Xenostegia tridentata (L.) D. F. Austin & Staples, Brittonia 32:533. 1981 (“1980”) (Syn: (≡) Convolvulus tridentatus L. (basionym); (=) Ipomoea angustifolia Jacq.; (≡) Merremia tridentata (L.) Hallier f.) as per GRIN;
.
.
Saudi Arabia (Asir), South Africa (Limpopo, North-West Prov., Gauteng, Mpulamanga, Free State, KwaZulu-Natal, N-Cape Prov.), Swaziland, Namibia, Botswana, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Malawi, Mozambique, Angola, Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Zanzibar, Senegal, Gambia, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Central African Republic, Cameroon, Congo (Brazzaville), Guinea-Bissau, Gabon, Chad, Sudan, South Sudan, Sao Tome, Burkina Faso, Mali, Mauritania, Ethiopia, Comores (Mayotte, etc.), Madagascar, peninsular Malaysia, Indochina, trop. Asia, India, Sri Lanka, China, Hongkong, Taiwan, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Sulawesi, Philippines, Lesser Sunda Isl., Moluccas, New Guinea, Australia, Palau Isl. (I) (Babeldaob (I)) as per Catalogue of life (Xenostegia tridentata subsp. angustifolia (Jacq.) J. Lejoly & S. Lisowski) & China (Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Yunnan), Taiwan, Cambodia, India (Bengal),
Bangladesh,
Indonesia, Laos, Myanmar [Burma] (Mandalay, Taninthayi, Yangon), New Guinea, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam, Australia (Western Australia, Northern Territory, Queensland), Puerto Rico (I), peninsular Malaysia, Borneo (Natuna Isl., Anambas Isl.), Sumatra (Bangka Isl.), Sulawesi, Moluccas (Aru Isl.), Lakshadweep Isl. (Laccadives), Christmas Isl. (Australia)
as per Catalogue of Life (Xenostegia tridentata subsp. tridentata);
.
ze-no-STEEJ-ee-uh or ze-no-STEG-ee-uh — Greek: xeno (strange); stegia (covering) … Dave’s Botanary
try-den-TAY-ta — three-toothed … Dave’s Botanary
.
commonly known as: arrow-leaf morning gloryBengali: হলুদ কলমি লতা holud kolmi lawta, প্রসারিণী proshariniGujarati: ભીંતગરીયો bhintagariyoKachchhi: ઝામરવલ jhamarval, ટોપરાવલ toparavalKannada: ಇಲಿಕಿವಿ ಸೊಪ್ಪು ilikivi soppuMalayalam: പ്രസാരണി prasarani, തലനീളി thalaneeliMarathi: काळी वेल kali velSanskrit: प्रसारिणी prasariniTamil: முதியார் கூந்தல் mutiyar-kuntalTelugu: లంజ సవరం lanja savaram, సీతమ్మ జడ seethamma jada, సీతమ్మ సవరం seetamma savaram, సుంచు మూతి sunchu mutthi
.

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efloraindia: 190911 BRS29:  Pl. find the attached file contain photos for id.
Date/Time-Location- 18.09.2011

 Place, Altitude, GPS- Codisia Road, Coimbatore Near Air Port
Habitat- Garden, Road side
Plant Habit-  Herb
Size- Flowers Size/ Colour- Yellow with red spot in middle.


Merremia tridentata (L.) Hallier f. of Convolvulaceae family. 


.


Convolvula​​ceae Week -Merremia tridentata from Coimbatore:


I believe that the updated binomial is Xenostegia tridentata

Xenostegia tridentata
http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-​bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl
Merremia tridentata – synonym status only
http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-​bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?402157


.

Xenosegia.t  from ChennaiFlowering April., at link below
All leaves have the hastate base, The majority of leaves in this specimen also have a peculiar jagged apex.
which i did not see in other images, except perhaps in those of Rathnasabahapathi ji.
Or Is it the very dry and rocky habitat which brought that about ?
The second image of the Seeds is, in my records from same plant, but this requires validation.
Link

The seeds look like a match for what I have in my collection for Xenostegia tridentata from several continents


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Sidharkal Natham 140613 TBN 1 ? malvaceae member for id : Attachments (4).  4 posts by 3 authors.

Please identify this plant details of which are as follows:
Date : 18/11/12
Location :Sidarkal Natham, Nagamalai hills, near Madurai
Altitude :approx 500 to 700 ft
Habitat :wild rocky hillock
Habit :prostrate ?twiner
Height :prostrate
Leaves 😕 hastate/ ? amplexicaul; Please clarify?
Flowers :regular yellowish

Fruits :,not seen


This is Xenostegia tridentata (= Merremia tridentata) of Convolvulaceae.


Anti-inflammatory herbal medicine


 


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Climber for ID : 19102013 : RV 1 :  Attachments (3). 4 posts by 3 authors.

Kindly identify this very delicate climber, saw growing wild in Hampi region of Karnataka…. picture taken last week. (19.10.13)


It looks like Xenostegia tridentata of Convolvulaceae. I had sent the same plant photo for id on 14.06.13 and it was identified by …


Supporting Xenostegia tridentata


 


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Please help me for identification : 1 correct image. 4 posts by 2 authors.

— Please help me for identification


Xenostegia tridentata of Convoluvlaceae (DSCN9958)


5 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (2).

Requesting to please ID this creeper captured at Devgad, Konkan, Maharashtra in November 2012.

Is this Xenostegia tridentata?


Yes it is X. tridentata.



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ARJUL44 Climber for ID : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (2).

Bangalore July 2014


Xenostegia tridentata.



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ARJUL45 Climber for ID : 5 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (3).

Bangalore July 2014


Could be Xenostegia tridentata of Malvaceae.


Yes to Xenostegia tridentata (Convolvulaceae)


Posting flower for confirmation

Clicked on 27th July



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Goa, May 2015 :: Requesting ID of this tree :: ARKJUN-13/24 : 6 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (3)

Requesting to please ID this prostrate herb captured near Varca beach, Goa in May 2015.


This looks like Euphorbia species but the cyathia are not clearly visible.


Plant showing in the photograph is Xenostegia tridentata (L.) Austin & Staple (=Merremia tridentata)


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Talegaon Dabhade Pune
Nov 2015

Requesting to Id this wild creeper with small white flowers and red throat. is it Ipomea eriocarpa?


Most probably Xenostegia tridentata.


Thank you for the Id



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081213 BRS 533 : Attachments (1). 4 posts by 3 authors.
Pl. find the attached file contain climber for sp. confirmation.
Date; 08.12.2013
location: Adyar, Chennai
Habitat: garden

Habit: Climber.


One more photo of the same sp.


Merremia sp


Merremia species so far in efi. 


It is Xenostegia tridentata (L.) Austin & Staples (Syn: Merremia tridentata (L.)


Yes it is It is Xenostegia tridentata (L.) Austin & Staples (Syn: Merremia tridentata (L.)


Yes sir, Xenostegia tridentata. Only maroon color deep in center is absent .



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via Species‎ > ‎X‎ > Xenostegia tridentata (L.) D.F. Austin & Staples … family: Convolvulaceae

Flowers of India Discussions at efloraofindia more views in flickr more views on Google Earth
ze-no-STEEJ-ee-uh or ze-no-STEG-ee-uh — Greek: xeno (strange); stegia (covering)Dave’s Botanary
try-den-TAY-ta — three-toothedDave’s Botanary
commonly known as: arrow-leaf morning gloryBengali: হলুদ কলমি লতা holud kolmi lawta, প্রসারিণী proshariniGujarati: ભીંતગરીયો bhintagariyoKachchhi: ઝામરવલ jhamarval, ટોપરાવલ toparavalKannada: ಇಲಿಕಿವಿ ಸೊಪ್ಪು ilikivi soppuMalayalam: പ്രസാരണി prasarani, തലനീളി thalaneeliMarathi: काळी वेल kali velSanskrit: प्रसारिणी prasariniTamil: முதியார் கூந்தல் mutiyar-kuntalTelugu: లంజ సవరం lanja savaram, సీతమ్మ జడ seethamma jada, సీతమ్మ సవరం seetamma savaram, సుంచు మూతి sunchu mutthi
botanical names: Xenostegia tridentata (L.) D.F.Austin & Staples … a polymorphic speciessynonyms: Merremia tridentata var. tridentata (L.) Hallier f. … GBIF
April 6, 2013 … Kanakeshwar, Alibag



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Tala, Distt Umariya, M.P.- Nov’09?; 01st September 2010- Bandhavgarh Ntl Park; at Kanakeshwar, Alibag- 9/12/10; On 20/7/08 in or around the fields at Agriculture University in Hyderabad; Panipat District Oct’10?; 130209 GI On Ipomea and morning glory – indiantreepix | Google Groups For Id 220708JM1 – indiantreepix | Google Groups Plant for id sk003 – efloraofindia | Google Groups Creeper from Bandhavgarh Ntl Park – efloraofindia | Google Groups
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MS/10/1/2019 – Plant for ID : 5 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (4)- around 350 kb each.
Please ID the plant :
Date/Time- September 2019
Location-Place, Altitude, GPS- Chennai
Habitat- Garden/ Urban/ Wild/ Type- Wild  : wild
Plant Habit-Tree/ Shrub/ Climber/ Herb- Herb : Runner 
Height/Length-  4 to 5 ft
Flower – Light pink

Convolvulaceae member,

Merremia tridentata,


Xenostegia tridentata now


.


Xenostegia tridentata subspecies : 17 posts by 2 authors.

Catalogue of life gives three subspecies out of which two are found in India, as per below:
Xenostegia tridentata subsp. angustifolia (Jacq.) J. Lejoly & S. Lisowski (Saudi Arabia (Asir), South Africa (Limpopo, North-West Prov., Gauteng, Mpulamanga, Free State, KwaZulu-Natal, N-Cape Prov.), Swaziland, Namibia, Botswana, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Malawi, Mozambique, Angola, Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Zanzibar, Senegal, Gambia, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Central African Republic, Cameroon, Congo (Brazzaville), Guinea-Bissau, Gabon, Chad, Sudan, South Sudan, Sao Tome, Burkina Faso, Mali, Mauritania, Ethiopia, Comores (Mayotte, etc.), Madagascar, peninsular Malaysia, Indochina, trop. Asia, India, Sri Lanka, China, Hongkong, Taiwan, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Sulawesi, Philippines, Lesser Sunda Isl., Moluccas, New Guinea, Australia, Palau Isl. (I) (Babeldaob (I)))
Xenostegia tridentata subsp. tridentata (China (Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Yunnan), Taiwan, Cambodia, India (Bengal), Bangladesh, Indonesia, Laos, Myanmar [Burma] (Mandalay, Taninthayi, Yangon), New Guinea, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam, Australia (Western Australia, Northern Territory, Queensland), Puerto Rico (I), peninsular Malaysia, Borneo (Natuna Isl., Anambas Isl.), Sumatra (Bangka Isl.), Sulawesi, Moluccas (Aru Isl.), Lakshadweep Isl. (Laccadives), Christmas Isl. (Australia))
Xenostegia tridentata var. pubescens Rendle (Caprivi Strip, Botswana, Zambia, Mozambique, Kenya, Tanzania)
I could not find the difference on net among two subspecies found in India.
I will correct our page, after getting feedback in this regard, if any.

Can anybody give the distinction between the two subspecies ?


On further checking, however, Flora of peninusular India says that Both subspecies are found in south India as per

Book at Merremia tridentata subsp. hastata says in note that subsp. tridentata also occurs in S. India but has leaves and outer sepal obtuse- emarginate.


However details at Merremia tridentata subsp. hastata and Merremia tridentata subsp. tridentata seem to be contradictory.


Flora of China gives M. tridentata subsp. hastata (H. Hallier) van Ooststroom as a syn. of Xenostegia tridentata (Linnaeus) D. F. Austin & Staples


subsp. angustifolia photographs I have seen from Africa …leaves show an extreme of change in length and width. I do not remember seeing a post with that extreme variation.
There is variation in corolla color too…near white to deep yellow, and corolla center with or without maroon color.
There is X. tridentata subsp. alatipes with winged pedicel and winged outer lobes of calyx.
There is one more variant with lot of hairs.

I shall go through the posts here and on facebook.


WCSP further confuses the matter as it accepts all these subspecies as below:
Xenostegia tridentata subsp. angustifolia (Jacq.) Lejoly & Lisowski, Fragm. Florist. Geobot. 38: 379 (1993). (Trop. & S. Africa)
Xenostegia tridentata (L.) D.F.Austin & Staples, Brittonia 32: 533 (1980 publ. 1981). (Trop. & Subtrop. Old World including India and Srilanka)

Xenostegia tridentata subsp. hastata (Ooststr.) Parmar, J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 18: 251 (1994). (SE. China to Trop. Asia and Caroline Is. including Assam, India and Srilanka)


Leaves are very variable.

I perused posts in Indian Flora … lot of variation, sometimes extreme.
Today I visited the species …uploading one image. So much variation in one vine …
Attachments (1) – 2 mb.

One more.

Attachments (1) – 1 mb.


One more … Please see them zooming in.

In the meantime, Flora of Karnataka says var hastata has obtuse or emarginate leaftip, var tridentata has acute, mucuronate tip … Specimen I saw has no emarginate leaf,(but I think I have seen them too) but leaf variation suggests any such classification is going to be a fruitless exercise.
I shall show fb posts with extreme variation later.

Attachments (1) – 2 mb.


Thanks, … This is contradictory to Book at Merremia tridentata subsp. hastata which says in note that subsp. tridentata also occurs in S. India but has leaves and outer sepal obtuse- emarginate.


Ok, so I made a mistake again and reversed the characters in describing subspecies.

I am getting sloppy.
Any way, nowhere is the mention of leaf tip trifid with variable width between 3 points, occuring with other leaves having simple acute mucuronate tip.

My point is, many specimen need to be examined before settling this debate.


3 images.
Leaves from one stem !
I went through the detailed article by D. F. Austin who separated it from Merremia and gave it the name “Xenostegia“. 
He talks about African population and Asian population of this species, and goes on to say, in Srilanka and in South India. 
both African and Asian types are found and this is because this species was a very important medicinal plant, that is why it moved with trade and traders. In whole long paper, he never talks about subspecies and varieties. 

Ana Rita Simoes, and George Staples in their works acknowledge lot of variations,(even word ‘polymorphic’ has been used), but refuse to divide this Taxon into inferior taxa.


Thanks, …  When were these publications made?


Sir, soon I shall upload relevant pages in screen shot with details and links.


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book image.

2007
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book image.

In 2019 May , A R Simoes has published her work on Xenostegia , unfortunately that paper is not available online …only abstract 

Thanks a lot, … Wonderful !!! Very recent work.

It lists all subspecies under Xenostegia tridentata only.  


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Banasura Sagar Dam  Wayanad

Date: November 15, 2019 … Altitude: about 980 m (3,200 ft) asl
Xenostegia tridentata  (L.) D.F.Austin & Staples

This species fascinates me for its leaf variation.

…, asking you a favor … I wish to see a full leaf with its base and petiole from this specimen. I hope you have it in your raw images. Please show it for me.


Here attached is original size picture in which we can see base of few leaves.

I do not click raw, just old style JPEGs. It works easy for me.


The original pic is more than 8 MB. Let me crop it at places where we see the leaves.

Will send the cropped pics tomorrow.


Thanks, …  Leaf in your photos are much different than leaf I see in my area.

Variety and subspecies were described based on leaf and calyx.

Now this genus is revised, yet to see that paper.


Here are two cropped versions of the original picture.
The cropped versions are not resized, so what you are seeing are part of original sized photograph.
I hope you are able to see the hastate leaves almost amplexicaule, in both pictures, and hope they help you in your analysis.

Attachments (2)


Sir, thanks a lot. These leaves are just like leaves from Africa belonging to subsp. angustifolia. Here in Surat I see leaves with single tip as well as tridentate tip, lamina long or short. Seeing the wire mesh I just thought I should bring one plant home and grow it in balcony !!!


and what is the larger leaf?


Larger leaves are of some other vine. I could see no flower or fruit.


OK thanks



Banasura Sagar Dam  Wayanad

Date: November 15, 2019 … Altitude: about 980 m (3,200 ft) asl
Xenostegia tridentata  (L.) D.F.Austin & Staples

This species fascinates me for its leaf variation.

Dinesh sir, asking you a favor … I wish to see a full leaf with its base and petiole from this specimen. I hope you have it in your raw images. Please show it for me.


Here attached is original size picture in which we can see base of few leaves.

I do not click raw, just old style JPEGs. It works easy for me.


The original pic is more than 8 MB.

Let me crop it at places where we see the leaves. Will send the cropped pics tomorrow.


Thanks, …  Leaf in your hotos are much different than leaf I see in my area. Variety and subspecies were described based on leaf and calyx. Now this genus is revised, yet to see that paper.


Here are two cropped versions of the original picture.
The cropped versions are not resized, so what you are seeing are part of original sized photograph.
I hope you are able to see the hastate leaves almost amplexicaule, in both pictures, and hope they help you in your analysis.

Attachments (2)


Sir, thanks a lot. These leaves are just like leaves from Africa belonging to subsp. angustifolia. Here in Surat I see leaves with single tip as well as tridentate tip, lamina long or short. Seeing the wire mesh I just thought I should bring one plant home and grow it in balcony !!!


and what is the larger leaf?


Larger leaves are of some other vine. I could see no flower or fruit.


OK thanks


Thanks, … We had a nice discussions in this matter at Xenostegia tridentata subspecies

Latest taxonomic scrutiny, lists all subspecies under Xenostegia tridentata only.  


Recently I had been to Baroda. Within City limits, I saw this plant thriving. Again I noticed, many variations of leaf shape, size and ”teeth” on same branch.

I think it is environmental triggers that lead to formation of different types of leaf, as the branch keeps growing. Keeping an all inclusive single entity is the right thing Authors did.


.


For Id 220708JM1 – indiantreepix | Google Groups

On 20/7/08 in or around the fields at Agriculture University in Hyderabad, AP.


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Konkan, MH :: Xenostegia tridentata for validation :: ARK2021-017
4 images.

Seen this creeper in a village near coastal Devgad, MH in the last week of December 2020.

I think it is Xenostegia tridentata. Kindly validate.


You’re right ma’am



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References:

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