Holarrhena pubescens Wall. ex G. Don, Gen. hist. 4:78. 1837 (syn. (=) Chonemorpha antidysenterica G. Don; (=) Echites antidysentericus Roth; (≡) Echites pubescens Buch.-Ham.; (=) Holarrhena antidysenterica (G. Don) Wall. ex A. DC.; (=) Holarrhena febrifuga Klotzsch);
Images by Aarti S Khale (Validated by Neil Soares), Karuna Kanta Das, Anurag N Sharma (Id by Aarti S Khale) & Mohina Macker (Inserted by J.M.Garg) (For more images & complete details, click on the links) 

commonly known as: bitter oleander, cavessi bark, common holarrhena, coneru, conessi bark, dysentery rose bay, easter tree, ivory tree, kurchi bark, Tellicherry bark, white angel • Assamese: dhulkari, dudkhuri • Bengali: kurchi, কুটজ kutaja • Gujarati: drowda, kudakari • Hindi: कडवा इंद्रजव karva indrajau, kurchi, कुटज kutaja • Kannada: koodsaloo, korchie • Konkani: कुडॉ kudo • Malayalam: കുടകപ്പാല kutakappaala • Marathi: इंद्रजव indrajav, kodaga, kodaga pala, कुटज kutaja, पांढरा कुडाpandhra kuda • Oriya: kherwa, korwa, kurwa, pitakorwa • Punjabi: keor, kewar • Sanskrit: इंद्रयव indrayava, कुटज kutaja, sakraparyaaya, sakraasana, vatsaka •Tamil: கிரிமல்லிகை kirimllikai, குடசப்பாலை kutaca-p-palai, மலைமல்லிகைmlaimllikai • Telugu: గిరిమల్లిక girimallika, కొడిసెపాల kodisepala, కోలముక్కు kolamukku,కొండమల్లె kondamalle, కుటజము kutajamu ;


Flora of Sahyadri & Konkan – Holarrhena pubescens:
Name of Species:  Holarrhena pubescens
Common Name:  Pandhra Kuda
Family: Apocynaceae
Conservation status: NA
Photographed:19th April, 2011
Location: Barvi-Murbad Road, Badlapur, Maharashtra
Habitat Type : Forest Clearing
Lens: OLYMPUS ED LENS AF ZOOM 4.6 – 92 mm, 1:2.8 – 4.6
Abundence:  Common Shrub/Tree of subjected region


for id:
someone has sent me these pics and am little foxed.the flowers look like frangipani but the leaves are not.it was blooming recently in delhi .cud u pl help with id

This could be a Wrightia tinctoria from Apocynaceae please confirm it at once………….

Pl also check it for Holarrhena pubescens.

Could be even KUTAJA (Holarrhena antidysenterica). Unable to confirm as the close up of the flowers and a good view of the foliage is missing.

does look like Holarrhena antidysenterica

… me too with Holarrhena pubescens.

Attaching images of Holarrhena antidysenterica found on roadside.
Species : Holarrhena antidysenterica Wall. ex DC.
Habit & Habitat : big tree, roadside
Date : 10-05-12, 10.30 a.m.

Yes Beautiful shots. We also saw this tree in lower himalayas during our chakrata visit

Thank you … for confirming the ID. Until now i have seen only this one. And a local resident told me that it is called KURCHI in Bengali.


15512 BRS 366 for id request.:

Location : NBNP-Anaikatti, Coimbatore Dist. 640 MSL

Date: 14.05.2012

Habitat: garden

Habit: Tree.


Flora of Madhya Pradesh: Holarrhena pubescens from Narsinghpur Forest Area:
Holarrhena pubescens from Narsinghpur Forest Area


KAS Week::(Holarrhena pubescens – 07/10/2012- NJ):
Holarrhena pubescens – (Kuda-Marathi)


Confusion regarding Kutaja or indrajao of Ayurveda and the actual plant:
The plants are very distinct, no one ever confuses them. One without corona now correctly known as Holarrhena pubescens, commonly known as Indrajao, feverpod and perhaps the real Kutaja of Ayurveda.
The other is the Wrightia antidysenterica, the coral swirl popularly sold in nurseries under the name arcticsnow, Snowflake. A plant with distinct corona, petals distinctly obovate, also known as Meethi indrajao.
Let us also bring in the related species Wrightia tinctoria with smaller flowers, linear petals, also known as sweet indrajao

To resolve this confusion let us go to the original descriptions in Flora of British India and synonyms. The first plant is described as named by Wallich and subsequently A. deCandolle, and hence citation Wall. ex DC. in recent publications. Wrightia antidysenterica Grah cited as synonym. FBI is not sure about synonymy of Chonemorpha antidysenterica G. Don. Wrightia tinctoria is a distinct species and should not come in confusion except for names indrajao and kutaja sometimes applied. The third crucial plant is one described as Wrightia zeylonica (L.) R.Br. with Nerium antidysentericum L. and Nerium zeylanicum L.
At the time Flora of British India, synonyms were cited but basionym author was not included in the accepted name. When this practice started Chonemorpha G. Don remained unknown and combination came to be known as Holarrhena antidysenterica (L.) Wall. ex A. DC., many not bothering to know where this L. came from, even after recently it has been understood that correct name for this plant been understood as H. pubescens. Pl. see citations below:
The second website, though a very reputed one, but puts first black and white illustration correctly but coloured photograph shows Wrightia antidydenterica. The Plant List worst confused, even putting H. pubscens as unresolved name. The correct synonymy can be seen at:
The second plant very distinct though remained in confusion because people remembered L., but forgot where it came from till it was finally known that Wrightia zeylanica (L.) R. Br. be correctly known as Wrightia antidysenterica (L.) R. Br., and it is based on Nerium antidysentericum.
The unfortunate thing being that people remembered antidysenterica but never bothered to know where it came from, and got tagged wrongly to Holarrhena antidydenterica (L.) Wall. ex A. DC., instead of correct H. anitdysenterica (G. Don) Wall. ex A.DC. as synonym for H. pubescens. Perhaps also important to mention that earliest name for this species was given by Roth in 1821 as Echites antidysenterica 1821 as against Chonemorpha antidysenteria G Don, 1838, but Roth’s name can’t be taken as basionym (Roth can’t go in parenthesis) as it is a a later homonym of Echites antidysenterica (L.) Roxb. ex Fleming.

Thank you very much … for this clarity and analysis of confusing identities.
From the references I read and use, I find kutaja is Holarrhena pubescens Wall. ex G. Don (earlier literature quote Holarrhena antidysenterica Wall. Ex A. DC.).
All other plants related to qualities of kutaja have some descriptors prefixed – like sweta-kutaja, stri-kutaja, pun-kutaja &c.

Yes … The real confusion started when basionym author was included wrongly as L. (not knowing about Chonemorpha antidysenterica of G. Don). The the Wikipedia has confused the things further.

Thanks a lot Sir for a very detailed analysis and review of a confusing situation…the unfortunate thing is there are a large number of such confusions probably due to the fact that access to data have not been so easy as it is today…I hope, in times to come majority of confusions will be resolved…thanks for throwing light on the matter…


Plz id this tree: pa58 – 17dec2012:
Plz id this tree with a slim trunk from Yeoor region. Unfortuantely there are no flowers and fruits seen right now.

This is Safed Kuda [Holarrhena pubescens]. My photographs of this are available in the archives of this group. Its bark is infested with termites.



Help Id P1250709/10 :  Attachments (2).  4 posts by 4 authors.
This plant was 3 feet tall.
Found in Nagala Block, Sanjay Gandhi NP, Mumbai.
You can see white color secretion in one of the photos, where shoot is broken.

This is Holarrhena pubescens.

Locally called Kutaj, kuda..

Supporting the id

Holarrhena pubescens : Attachments (5). 1 post by 1 author.
Holarrhena pubescens
chandigarh and the hills around kasauli

efloraofindia: For ID 271112SP22 :  Attachments (3). 2 posts by 2 authors.
Please help me to identify this flower.
Location – Badalapur
Date: March, 14
habitat : Wild

Seems to be Holarrhena antidysenterica



Paschim Medinipur : Holarrhena pubescens Wall. ex G.Don : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (2).


Holarrhena pubescens : Jim Corbett,Uttarakhand : 170614 : AK-26 : 6 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (1).
Picture taken on 21/5/14 in the Jim Corbett area.
Kindly confirm id.

H. antidysenterica Syno: Holarrhena pubescens

Experts kindly confirm id.
I don’t think both the Species are the same.
Correct me if wrong.

Now called Holarrhena pubescens [previously H.antidysenterica]. Please check this link :
Google Groups

Thanks for confirming the id.
Beautiful pictures of Safed Kuda at your farm.

ANAUG22 Apoynaceae shrub/young tree for ID : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (6).

Found in Bangalore (outskirts)
Not planted/cultivated.
15th August 2014

Could be Holarrhena pubescens.

Thank you …


Regarding collection of cultivated Holarrhena antidysenterica bark for research work. : 2 posts by 2 authors.
One of my student is working on cultivated Holarrhena antidysenterica bark for research work. If any one knows the source in Karnataka kindly inform me.

Let your student collect the bark from wild growing trees. It is seldom cultivated & your student may find it easy to contact local forest officers for sourcing the tree bark for Research Purpose exclusively.

Holarrhena pubescens Wall from Assam KD 10 April 2015 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (4)
Attached images may be Holarrhena pubescens Wall. Please validate.
Date :12.04.2015
Location: Assam
Family :Apocynaceae
Genus & species : Holarrhena pubescens Wall
Habitat: Grows wild on open space
Habit :Small tree

Holarrhena pubescens?
Friends, kindly validate.

Affirmative. Please check these links :
Google Groups
Google Groups

both your sts of pictures are detailesd and instructive, thanks


SYMBIOSIS: 825 : 5 posts by 5 authors. Attachments (1)
This is the bloom time for Holarrhena antidysenterica. And this the breeding time for Leopard Lace Wing butterfly. I collected some 20 larvae of this butterfly a few days back. All of them turned into pupa. some 10 butterflies emerged after 9 days life in pupa. One of those (a male) Leopard Lace wing is enjoying nectar of Holarrhena antidysenterica (KURCHI) in the attached image.

*Holarrhena pubescens from Trivandrum: SS11May2016 – 01 : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (9)
A few pictures of Holarrhena pubescens. Family Apocynaceae
Known as Kudagappala (കുടകപ്പാല) in Malayalam.
Photographed from the compound of Napier Museum, Trivandrum city, April 2012.

Thanks, …, for wonderful & complete set.

Thanks … for the pics of H. pubescens. I haven’t seen this tree grow so big. Around Mumbai we see this growing into shrubs 2 – 3 m tall.

ID request 140516SG : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (4)
Requesting ID of this plant, about 3-4’ high. Photo taken on 14 May16 at Tembhurni, Maharashtra.

This is Safed Kuda [Holarrhena pubescens]. Some of my photographs of this are available at this link

Yes Holarrhena pubescens

Holarrhena pubescens—-for sharing : 4 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (3)
Photos taken at Aambyvalley Rd., Lonavala, Pune in May15.


Fwd: ROAD SIDE FLOWERS : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1)
Attaching a collage of some road side flowers blooming at this time of the year at Cooch Behar.
1. Holarrhena antidysenterica (KURCHI)
2. Delonix regia (GULMOHAR)
3. Samanea saman (RAIN TREE)
4. Lagerstroemia speciosa (JARUL)


08082017BHAR2 : 3 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (3)
Found in Jawadhu hills of Eastern ghats.
The flowers had a good smell.
Small tree.

Holarrhena pubescens I think…

Identify the tree : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)
It’s a tree from Bastar, Chhattisgarh. Photograph is taken this month (May’18).

on 25th Jan 2009 near Mulshi; On way to Pali Ganapati in Konkan on 22 April 2009; Santiniketan- April’09?; On 27/6/09 in Ananthagiri forest in Ranga Reddy district, AP; on12/7/09 in Narsapur forest, Medak distt., AP; kanakeshwar, Alibag MS- 10Mar,2010- 4.00 pm; 04-07-2010: Near Thakurwadi enroute Kalawantin (Panvel region); in Manipur; Herbal Garden Delhi;

23032011pj2 id request:
Date/Time-: 22/03/11   –     08:20

Location- Place, Altitude – Kaiga , Uttar Kannada ,Karnataka, 380 mtrs
Habitat- Garden/ Urban/ Wild/ Type-    Wild
Plant Habit- Tree/ Shrub/ Climber/ Herb-Tree

– Nice picture of Holarrhena pubescens. Called as ‘Kudasappaalai’ in Tamil. A popular medicinal plant, traditionally used for stomach troubles etc.

– Yes it is indeed
Holarrhena pubescens
We have discussed this in Apocyanaceae. Syn. Holarrhena antidysenterica


07/04/2011/YRP/02/Chethalayam, Wayanad.:
Could someone identify the tree please. Attaching the
copies of flowers, leaves and trunk. It is a small tree around 15′ in height.
Date & Time 07/04/2011
Location: Place, Altitude, GPS  Chethalayam, Wayanad.
Habitat: Garden, Urban, Wild Type:      Wild
Plant Habit: Tree, Shrub, Climber, Herb Tree
Height, Length. 15’ 

– It is the Easter Tree [Holarrhena pubescens] locally called Safed Kuda.


Holarrhena pubescens – seed dispersal:
Photographed last weekend.


identification no040611sn1:
Please identify this one. Take in April at Mulshi, Pune.

This is Safed Kuda [Holarrhena pubescens].

Holarrhena pubescens Syn. Holarrhena antidysenterica.


Plant for id – Apocynaceae:
Please help me id this plant from Apocynaceae
Location: near Nandhi hills (Bangalore) – 16th June 2011

Yes it is Holarrhena antidysenterica (now correct name is H. pubescens)
Local name: Kuduchi or Indrajav

Holarrhen pubescens:
Holarrhen pubescens or kala kuda

I think you missed the “a” in Holarrhena

Besides you & Dr.Almeida, most of us in this group refer to Holarrhena pubescens as ‘Safed’ Kuda.

Even i refer Holarrhena as Kala Kuda,,, in none of the villages of maharashtra i heared name pandhra kuda for Holarrhena wherever i have moved, except some NGO groups..
Infact some villagers call Dahi kuvad to Wrightia



Holarrhena pubescens Wall. ex G.Don ?? : 6 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (7)- around 400 kb each.
Location:  Sevok, WB, India
Date: 18 May 2018
Altitude: 700 ft.
Habit : Wild

To me also appear close to images at Holarrhena pubescens

Thank you …! Nepali Names : बन खिर्रो Ban Khirro / मधिसे खिर्रो Madhire Khirro / इन्द्रजौ Indrajau / करिङ्गि Kiringgi  / कुर्ची Kurchee


Holarrhena pubescens: 17 images.

Please ID wild plant,
Location: near Reserve Forest, Chathamattom, Ernakulam District, (Kochi) Kerala PIN:686671
Flower date: 21.04.2021, 01.05pm
Altitude: 1400fsl
Habitat: wild moisture
Plant habit: small tree, latex, erect, branches, woody stem, long lasting
Height: 04 meters
Leaves: opposite, oval, oblong, apex
Flower: size diameter:03cm, white, non fragrant
Fruit: rounded, lengthy beans, green
Camera: mobile LG K10 2017 13mp

Holarrhena pubescens (Buch.-Ham.) Wall. ex G. Don


Holarrhena pubescens (Buch.-Ham.) Wall. ex G. Don: 4 high res. images.

Location: Tallo Durgeswor, Dailekh, Nepal
Altitude:  900m.
Date: 29 May  2022
Habit : Wild 


MS/2023/115 – ID of the plant: 2 images.
Please ID the plant photos received from a contact. Photographed in Kabini.
It looks like Holarrhena pubescence.

Yes !

Yes, appears close to images at


Holarrhena pubescens Wallich ex G. Don: 9 high res. images.

Location: Himalayan Fresh Coffee, Naubise, Dhading, Nepal 
Date: 29 May 2023
Elevation: 255 m.
Habit : Wild

For me your Id is correct. I also posted the pictures of this species some time back !


Holarrhena pubescens Wall. ex G.Don :: Thane, Maharashtra :: Apr 20, 2008 · JUN23 DV511: 5 images.

Holarrhena pubescens Wall. ex G.Don
Thane, Maharashtra :: Apr 20, 2008 · 12:54 PM IST :: about 11 m (36 ft) asl
Many thanks to Aditya Gadkari and Bharat Godambe for validating the ID at iNaturalist


Holarrhena pubescens (Buch.-Ham.) Wall. ex G.Don: 5 high res. images.

Location: Chhedagad, Jajarkot Road, West Nepal 
Date: 30 May 2023
Elevation 800m.

Habit : Wild



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