Holoptelea integrifolia Planch. , Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot. III, 10: 259 1848. (Syn. Ulmus integrifolia Roxb.);
Indian Subcontinent to Indo-China, E. Borneo: Assam, Bangladesh, Borneo, India, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam, West Himalaya as per POWO;
entire-leaved elm tree, jungle cork tree, south Indian elm tree • Bengali: নাটা করঞ্জা nata karanja • Gujarati: ચરલ charal, ચરેલ charel, કણઝો kanjho • Hindi: चिलबिल chilbil, कान्जू kanju, पपड़ी papri • Konkani: वांवळो vamvlo • Malayalam: ആവല്‍ aaval • Marathi: ऐनसादडा ainasadada, वावळ or वावळा vavala • Nepalese: sano pangro • Oriya: dhauranjan • Sanskrit: चिरिविल्वः chirivilva • Tamil: ஆயா aya • Telugu: నాలి nali;



The fruits do look like those of Holoptelea however the leaves are confusion. Holoptelea has distichous leaves so if the phyllotaxy of the plant in picture is distichous then it could be Holoptelea.


Holoptelea integrifolia:
The young, papery fruits of Holoptelea integrifolia seen today at the south end of the national park in Mumbai.


efloraindia: 221011 BRS 78:

Holoptelea integrifolia (Fruiting season Feb- March 2011) and Flowering Oct. 2011.
Location: NBNP Garden, Anaikatti, Coimbatore Dist.,
GPS : 640 MSL
Habitat: Garden
Habit: Tree
Interestingly during the fruits as well as flowering season the trees are covered with either fruits or flowers. No leafs at all.

yes Holoptelea integrifolia, here in Maharashtra it is called as Vawla..

In Maharashtra the flowering is late may be January or Dec

Here are a few pictures of Holoptelea integrifolia taken from the wild near Mannarkkad, Palakkad district, Kerala. Photographed on 16th August 2011.


Bangalore – RA – Holoptelea integrifolia – Indian Elm Tree – Kanju:
Indian Elm is a large deciduous tree, gowing up to 18 m tall. It has grey bark, covered with blisters, peeling in corky scales on old trees.

Alternately arranged leaves are elliptic-ovate, 8-13 cm long and 3.2-6.3 cm wide, smooth, with entire margins, and a pointed tip. Leaf base is rounded or heart-shaped. Stipules are lance-shaped. Crushed leaves emit an unpleasant odour.
Flowers are small, greenish-yellow to brownish, pubescent, borne in short racemes or fascicles at the scars of fallen leaves. Sepals are velvety, often 4. Fruit is an a circular samara, 2.5 cm in diameter, with membranous, net-veined wings, and flat seed


Holoptelea integrifolia:
Holoptelea integrifolia from Prabalgad region.
Family: Ulmaceae
Plant Habit: Tree.

Great Closeup!!! Amazing Shot


Holoptelia integrifolia leaves : 5 images. 1 post by 1 author.
Sending photographs of Vavla leaves. The photographs were taken on my property at Shahpur.

Tree For ID : Lalbagh,Bangalore : 291113 : AK-2 : Attachments (2). 4 posts by 3 authors.
Seen at Lalbagh on 23/11/13.
No flowers or fruits.
Id please.

Holoptelia integrifolia

Yes, rightly identified….

Pls help me identify.210914-RT-3 : Attachments (4). 3 posts by 2 authors.

Height-15feet. tree of 10years growth.

No flowers/fruits observed.

It is Holoptelea integrifolia Planch, a common fast growing tree.

Tree for identification : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)
Please identify this tree from Chinchoti, Maharashtra, May 2015.

Holoptelea integrifolia (Roxb.) Planch.


Orissa : 3 posts by 1 author. Attachments (1) – 3 MB

Holoptelea integrifolia

It is Holoptelia integrifolia (Avli, Thapasi) tree in fruiting

ID Please: CR18052017 : 10 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (1)
Could you please identify this tree?

Thanks, …  Where and when was it clicked?

Looks Diospyros spp.

Sir, this was clicked on 17th may 2017 at Girawali Hill, Ghodegao, Near Pune, Maharashtra

Could you please tell its local name in India

please check these links: FOI one, two and three

The bark and the foliage in … photograph seem more in line with Holoptelea integrifolia Planch. [Ulmaceae].

Thanks, …  I agree with you.

Holoptelea integrifolia : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (1)
Very strange seeds. Found in Vandalur forest. Chennai.

This tree is seen in Chennai in places especially Children’s park (Guindy National Park). Seeds are winged.

It was one of our favorite time pass as we used to eat it’s seed in our childhood. Good taste too.

Thanks for the Interesting information about childhood memories.


Tree for ID :: JJ – Disa, GJ, March 2018 :: ARKAPR-21 : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (5)

Clicked this tree by the roadside near Disa, GJ in March 2018. Saw many such trees on the way.
Are they Holoptelea integrifolia?
Requested to please validate.

To me also appears so.

Yes, Holoptelea integrifolia


Holoptelea integrifolia- from Pune:
Sharing – Holoptelea integrifolia, photographed at Warje Hill, Pune.
Dated- 06/03/12
Common name- चिलबिल
Tree height- 12- 15 feet

The seeds of this fruits are devoured by Parrots very much and I was told by the locals (TN) that the germination rate of these fruits are very minimal (owing to seeds eaten by birds). So a vernacular name for this tree is ‘Thappichan maram’, which translates in to ‘tree grew out of escaped seeds’

Oh! interesting information … Thanks for that.
Never heard abut such thing in Pune. Even haven’t seen any parrots eating the fruits.
This tree is one of the commonest tree in the city of Pune.
In fact I have heard one renowned Botanist calling this tree as The City tree of Pune. Of course I haven’t seen any new sapling growing recently but some smaller trees are often found which might have grown from natural germination.

Attaching pictures (not clear) of this.

Location: Moyar village, Nilgiris, TN
Altitude: 900 m ASL
Date: 05 March 2012


”For Id 18122011MR1’’ old tree with green leaves no flowers Pune:
Kindly Id this tree growing in a private society at Pune

Dec 2011
appears to be a very old tree next to a small Hanumanji’s temple in the society
height about 50 feet
Leaves Type/ Shape/ Size- green
no flowers or fruits
I could photograph some leaves fallen down
When I asked the care taker he said he has not seen flowers but pods

If I was to hazard a guess, it would be Vavla [Holoptelia integrifolia]. Have a few of these trees on my property. Sending 2 photographs of the leaves for comparison.

Many thanks … and … for a possible Id
… the photographs of your trees are so clear and leaves look healthy and fresh. I think it looks like the same tree. Reading about it on the web I understood that the flowering season is in Jan to Feb and fruits appear in April to May. I will look out for these and try to get pics and share them.
I also got to see wonderful pics by … of this tree at flowers of India. Now I know what to look for. Thank you …

…the tree is flowering . The flowering season is matching with this tree attaching pictures of the same. round globular brown flowers but also many light pink structures are seen. can somebody explain what are these?

Sorry I forgot to add all the leaves are shed and are replaced by this round brown flowers

Affirmative. The tree is in flower. Will send my photographs of this later.

Some of my photographs.

Thank you … for the pictures of flowers and fruits. … if it is possible to understand from my not so clear photographs can you explain to me what are those light pink structures in bunches seen in my photographs. I cannot take a close up as they are very high

The ‘light pink structures’ are the flowers which are borne in fasicles in the scars of the fallen leaves.

Yes … At present Holoptela integrifolia is in bloom in Pune.
It belongs to an unusual family: Ulmaceae
This tree was sometimes called as the City tree of Pune because some say the maximum number of native trees in Pune belong to this species.
There are a number of big trees in Pune city. One Opp. Dnyan Prabodhini. Several on Parvati. Several Near Vaikuntha etc.
We used to collect the winged fruits calling them Pistas in our childhood.
Sharing the close up picture of flower which is really beautiful.

Superb … you are just great in photography . What are those bifid light pink structures attached to the fruit? Is it the stigma. I think these are the light pink structures I am seeing in my photographs and have been asking about it. On the net everywhere they have described flowers as green, yellow or brown and I was seeing brown and light pink and thus wanted to know about it. I will be grateful if you could explain

I have not studied this particular flower from botanical point of view but this has to be a bifid stigma with the ovary attached behind gradually getting converted to a fruit with winged surface around it .

Attaching pictures of the fruit and flowers of this tree as I see today


Plz id this tree: pa86 – 11jan2013:
Plz id this tree from Yeoor region. Unfortunately no flowers and fruits seen. One interesting thing is that when the leaf is crushed it smells just like the crushed leaf of the sitaphal tree.

Could be holoptelea integrifolia

Thank you …


ID Ahmedabad 8/9/2018 : 10 posts by 6 authors. Attachments (2)- 1 MB each.

This appears to be Holoptelea integrifolia Planch. [Ulmaceae]. Quite common in Ahmedabad.

Plenty of Holoptelia integrifolia in Mysore. This is known as Chira bilva in ayurveda and all the plant parts are of medicinal use.  However, I have a doubt: leaves shape look slightly different.  Is there any eco variation. Can you post a better habit photo (the present one is very hazy on enlarging) as well as those of flowers and especially fruits.

Please check my posting at:  MS/2018/ September/1: Holoptelia inegrifolia.  Just now posted. Perhaps it may appear in tomorrow’s abridged summary.

just saw it. nice pics, …

I too have a doubt. As … said the leaf shape seems different from that of Holoptelia.

From what I’ve seen, the anomalies depicted in the first image (IMG_20180908_064744.jpg) are not unusual in the leaves of Holoptelea integrifolia Planch. This is one of the rather common trees in Ahmedabad.

Holoptelia inegrifolia : 2 posts by 1 author. Attachments (1)- 2 Mb.
I am posting the pictures of the  above tree. Photos taken in a park in Mysore a few months back (2018)

Attachments (4) – 1 Mb each.

ID please-Tree with Simple Ovate Darkgreen Glabrous Alternate leaves SGNP Mumbai : 5 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (2)
Please help identify tree with leaves in attached picture.
Date: 06-Oct-2018
Location: Sanjay Gandhi National Park Near Gandhi Smarak

Please check for Holoptelea integrifolia

Leaf shape, margin, phyllotaxy and venation matches. It is Holoptelea integrifolia.



Looking for id of this tree : 4 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (3)- 2 of 2 mb each.
This is a tree near my house in nasik, maharashtra. I am looking for an id. I have collected some seeds also which i will grow once i find out the name of this tree. Can anyone help me in finding more about it?
As per my research on the internet, the closest i could guess was panjanelia longifolia. But i am not sure.

It’s not Panjanelia longifolia;
Fruits definitely belong to Holoptelia integrifolia but habit pics some confusing me, have any other pics.

It’s definitely Holoptelia integrifolia…. a common tree of Nashik. Which part of Nashik do you live in?

in Pune– 30/1/09; Vihar lake road, Goregaon, Mumbai , June 2009; Flowering- January to February as per link

Aarey, Mumbai :: Plant for ID :: ARK2019-58 : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (3)
This climber/shrub was spotted in Aarey forest, Mumbai in November 2017.
Requested to please ID the same.

Holoptelia integrifolia

Holoptelea integrifolia from Delhi-GS26102020-1 : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (3)
Holoptelea integrifolia Planch.
Photographed from Vikas Puri, Delhi, 19-3-2016


Tree from Sadasivakona Hills: 2 images.
Found in slopes, dry grasslands in high altitude of the hills towards the waterfalls.

Looks like Antidesma ghaesembilla

Holoptelea integrifolia only


(2021/May/08 ART 1) Is this Holoptelea integrifolia?: 10 images.
Date: 2021/May/08
Location: Varathamanathi Dam, Palani, Dindigul District, Tamil Nadu
May I know if this is Holoptelea integrifolia?

Yes it is!!

Yes, it’s only …


SK 2936 02 August 2021: 4 very high res. images.
Location: Far West, Nepal
Altitude: 1050m.
Date: June 2021
Habit : Wild

Please check Ulmaceae member. It could be Holoptelea.

Yes, Holoptelea integrifolia

Yes : Holoptelea integrifolia (Roxb.) Planch.

Yes, it’s I agree with you for ID,


Pench NP, MP, March 2022 :: Tree for ID :: ARK2022-075: 4 high res. images.

This was clicked near the Turia canteen in Pench National Park, MP in March 2022
Is this Pterocarpus marsupium?
Requested to please ID.

It seems to be Holoptelea integrifolia

Yes, it is … – Holoptelea integrifolia. Plenty here.


id Request: 1 high res. image.
pls help me to identify this Species

Location   — Bilaspur Chhattisgarh
Date    06/09/2022
Time – 11 AM

Diospyros melanoxylon….. Tendu……thanks.

Sir ….this tree is very different from Diospyros ….i will share more pictures of leaf and bark also
This tree looks like very similar to Bridelia macrantha
I’ll share more pictures today

here i am sharing some more pictures ……
4 high res. images.

Holoptelea integrifolia

I concur with … Nevertheless , let us wait for its flowers and fruits.

Yes, I also agree.


Tree for id 090223JM1: 6 images + 2 high res. images.
On trek to Matheran (around 2600 ft.) from base, Maharashtra on 4.2.23 at around say 600 ft.

Holoptelea integrifolia, the Indian elm or jungle cork tree.

Yes, it is Holoptelea.


Tree for ID- 020323AK2: 4 images- 2 high res.
Posting separately from …, as being clubbed due to same subject:
” Please identify the species from Hastinapur Wildlife Sanctuary, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh.”

Seems to be Holoptelea integrifolia

Yes for me.!

Yes, maybe as per images at


Identity wanted: 1 high res. image
I am having a rough time identifying this one.
The “eye hole” at the opposite side of the fruit is confusing me.
Can someone please help.

Holoptelea integrifolia.

Yes, …, Holoptelea integrifolia (Roxb.) Planch.
In telugu : Nemali nara


Holoptelea integrifolia Planch. :: Waghbil, Thane, Maharashtra :: Jan 26, 2021 · 10:19 AM IST: 4 images.
Holoptelea integrifolia Planch.
Waghbil, Thane, Maharashtra :: Jan 26, 2021 · 10:19 AM IST :: about 3 m (10 ft) asl

Superb catch. ID is correct. A common tree here.


Holoptelea integrifolia (Roxb.) Planch. :: Virar, Thane :: Apr 1, 2007 · JUN23 DV494: 1 image.

Holoptelea integrifolia (Roxb.) Planch.
Virar, Thane :: Apr 1, 2007 · 4:25 PM IST :: about 54 m (177 ft) asl
Many thanks to Radha Veach and Bharat Godambe for validating the ID at iNaturalist


SK 3765 25 June 2023: 7 high res. images.

Location:  Musikot, Rukum, West Nepal 
Date: 30 May 2023
Elevation 400m.
Habit : Wild
Combretaceae… ????

It is

While the fruits look exactly like those of Holoptelia, the leaves look slightly different from those seen in plenty here. Any eco-variation ?
It is an avenue tree. It is tolerant of pollution and seen throughout India.


SK 3769 26 June 2023: 6 very high res. images.

Location:  Musikot, Rukum, West Nepal 
Date: 30 May 2023
Elevation 400m.
Habit : Wild

This is


SK 3764 25 June 2023: 3 high res. images.

Location:  Musikot, Rukum, West Nepal 
Date: 30 May 2023
Elevation 400m.
Habit : Wild

I thought of the following:
But it looks different.

I think … guess is correct, Holoptelea integrifolia


tree id confirmation: 1 image.
Please help me to identify the tree I reported from the Aravali range in Haryana.
Date 10 Sep 2023

Anogeissus pendula?

Holoptelea integrifolia ???

Thankyou for suggestions both Anogeissus and holoptela trees were present there. Leaf size is bigger so I think it can be Holoptela.

Looks different from Holoptelia leaves:

Better if you post some more photos for proper ID by the group,


Ulmaceae: Holoptelea integrifolia Planch.: 1 high res. image.
synonym: Ulmus integrifolia Roxb.
location/date: Barha, Jabalpur Distr., Madhya Pradesh, October 1994


Identificationa needed for plant from Telangana: 1 image.

Not much information. It seems they use the leaf to control hair fall.
Its found some 150 km from Hyderdabad.

Chance for Holoptelea integrifolia.!

Yes, appears close as per images at