Mecardonia procumbens (Mill.) Small, Fl. S.E. U.S. 1065 1903. (Syn: Bacopa chamaedryoides (Kunth) Wettstein; Bacopa chamaedryoides var. microphylla (Schmidt) Angely.; Bacopa dianthera (Sw.) Descole & Borsini; Bacopa divaricata (J.A.Schmidt) Loefgr. & Edwall; Bacopa montevidensis (Spreng.) Herter & Melch.; Bacopa peduncularis (Benth.) Standley; Bacopa procumbens (Mill.) Greenm.; Bacopa procumbens var. peduncularis (Benth.) Fern.; Bacopa procumbens var. schottii Greenm.; Bacopa procumbens var. peduncularis (Benth.) Fern.; Bacopa procumbens var. schottii Greenm.; Bacopa tenuis (Small) Standley; Erinus procumbens Mill.; Gratiola repens Sesse & Moc.; Herpestis caprarioides Kunth; Herpestis chamaedrifolia Steud.; Herpestis chamaedryoides Kunth; Herpestis chamaedryoides var. microphylla J.A.Schmidt; Herpestis chamaedryoides var. peduncularis (Benth.) A.Gray; Herpestis chrysantha Cham. & Schltdl.; Herpestis colubrina Kunth; Herpestis cubensis Poepp.; Herpestis divaricata J.A.Schmidt; Herpestis macrantha M.E.Jones; Herpestis montevidensis Spreng.; Herpestis peduncularis Benth.; Herpestis procumbens (Mill.) Urb.; Herpestis vandellioides Kunth; Lindernia dianthera Sw.; Mecardonia dianthera (Sw.) Pennell; Mecardonia divaricata (J.A.Schmidt) Pennell; Mecardonia montevidensis (Spreng.) Pennell; Mecardonia peduncularis (Benth.) Small; Mecardonia tenuis Small; Mecardonia vandellioides (Kunth) Pennell; Mecardonia viridis Small; Microcarpaea americana Spreng.; Moniera chamaedryoides var. microphylla (Schmidt) Dusén; Moniera chamaedryoides var. peduncularis (Benth.) C.Mohr; Moniera procumbens var. montevidensis (Spreng.) Kuntze; Monniera caprariodes (Kunth) Kuntze; Monniera dianthera (Sw.) Millsp.; Monniera montevidensis (Spreng.) Kuntze; Monniera procumbens (Mill.) Kuntze; Pagesia dianthera (Sw.) Pennell; Pagesia peduncularis (Benth.) Pennell; Pagesia procumbens (Mill.) Pennell; Pagesia vandellioides (Kunth) Pennell);
USA (Alabama, Arizona, Florida, Louisiana, New Mexico, Texas), Bahamas, Cuba, Hispaniola, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Virgin Isl. (St. Croix), Lesser Antilles (Antigua, Dominica, Grenada, Martinique, Montserrat, St. Lucia, St. Vincent), Peru, Belize, Panama, Colombia (Amazonas, Antioquia, Bolvar, Boyac, Caldas, Cauca, Choc, Cundinamarca, Huila, Magdalena, Meta, Nario, Norte de Santander, Santander, Tolima, Valle), Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Mexico (Aguascalientes, Baja California Sur, Campeche, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Colima, Ciudad de Mexico, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico State, Michoacan, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Tlaxcala, Veracruz, Yucatan, Zacatecas), Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Galapagos, French Guiana, Ecuador, Bolivia (Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, La Paz, Pando, Santa Cruz, Tarija), Argentina (Catamarca, Cordoba, Formosa, Jujuy, La Rioja, Salta, Santiago del Estero, Tucuman), S-Brazil (Parana, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina), Chile (Maule), N-Brazil (Para, Amazonas), NE-Brazil (Bahia), WC-Brazil (Mato Grosso, Goias), SE-Brazil (Sao Paulo), Venezuela (Amazonas), Trinidad, Tobago, trop. Africa (I), Micronesia (I) (Truk (I), Moen (I), Pohnpei (I)), Southern Marianas (I) (Saipan (I), Rota (I), Guam (I)), Java (I), Andamans (I) (Middle Andamans (I), South Andamans (I)), Nicobars (I) (Great Nicobar Isl. (I), Little Nicobar Isl. (I)), Bhutan (I), Bangladesh (I), Nepal (I), Australia (I) (Queensland (I)) as per Catalogue of life;
Baby Jump Up, bacopa, mecardonia • Marathi: मकरदाना makardana;
This plant is a native of Tropical America and naturalised in India.


ID13092015PHK 2 : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (3)

Id Please
Torenia sp.
A small herb Ht. 4-6 inches
At Phansad WLS, MH
12 Sep, 2015

Mecardonia procumbens (Plantaginaceae).

ID Please
A small herb at Phansad WLS, Maharashtra

– … Mecardonia procumbens (Mill.) Small … of Plantaginaceae … also placed in: Gratiolaceae Scrophulariaceae
Native of tropics of Americas; naturalized in India.


ID requested of DSC01288:
Picture taken in Asansol (W.B.) on 05.06.11 time 15:58 PM. A creeper with yellow blow horn type flowers. There are violet stripes on the flower also.

Mecardonia procumbens


Mecardonia sp.? ID from Hooghly 19/7/12 SK1:
The book, “Plant Groups” mentions a plant, “…… Mecardonia diathera L., common on pathways”, under the family Scrophulariaceae. But net search gives no Mecardonia diathera L.

Instead i found –
  1. Mecardonia procumbens (Mill.) Small, under Plantaginaceae family =
  2. Mecardonia dianthera (Sw.) Pennell = synonym of the above =
The pictures i post here bear similarities with the previous posts in the group –
Species : Mecardonia procumbens (Mill.) Small ?
Habit & Habitat : small prostrate herb, beside pond
Date : 29/6/12, 9.20 A.M. & 6/7/12, 12.30 P.M.
Place : Hooghly

M.dianthera is a synonym for M.procumbens; and according to MOBOT ( Mecardonia procumbens is the accepted name.
This plant is a native of Tropical America and naturalised in India.
I have also seen this herb along roadsides and pathways near moist and evergreen forests. So your posted plant is Mecardonia procumbens (Mill.) small

I appreciate your detailed search of the plant.
The Plant List does mentions this:
Mecardonia dianthera (Sw.) Pennell is a synonym of Mecardonia procumbens (Mill.) Small
This name is a synonym of Mecardonia procumbens (Mill.) Small.



[EfloraIndi_231212PD02_Mecardonia procumbens_Flora of Odisha]:
please find the images of Mecardonia procumbens taken from Ranpur

Name of the species: Mecardonia procumbens
Family: Scrophulariaceae
Place of collection: ranpur, Nayagarh, Odisha
Habit: Herb
Habitat: Wild in grasslands

Interestingly this was the first plant I got identified through this group. In fact my joining this group was connected with this plant. I had posted this for identification to another Group, TAXACOM of which I am a member for more than 15 years, a group of International taxonomists of Plants as well as animals, and there a member suggested to me to join this group in August, 2009. It is perhaps a recent introduction to India.

so how did it travel all the way from Jamaica to India??/

Thanks a lot Sir Ji. i came to know that this species is native to sub tropical America and introduced in India. finally becomes naturalized in various parts of India.
Yes … mam u r right , … can identify the route of this species.

Reported in 2007 from Sri Lanka, earlier 1976 from Hassan District.


Flora of madhya Pradesh: 010212BS-2 Small Herb for id from Maihar Ram Temple Area:
Small Herb for id from Maihar Ram Temple Area, growing wildly
Simple leaves, Yellow flowers about 0.5 cm

Sir this is Mecardonia procumbens of scrophulariaceae- efi thread

Yes I too will go with Mecardonia procumbens

Yes I first found it in banks of Jamuna in Delhi 

Herb 02 KD for ID from Kamrup district, Assam : Attachments (5).  4 posts by 4 authors.
Attached images are unknown herb collected from two different places of Kamrup district, Assam. Please ID for it.
Date :15/02/2013 &10.04.2013
Location: Kamrup district
Family : Scrophulariaceae (?)
Genus & species : Unknown
Habitat: Grows prostrate on the ground
Habit : Herb
Flower : small , yellow in colour

Should be Mecardonia procumbens

A similar plant was identified by … in my earlier post. It is interesting to note that neither F. B. I. nor F. I. features this plant.
But the “Bengal Plants” does mention this herb as “an “introduced and thoroughly naturalised” species from America. The same book mentions it as Herpestis chamaedroides L. The Bengal Plants also informs the herb is erect…….. I have seen both, erect, when it is small and procumbent forms. This plant is flowering now.
Nothing (almost) could be found in the net about the Herpestis chamaedroides L.-
I fully agree with … A number of scientific websites, like the one at –, identify it as Mecardonia procumbens (P. Mill.) Small.


Hooghly Today : Mecardonia procumbens (Mill.) Small :  Attachments (5).  1 post by 1 author.
I have an earlier post.
This post is to show that this plant can also be erect or semi-erect, prostrate part being very short or nil.
First two photos are of almost entirely prostrate plant.

Scrophulariaceae Fortnight: NS 27 : Attachments (7). 3 posts by 2 authors.
Mecardonia procumbens (Mill.) Small.. from various places in Haryana.. now placed in Plantaginaceae..
hope the id is right..

Yes … the ID is correct and pics are perfect. It is also common in Pantnagar, an invasive alien species in India.



Scrophulariaceae Fortnight: Mecardonia procumbens from Delhi, Yamunanagar and Ukhimath-GS-25 :  Attachments (6). 3 posts by 3 authors.
Mecardonia procumbens photographed from Herbal Garden, Delhi and Yamuna Nagar and at Ukhimath in Uttarakhand
This plant holds special memory for me because in effort to seek identity of this herb in another forum in 2009 I was directed to indiantreepix which almost changed my life style and enthused new drive to seek plants after a gap of nearly 35 years.

A rapidly spreading weed in India.
Great moment changing also the repute of eflora India. We must be thankful to this species!

Thanks for sharing your memories along with this plant..
I agree with …, we must be thankful to this tiny weed..


SCROPHULARIACEAE Fortnight: Mecardonia procumbens from Uttarakhand_DSR_10 : 1 image. 2 posts by 2 authors.
Mecardonia procumbens (Mill.) Small is a small prostrate herb in Pantnagar found along roads, grounds lawns. It is an invasive alien species in India.
Now it is in Plantaginaceae

Very very beautiful close up …


scrophulariaceae Fortnight: Torenia flava from Morni-GS-56 : Attachments (2). 3 posts by 2 authors.
Torenia flava photographed from Morni

Isn’t it Mecardonia procumbens? looks very similar..

Thanks for correction …


Scrophulariaceae fortnight :: Mecardonia procumbens near Coorg :: DV07 : 2 images. 2 posts by 2 authors.
Mecardonia procumbens (Mill.) Small … also placed in: Plantaginaceae
at Cauvery Nisargadhama near Coorg on 31 MAR 11


Requesting ID of this wild plant with yellow flowers – Mumbai :: 29082013 :: ARK-02 :: August 2013 : Attachments (1). 3 posts by 2 authors.
Requesting to please ID this weed from my pot garden in Mumbai in August 2013.

your plant is Mecardonia procumbens
family – Scrophulariaceae (Figwort Family)

Satara, Oct 2014 :: Requesting ID :: ARKNOV-38 : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (4).
Requesting to please provide ID of this prostrate herb captured by the roadsidenear Satara, Maharashtra in October 2014.

Most likely Mecardonia procumbens ..

Thank you … for confirming my doubt…

Torenia parviflora Hutch. & Dalzel, : 6 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (8)
Sharing some pictures of a tiny plant which I found in my terrace garden and guess it to be Torenia parviflora Hutch. & Dalzel,
If it happens to be the plant it is not listed in any books of Nepal and also in the for Nepal.
Pictures were shot today at Gyaneswor Kathmandu Nepal at 4500 ft.

Attachments (2)

Correction: It is listed in for Nepal.

Isn’t it Mecardonia procumbens….

Thank you indeed for the correct ID. It looks so similar.


Mecardonia procumbens—-for sharing and validation : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (3)
pics taken at Aambyvalley Rd., Lonavala, Pune in Dec.16
Validation of Scroph : 4 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1) – 3 mb.
Kindly validate Mecardonia procumbens from Bilaspur. Photographed in May 2020.

Another close up of flower attached.
Attachments (1) – 2 mb.

I guess correct ID !
TQ-Manipur-08 Unidentified : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (4)
A small herb found in Manipur, at 900 m above sea level.
Flowering in June.
On a casual look I had passed it off as Erythranthe nepalensis (Mimulus nepalensis),
but closer look reveals that it is something else.
Any clue to its identity?

To me it looks like Mecardonia procumbens.

I think you are on the dot! It is amazing that this species has naturalized so far and wide!

I guess ID is correct!


I’d of a Scroph: 2 high res. images.
Request for I’d of a Scrophulariaceae herb from Bilaspur. Photographed in May 2022.

There are 2 plants.
Yellow flowered one is Scrophulariaceae herb close to Lindernia, hairy herb with round leaf is Glinus lotoides.

Please check for Mecardonia procumbens the other one is Glinus lotoidea..

Yes, appears close to images at Mecardonia procumbens


Lindernia ?- Mandalpatti, Coorg, Karnataka: 3 images.
On 7.5.22 at Mandalpatti view point at around 4000 ft. in Pushpagiri wildlife sanctuary, Coorg, Karnataka.

Attaching images now.

Erythranthe nepalensis (Benth.) G.L.Nesom

No distribution down south as per POWO.

OK. Flora of Peninsular India gives distribution in Idukki district of Kerala.
Leaves also look different as per images at

Attaching more images.
6 images- 3 images.

Calyx also looks different.

This is Mecardonia procumbens (Introduced), as per images and details herein.

Yes …


Request for I’d of herb: 2 high res. images.
Request for I’d of a possible Scrophulariaceae plant photographed from Bilaspur.
Photographed in October 2022.

Erythranthe nepalensis (Benth.) G.L.Nesom

No. This is Mecardonia procumbens (Introduced)



ID: tiny yellow scroph: 2 images.
Red sandstone derived soil

Check with Erythranthe sp.

You are perfectly right.
It is Erythranthe nepalensis (Benth.) G.L.Nesom, as per images and details herein.


I think more closer to images at Mecardonia procumbens (Introduced)


Mecardonia procumbens (Mill.) Small :: Waghbil, Thane, Maharashtra :: May 28, 2010 · 1:24 PM IST: 2 images.
Mecardonia procumbens (Mill.) Small
Waghbil, Thane, Maharashtra :: May 28, 2010 · 1:24 PM IST :: about 3 m (10 ft) asl


I’d of prostrate herb: 4 high res. image.
Request for I’d of a prostrate herb from Bilaspur. Photographed in January, 2024.

Close up image of a branch.

mage of a branch with flower

Close up image of a flower

Erythranthe nepalensis (Benth.) G.L.Nesom  ?

That is a guess.

I think appears close to images at



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