Manilkara bidentata (A.DC.) A.Chev. (Lalbagh, Banglore) (Trop. America as per WCSP)

Manilkara hexandra (Roxb.) Dubard (Bangladesh; Cambodia; China Southeast; Hainan; India; Malaya; Myanmar; Sri Lanka; Thailand; Vietnam as per Catalogue of Life)

Manilkara kauki (L.) Dubard (Introduced) (Indo-China to N. Queensland; Native to: Borneo, Cambodia, Jawa, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maluku, New Guinea, Philippines, Queensland, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Thailand, Vietnam; Introduced into: Fiji, India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka as per POWO)


Manilkara littoralis (Kurz) Dubard (Andaman Islands (incl. Coco Islands), Nicobar Islands, Bangladesh to Peninsula Thailand as per POWO)


Manilkara zapota (L.) P.Royen (Introduced) (Native to: Belize, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Panamá; Introduced into: Bahamas, Bangladesh, Cayman Is., Cuba, Dominican Republic, Florida, Gulf of Guinea Is., Haiti, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Puerto Rico, Society Is., Southwest Caribbean, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is. as per POWO)

A REVISION OF THE ASIAN-PACIFIC SPECIES OF MANILKARA (SAPOTACEAE) by K. E. Armstrong- Edinburgh Journal of Botany / Volume 70 / Issue 01 / March 2013, pp 7-56- Asian and Pacific species of Manilkara (Sapotaceae) are revised. Thirteen species are recognised and a key is given. All names are typified and detailed descriptions with distribution maps and conservation assessments are provided


Flora of Peninsular India with keys at species links, if any:

Manilkara kauki (Garden)
Manilkara roxburghiana (Andhra, Kerala and Tamil Nadu)
Manilkara zapota


Binomial Habit Notes Ref. Distrib.
Manilkara hexandra (Roxb.) Dubard Tree Dry Evergreen to
Dry Deciduous Forests
Flora of Tamil
Nadu, VOL. II, 1987; Fischer 1921, Matthew 1983
Cuddalore, Dharmapuri,   Kanchee puram, Nilgiri,  Pudduk kottai, Ramanatha puram, Thanjavur,
Thiruvallur, Tirunelveli, Tiruvanna malai, Vellore, Viluppuram
Manilkara roxburghiana (Wight) Dubard Tree Western
Ghats, Evergreen Forests
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Kanniya kumari, Nilgiri, Tirunelveli, Tiruvanna malai 
Manilkara zapota (L.) P. Royen Tree Plains
to Mid Altitude, Cultivated, Native of Tropical America 
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987


Species with description & pictures in Flowers of India as on 29.6.14: 

Botanical name Synonyms Family Common name
Manilkara hexandra Mimusops hexandra Sapotaceae Ceylon Iron Wood
Manilkara littoralis Mimusops littoralis, Mimusops indica, Kaukenia littoralis Sapotaceae Andaman Bullet-Wood
Manilkara zapota Sapotaceae Chikoo






Indian Medicinal Plants: An Illustrated Dictionary edited by C.P. Khare  (2007)- details-
Manilkara kauki


Biodiversity in India, Volume 4 edited by T. Pullaiah (2006)- Details-

A Dictionary of the Economic Products of India, Volume 1 By George Watt (1893)- Details-
Achras sapota L. is a synonym of Manilkara zapota

Flora of Madhya Pradesh: Chhatarpur and Damoh By G. P. Roy, B. K. Shukla, Bhaskar Datt (1992)- Details-
Manilkara hexandra

Manilkara achras (Mill.) Fosberg is a synonym of Manilkara zapota
Manilkara (Sapotaceae) : 1 post by 1 author.

I have updated eFI (efloraofindia) page on Manilkara (Pl. click).

Attempts have been made to incorporate most of the species available in India & nearby areas with details & keys directly or through links as far as possible. It’s quite possible that there may be some discrepancy in the accepted names & synonyms taken from other links.

Species discussed so far in efloraofindia are given at the bottom of the page in the form of links against Subpages. On clicking them one can see all the details.

If someone can provide complete list of Indian species with source references it will be wonderful.
Any comments/ corrections are welcome.

I have attached a pdf of my revision of Asian species of Manilkara. I hope the keys and descriptions will be of some help in your identifications. There are five species found in India: M. hexandra, M. roxburghiana, and M. littoralis are native, whereas M. zapota and M. kauki are cultivated. I hope this is helpful. Attachments (1)- Armstrong_2013_Manilkara.pdf


Pl. go through Manilkara‎‎ (Sapotaceae) page with comparative images of species in efloraofindia. On clicking the link of species, one can check the complete details. Genus pages generally give details of most of the species found in India.

I request you to pl. go through & point out mistakes, if any. I hope this will aid in identifications in future. If anybody can send images of other species of this genus (for incorporation in the website), if any, or can identify unidentified images, it will be really nice.