Hybanthus enneaspermus (L.) F.Muell., Fragm. 10: 81 1876. (syn: Polygala frutescens Burm.f. ex DC.; Polygala thea Burm.f.; Polygala theezans L.; Alsodeia socotrana Balf.f.; Calceolaria enneasperma (L.) Kuntze; Calceolaria thymifolia (C.Presl) Kuntze; Hybanthus enneaspermus f. angustifolius Domin; Hybanthus enneaspermus var. aurantiacus (Benth.) F.Muell.; Hybanthus enneaspermus var. banksianus (DC.) Domin; Hybanthus enneaspermus var. communis Domin; Hybanthus enneaspermus var. densifolius Grey-Wilson; Hybanthus enneaspermus var. diversifolius Grey-Wilson; Hybanthus enneaspermus f. flavus Domin; Hybanthus enneaspermus f. pseudocaffer Grey-Wilson; Hybanthus enneaspermus f. pubescens Domin; Hybanthus fritzscheanus Engl.; Hybanthus heterophyllus (Vent.) Baill.; Hybanthus hildebrandtii Engl.; Hybanthus hirtus (Klotzsch) Engl.; Hybanthus linifolius Baill.; Hybanthus miniatus F.Muell.; Hybanthus mollis Melch.; Hybanthus nyassensis Engl.; Hybanthus suffruticosus (Ging.) Baill.; Hybanthus suffruticosus (L.) Baill. ex Laness.; Hybanthus thesiifolius (Juss. ex Poir.) Hutch. & Dalziel; Hybanthus thymifolius (C.Presl) Engl.; Hybanthus zippelii Melch.; Ionidium aethiopicum Turcz.; Ionidium banksianum (Ging. ex DC.) Steud.; Ionidium enneaspermum (L.) Vent.; Ionidium erectum Ging.; Ionidium frutescens Schult.; Ionidium heterophyllum Vent.; Ionidium hexaspermum Dalzell; Ionidium hirtum Klotzsch; Ionidium indicum Capit.; Ionidium leptorhizum DC. ex Ging.; Ionidium molle Turcz.; Ionidium rhabdospermum Hochst.; Ionidium subglaucum Herzog; Ionidium suffruticosum (L.) Roth ex Schult.; Ionidium thesiifolium (Juss. ex Poir.) Schult.; Ionidium thymifolium C.Presl; Ionidium wightiana Wall.; Ionidium zippelii Oudem.; Pigea banksiana Ging. ex DC.; Solea enneasperma Spreng.; Solea erecta Spreng.; Solea heterophylla Spreng.; Solea linifolia Spreng.; Solea montana Zipp. ex Span.; Viola angustifolia Banks ex Ging.; Viola enneasperma L.; Viola erecta Roth; Viola frutescens (Schult.) B.Heyne ex Roth; Viola guineensis Schumach. & Thonn.; Viola heterophylla (Vent.) Poir.; Viola linifolia Juss.; Viola suffruticosa L.; Viola thesiifolia Juss. ex Poir.);
Tropical Africa, Madagascar, Tropical & Subtropical Asia to Australia: Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Borneo, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Repu, China Southeast, Congo, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kenya, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Mali, Maluku, Mauritania, Mozambique, New Guinea, New South Wales, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Territory, Philippines, Queensland, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Socotra, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Western Australia, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe as per POWO (Afrohybanthus enneaspermus (L.) Flicker);
Common name: Spade Flower, Pink ladies slipper • Hindi: रतनपुरुष Ratan purush • Bengali: Munbora • Kannada: ಪುರುಷರತ್ನ Purusharathna • Malayalam: Orilathamatai • Telugu: రత్నపురుశ Ratnapurusha • Marathi: Rathanparas • Sanskrit: रत्नपुरुष Rathnapurusha • Tamil: ஓரிதழ் தாமரை Orital tamarai

ANOCT32 Please identify this herb : 7 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (6).

5th October 2014

what is Makalidurga?? if a place or village
what state what district
is it a plains area or hilly area? etc please

Makalidurga is a small town around 80 kms outside Bangalore. In Makalidurga are a set of hills which are rocky and highly dry.
Vegetation on these hills are mainly of herbs, shrubs and tall grasses,
only a few species of trees grow here- Anogeissus latifolia, Dalbergia latifolia, Dalbergia lanceolaria, Vitex altissima, Ficus mollis, F. arnottiana etc. It is a very dry hill.
The main hill has a temple at the top. The hill is known mainly for Makali-beru or Decalepis hamiltonii, a south Indian endemic, which grows profusely at the hill tops (efi thread)

Thanks … your description  makes me want to go and see
may be I will one of these days

Hybanthus enneaspermus.

Yes, Hybanthus enneaspermus, a medicinally important plant.


Herb for ID Tiruvannamalei, Tamil Nadu NAW-OCT-20 : 6 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (6)
Kindly identify this wild herb with pink flowers photographed at the Arunachala Reserve Forest, Tiruvannamalei, Tamil Nadu in September 2014.
Flower pink with a flat petal about 8-10 mm wide. Red stem. Leaves are red-tinted, red-veined, thin and long. Stem with flower rises vertically about 10 cm.

Hybanthus enneaspermus (L.) F.v. Muell.

Supporting …

wonderful pictures that show all pertinent details, and your detailed description is much appreciated… and is a lesson to others and me

Thank you all. I m still learning to document all relevant details for identification. But it is a wonder of this forum that even when my documentation is not clear, the members and experts do still promptly identify the species. Without the forum i would be completely at sea.

the experts try their hardest and give us their best ideas and diagnosis
I have noticed they are very kind, and always helpful
that’s why I feel that I must do my utmost in taking pictures and description to give the maximum of the identifying features esp. when I do not know what it is I take pictures of the standard id features)
and give full details of what where when
keep up the good work, its appreciated much


ID_DKB1 : 6 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (1).

Name of species- ID?
Common Name- ID?
Family- ID?
Photo taken on- 28 July,2007
At- Virat Nagar, Jaipur, Rajasthan

Hybanthus enneaspermus

Hybanthus enneaspermus (L.) F.Muell. (= Ionidium)

It is Hybanthus enneaspermus ( L. ) F.Muell.,Family Violaceae Ver.nameSpade flower (Eng.); Ratnapurusha (San.)

Hybanthus enneaspermus,  family : violaceae

Though mentioned as a common weed throughout India, I saw this plant Hybanthus enneaspermus (L.) F.V.Muell. (Violaceae) today (28.5.16) only in Pantnagar.
I was unaware of the ID of plant but it hardly took to reach Violaceae (its family) following key to the families of flowering plants by Hutchinson (1973). Later it was even easier to reach the genus and species following Flora of India vol-2 and efloraofindia.

Images by tspkumar



TSP-JUN2016-10-398: Images of Hybanthus enneaspermus (Violaceae) : 2 posts by 1 author. Attachments (3)

It is my pleasure to present few images of Hybanthus enneaspermus  (Violaceae 

Habit: Herb 

Habitat: Wild, Dry deciduous forest 

Sighting: Chikmagalur and Hassan, Karnataka, about 1200 msl and 900 msl 

Date: 29-09-2014 and 10-06-2014

Hybanthus enneaspermus : Attachments (1).  2 posts by 2 authors.
Hybanthus enneaspermus
Mar.name :Ratanparas
At Hampi, Karnataka
05 Oct,2013


Hibanthus enneaspermus (L.) F. Muell. SN April 21 : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments(2).
Hybanthus enneaspermus (L.) F. Muell.; Fam Violaceae, small herb, Rathanbrush,
aphrodisiac herb, helps in improving fertility.



IND 3 4/7/14 : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (1).
Can you please identify this small prostrate medicinal plant. Photo was taken in Sri Lanka in March 2014.

Hybanthus enneaspermus (= Ionidium suffruticosum) of Violaceae


Hybanthus capensis identification requested : 7 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (3)
It is a small herb, 10-15 cm tall, found in rock crevices in Velugonda of E.ghats.
the stems angular, hispid. the leaf ovate,1.2-2 cm long, 0.6-1.3 cm wide, more hispid than H.enneaspermus, margin crenate; the leaf is serrate and linear oblong 2-4 cm long 0.3-0.6 cm wide, glabrascent or scabrid in H.ennaespermus. The flowers are light pink and mauve without a pouch that is seen in H.ennaespermus. seeds incipiently ridged and a disc shaped pit at the apex. where as the seeds are conspicuously striate in H.ennaespermus and raised pit like part is seen.
I request the learned friends please confirm if it is Hybanthus ennaespermus or some other species.

Hybanthus species in eFloraofindia (with details/ keys from published papers/ regional floras/ FRLHT/ FOI/ Biotik/ efloras/ books etc., where ever available on net)

very interesting species; thanks for sharing

It may go to Hybanthus travancoricus

It is not Hybanthus travancorius because it is a shrub as per Gamble. It is a herb, the odd petal also lacks dark striations commonly seen in Hybanthus ennaeospermus

Yes it is Hybanthus enneaspermus only

ID requested for this Hybanthus sp. : 7 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (2)
I request for the identification of the Hybanthus sp. attached herewith.
Unable to conclude with efi page:
Habit: Much branched hispid herb.
Locality: Karaiyur, Dharapuram Taluk, Tiruppur Dist., Tamil Nadu.
DoP: 16-May-2018.

It may be Hybanthus enneaspermus var. latifolius.

It is Hybanthus enneaspermus only; it is a variable species; I too collected ovate leaved specimen, few plants are not quite erect also. but BSI confirmed it a variable species since floral chracters remain same.

Fwd: Kindly help identification, collected from coimbatore on 13-9-13 : 7 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (2).
Kindly help identification, collected from coimbatore on 13-9-13.

Ionidium sp.

Yes it is Ionodium sp

Ionidium species from Coimbattur in Violaceae page is Hybanthus enneaspermis only; this species is a variable species; the leaves are highily variable from ovate to linear; margin entire to serrate.
While posting a plant if the characters are added it will be possible to identify the plant correctly; hence it is requested to add the description of the plant.

It seems Hybanthus ennaspermis only, some herbs will have broader leaves. I herewith attached 2 images.


– It was very common in Tirupati area 


ID requested of DSC8135:
Photo taken in Asansol (W.B.) India. Date: 22/06/11. Height of the plant around 4 to 5 inches. Most of them with single flowers. Butterflies seen frequenting the plant. Requested to please give the ID.

Ionidium suffruticosum.  One of the important medicinal herbs in Siddha medicines.

Yes, i agree with … id.
But the accepted name is Hybanthus ennaeaspermus.
Tamil Name: Oridazh thaamarai.  ஓரிதழ் தாமரை

11111PD02 Hybanthus enneaspermus Flora of Orissa:
sharing photograph of another very common and important medicinal plant of Ranpur
Name of the species: Hybanthus enneaspermus
Local name: Madanmastak (Smearing on Head)
Family: Violaceae
Place of collection: Ranpur
Habit: Herb
Habitat: Wild, grassland and scrub forests
Altitude: 200 to 600 m above msl
Uses: As the local name suggest, the root paste is applied on forehead to get relief from headache immediately.

Good set indeed. In thumbnail view it appeared like some impatiens species.

04012013 BRS 427:
Pl. find the attached file contain photos for id. request.
Location: Nadukuppam, Vilupuram Dist., Tamil nadu
Date: 30.12.2012
Habitat: Garden
Habit: herb

Hybanthus enneaspermus of Violaceae. Tamil name: ஓரிதழ் தாமரை (Oridhaz thaamarai)

Also called புருஷரத்னம் ? an ayurvedic herb?

Yes; here is the list of other common names in different languages from ENVIS FRLHT database.

Wild herb I’d from Bangladesh_sm_1509 : 5 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (1) – 2 MB.
Flowering and Picture taken : May, 2018
Habitat:  railline
Location: Tangail, Bangladesh 

may be Polygala

Hybanthus enneaspermus

12112019EPT20 : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (3)
Presenting for ID – a garden weed -about 3-5 cm height
Location : Chennai outskirts
Date :11.11.2019
Elevation : 23 mts

Very common in Madras (Chennai) surroundings. An important medicinal plant. Considered to be extremely beneficial to men. Used as a diuretic, demulcent and tonic. The root is diuretic and is used in urinary affections and bowel complaints of children. Decoction of leaves and tender stalks is demulcent. The fruit is also used to treat scorpion sting.

small herb FOR ID :: Puducherry :: 16 OCT 19 : 7 posts by 4 authors. 2 images.
Puducherry  near sea coast
Date: October 16, 2019 … Altitude range: about 0 – 3 m (0 – 10 feet) asl
small herb  
Dear friends,
A small herb growing amidst some plants in herbal garden. The tiny flower is just about 7 – 8 mm across. I have no idea of genus or family, but let me put a wild guess – a member of Polygalaceae. I hope the two photos help in recognizing the plant.

… your plant is Hybanthus enneaspermus

yes. a herbal remedy

Charaata, purusharatna in Kannada. Very useful in ayurveda & Siddha medicines. Plenty around my house during rainy season. Right now the area is cleared. Hence no photos possible. Common in open fields in Southern India  


Hampi, KA :: Hybanthus enneaspermus :: ARK2020-056 : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (2)
Saw this small herb Hybanthus enneaaspermus in the ancient ruins complex in Hampi, KA in October 2019.

Nice catch. The ID is correct. A common weed in open lands in Karnataka


Need ID: pink flower with ball-like things: 2 images.
Madhav NP, Shivpuri

Hybanthes enneaspermus

Post the habit picture / foliage please.

I too agree with …


Identification request 8: 2 high res. images.
Habitat: Grassland, Rocky area

Habit: Herb
Height: 10-20cm
Loc: kota rajasthan
Date: 02-10-2022

Pigea enneasperma (L.) P.I.Forst.

Yes, as per images at Hybanthus enneaspermus (L.) F.Muell.


Violcaceae: Afrohybanthus enneaspermus (L.) Flicker: 1 image.
synonyms: Hybanthus enneaspermus (L.) F.Müll., Heinsia thesiifolius (Juss. ex Poir.) Hutch. & Dalziel, Hybanthus heterophyllus (Vent.) Baill.
location/date: University of Agricultural Sciences campus, Bangalore, July 1997




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