, kodaga pala, कुटज kutaja, पांढरा कुडाpandhra kuda • Oriya: kherwa, korwa, kurwa, pitakorwa • Punjabi: keor, kewar • Sanskrit: इंद्रयव indrayava, कुटज kutaja, sakraparyaaya, sakraasana, vatsaka •Tamil: கிரிமல்லிகை kirimllikai, குடசப்பாலை kutaca-p-palai, மலைமல்லிகைmlaimllikai • Telugu: గిరిమల్లిక girimallika, కొడిసెపాల kodisepala, కోలముక్కు kolamukku,కొండమల్లె kondamalle, కుటజము kutajamu ;
Flora of Sahyadri & Konkan – Holarrhena pubescens:
This could be a Wrightia tinctoria from Apocynaceae please confirm it at once………….
Pl also check it for Holarrhena pubescens.
Could be even KUTAJA (Holarrhena antidysenterica). Unable to confirm as the close up of the flowers and a good view of the foliage is missing.
does look like Holarrhena antidysenterica
… me too with Holarrhena pubescens.
Attaching images of Holarrhena antidysenterica found on roadside.
Species : Holarrhena antidysenterica Wall. ex DC.
Habit & Habitat : big tree, roadside
Date : 10-05-12, 10.30 a.m.
Place : Kalipur checkpost (Hooghly)
ID help : http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=110&taxon_id=210000702
Yes Beautiful shots. We also saw this tree in lower himalayas during our chakrata visit
Thank you … for confirming the ID. Until now i have seen only this one. And a local resident told me that it is called KURCHI in Bengali.
15512 BRS 366 for id request.:
Location : NBNP-Anaikatti, Coimbatore Dist. 640 MSL
Flora of Madhya Pradesh: Holarrhena pubescens from Narsinghpur Forest Area:
KAS Week::(Holarrhena pubescens – 07/10/2012- NJ):
Confusion regarding Kutaja or indrajao of Ayurveda and the actual plant:
To resolve this confusion let us go to the original descriptions in Flora of British India and synonyms. The first plant is described as named by Wallich and subsequently A. deCandolle, and hence citation Wall. ex DC. in recent publications. Wrightia antidysenterica Grah cited as synonym. FBI is not sure about synonymy of Chonemorpha antidysenterica G. Don. Wrightia tinctoria is a distinct species and should not come in confusion except for names indrajao and kutaja sometimes applied. The third crucial plant is one described as Wrightia zeylonica (L.) R.Br. with Nerium antidysentericum L. and Nerium zeylanicum L.
At the time Flora of British India, synonyms were cited but basionym author was not included in the accepted name. When this practice started Chonemorpha G. Don remained unknown and combination came to be known as Holarrhena antidysenterica (L.) Wall. ex A. DC., many not bothering to know where this L. came from, even after recently it has been understood that correct name for this plant been understood as H. pubescens. Pl. see citations below:
The second website, though a very reputed one, but puts first black and white illustration correctly but coloured photograph shows Wrightia antidydenterica. The Plant List worst confused, even putting H. pubscens as unresolved name. The correct synonymy can be seen at:
The second plant very distinct though remained in confusion because people remembered L., but forgot where it came from till it was finally known that Wrightia zeylanica (L.) R. Br. be correctly known as Wrightia antidysenterica (L.) R. Br., and it is based on Nerium antidysentericum.
The unfortunate thing being that people remembered antidysenterica but never bothered to know where it came from, and got tagged wrongly to Holarrhena antidydenterica (L.) Wall. ex A. DC., instead of correct H. anitdysenterica (G. Don) Wall. ex A.DC. as synonym for H. pubescens. Perhaps also important to mention that earliest name for this species was given by Roth in 1821 as Echites antidysenterica 1821 as against Chonemorpha antidysenteria G Don, 1838, but Roth’s name can’t be taken as basionym (Roth can’t go in parenthesis) as it is a a later homonym of Echites antidysenterica (L.) Roxb. ex Fleming.
Thank you very much … for this clarity and analysis of confusing identities.
Yes … The real confusion started when basionym author was included wrongly as L. (not knowing about Chonemorpha antidysenterica of G. Don). The the Wikipedia has confused the things further.
Thanks a lot Sir for a very detailed analysis and review of a confusing situation…the unfortunate thing is there are a large number of such confusions probably due to the fact that access to data have not been so easy as it is today…I hope, in times to come majority of confusions will be resolved…thanks for throwing light on the matter…
Plz id this tree: pa58 – 17dec2012:
This is Safed Kuda [Holarrhena pubescens]. My photographs of this are available in the archives of this group. Its bark is infested with termites.
Help Id P1250709/10 : Attachments (2). 4 posts by 4 authors.
Holarrhena pubescens : Attachments (5). 1 post by 1 author.
chandigarh and the hills around kasauli
efloraofindia: For ID 271112SP22 : Attachments (3). 2 posts by 2 authors.
Please help me to identify this flower.
Location – Badalapur
Date: March, 14
habitat : Wild
Seems to be Holarrhena antidysenterica
Ex-situ Silviculture : Holarrhena pubescens (Buch. -Ham.) Wall. ex G.Don : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (2).
Paschim Medinipur : Holarrhena pubescens Wall. ex G.Don : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (2).
Holarrhena pubescens : Jim Corbett,Uttarakhand : 170614 : AK-26 : 6 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (1).
H. antidysenterica Syno: Holarrhena pubescens
Experts kindly confirm id.
Now called Holarrhena pubescens [previously H.antidysenterica]. Please check this link :
ANAUG22 Apoynaceae shrub/young tree for ID : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (6).
Found in Bangalore (outskirts)
Could be Holarrhena pubescens.
Thank you …
Regarding collection of cultivated Holarrhena antidysenterica bark for research work. : 2 posts by 2 authors.
Let your student collect the bark from wild growing trees. It is seldom cultivated & your student may find it easy to contact local forest officers for sourcing the tree bark for Research Purpose exclusively.
Holarrhena pubescens Wall from Assam KD 10 April 2015 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (4)
Attached images may be Holarrhena pubescens Wall. Please validate.
Genus & species : Holarrhena pubescens Wall
Habitat: Grows wild on open space
Habit :Small tree
Small Tree For ID : White Flowers : Borgad Conservation Reserve : Nasik : 03AUG15 : AK-5 : 05/05 : 5 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (4)
Friends, kindly validate.
Affirmative. Please check these links :
both your sts of pictures are detailesd and instructive, thanks
SYMBIOSIS: 825 : 5 posts by 5 authors. Attachments (1)
*Holarrhena pubescens from Trivandrum: SS11May2016 – 01 : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (9)
A few pictures of Holarrhena pubescens. Family Apocynaceae.
Known as Kudagappala (കുടകപ്പാല) in Malayalam.
Photographed from the compound of Napier Museum, Trivandrum city, April 2012.
Thanks, …, for wonderful & complete set.
Thanks … for the pics of H. pubescens. I haven’t seen this tree grow so big. Around Mumbai we see this growing into shrubs 2 – 3 m tall.
ID request 140516SG : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (4)
Requesting ID of this plant, about 3-4’ high. Photo taken on 14 May16 at Tembhurni, Maharashtra.
This is Safed Kuda [Holarrhena pubescens]. Some of my photographs of this are available at this link
Yes Holarrhena pubescens
Holarrhena pubescens—-for sharing : 4 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (3)
Photos taken at Aambyvalley Rd., Lonavala, Pune in May15.
Fwd: ROAD SIDE FLOWERS : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1)
Attaching a collage of some road side flowers blooming at this time of the year at Cooch Behar.
1. Holarrhena antidysenterica (KURCHI)
2. Delonix regia (GULMOHAR)
3. Samanea saman (RAIN TREE)
4. Lagerstroemia speciosa (JARUL)
08082017BHAR2 : 3 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (3)
Found in Jawadhu hills of Eastern ghats.
The flowers had a good smell.
Holarrhena pubescens I think…
Identify the tree : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)
It’s a tree from Bastar, Chhattisgarh. Photograph is taken this month (May’18).
Holarrhena antidysenterica from Delhi – efloraofindia | Google Groups
23032011pj2 id request:
Date/Time-: 22/03/11 – 08:20
Location- Place, Altitude – Kaiga , Uttar Kannada ,Karnataka, 380 mtrs
– Nice picture of Holarrhena pubescens. Called as ‘Kudasappaalai’ in Tamil. A popular medicinal plant, traditionally used for stomach troubles etc.
– Yes it is indeed
– It is the Easter Tree [Holarrhena pubescens] locally called Safed Kuda.
Holarrhena pubescens – seed dispersal:
This is Safed Kuda [Holarrhena pubescens].
Holarrhena pubescens Syn. Holarrhena antidysenterica.
Plant for id – Apocynaceae:
Yes it is Holarrhena antidysenterica (now correct name is H. pubescens)
Holarrhen pubescens or kala kuda
I think you missed the “a” in Holarrhena
Besides you & Dr.Almeida, most of us in this group refer to Holarrhena pubescens as ‘Safed’ Kuda.
Even i refer Holarrhena as Kala Kuda,,, in none of the villages of maharashtra i heared name pandhra kuda for Holarrhena wherever i have moved, except some NGO groups..
Holarrhena pubescens Wall. ex G.Don ?? : 6 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (7)- around 400 kb each.
Location: Sevok, WB, India
Date: 18 May 2018
Altitude: 700 ft.
Habit : Wild
To me also appear close to images at Holarrhena pubescens
Thank you …! Nepali Names : बन खिर्रो Ban Khirro / मधिसे खिर्रो Madhire Khirro / इन्द्रजौ Indrajau / करिङ्गि Kiringgi / कुर्ची Kurchee
Holarrhena pubescens: 17 images.
Please ID wild plant,
Location: near Reserve Forest, Chathamattom, Ernakulam District, (Kochi) Kerala PIN:686671
Flower date: 21.04.2021, 01.05pm
Habitat: wild moisture
Plant habit: small tree, latex, erect, branches, woody stem, long lasting
Height: 04 meters
Leaves: opposite, oval, oblong, apex
Flower: size diameter:03cm, white, non fragrant
Fruit: rounded, lengthy beans, green
Camera: mobile LG K10 2017 13mp
Holarrhena pubescens (Buch.-Ham.) Wall. ex G. Don
Holarrhena pubescens (Buch.-Ham.) Wall. ex G. Don: 4 high res. images.
Location: Tallo Durgeswor, Dailekh, Nepal
Date: 29 May 2022
Habit : Wild
MS/2023/115 – ID of the plant: 2 images.
Yes, appears close to images at
GRIN Flora of China Flora of Pakistan Flora of Nepal The Plant List Dinesh Valke’s Flickr Post Flowers of India M.M.P.N.D. Holarrhena Antidysenterica, Bitter Oleander, Seeds of Holarrhena Antidysenterica, Bitter Oleander Seeds, India Holarrhena Antidysenterica – Bitter Oleander – Apocynaceae Holarrhena pubescens Himalaya’s Herbs and Minerals