Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack, Malayan Misc. 1(5): 31 1820. (syn. Chalcas cammuneng Burm.f.; Chalcas exotica (L.) Millsp.; Chalcas intermedia M.Roem.; Chalcas japanensis Lour.; Chalcas paniculata L.; Chalcas sumatrana M.Roem.; Connarus foetens Blanco; Connarus santaloides Blanco; Limonia malliculensis J.R.Forst. ex Steud. (Unresolved); Marsana buxifolia Sonn. (Unresolved); Murraea exotica L.; Murraya exotica L.; Murraya exotica DC.; Murraya omphalocarpa Hayata; Murraya paniculata var. exotica (L.) C.C. Huang; Murraya paniculata var. omphalocarpa (Hayata) Tanaka);
Tropical & Subtropical Asia to Vanuatu: Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Cambodia, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., East Himalaya, Hainan, India, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maluku, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, New South Wales, Northern Territory, Philippines, Queensland, Solomon Is., Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Thailand, Vanuatu, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia; Introduced into: Bermuda, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Colombia, Comoros, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Florida, Haiti, Hawaii, Leeward Is., Marianas, Marshall Is., Mauritius, Mexico Southwest, Nansei-shoto, Puerto Rico, Réunion, Seychelles, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela, Windward Is. as per POWO;
Chinese box, cosmetic bark tree, Hawaiian mock orange, Indian box tree, mock orange, orange jasmine, satin wood • Assamese: কামিনী kamini • Bengali: কামিনী kamini • Gujarati: જાસવંતી jaswanti, કામીની kamini • Hindi: कामिनी kamini • Kannada: ಕಾದು ಕರಿಬೇವು kadu karibevu • Malayalam: കാട്ടു കറിവേപ്പ് kaattu kariveepp, മരമുല്ല maramulla • Manipuri: কামিনী কুসুম kamini kusum • Marathi: कुन्ती kunti, पांढरी pandhari • Tamil: கருவேப்பிலை karu-veppilai, கடற்கொஞ்சி katar-konci, கொஞ்சி konci • Telugu: నాగగొలంగ naga-golanga;
mer-RAY-yuh — named for J A Murray, 18th century Swedish student of Linnaeus
pan-ick-yoo-LAY-tuh — referring to the flower clusters (panicles)
Dave’s Botanary
Native to: s Asia, n Australia; naturalized / cultivated elsewhere
Jammu & Kashmir (Jammu, E-Kashmir), India (Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh,Punjab, Rajasthan, Bihar, West Bengal, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Mizoram, Meghalaya, Tripura, Assam, Orissa, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Kerala), Sikkim, Myanmar [Burma] (Bago, Chin, Mandalay, Yangon), Nepal, Bhutan, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Philippines (Batan, Luzon to Mindanao), Palawan, Sri Lanka, Java, peninsular Malaysia (Kelantan, Perak), Andaman Isl. (North Andaman Isl., Middle Andaman Isl., South Andaman Isl., Little Andaman Isl.), Nicobar Isl. (Car Nicobar Isl., North Nicobar Isl., Central Nicobar Isl., Great Nicobar Isl., Little Nicobar Isl.), Christmas Isl. (Austr.), Australia (NE-Western Australia, Northern Territory, Queensland), Taiwan, China (Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, S-Guizhou, Hainan, S-Hunan, Yunnan), Ryukyu Isl., Costa Rica (I), Mexico (I), Panama (I), Jamaica (I), Peru (I), Belize (I), Haiti (I), Dominican Republic (I), Nicaragua (I), Puerto Rico (I), Seychelles (I), Benin (I), Cameroon (I), New Caledonia, Fiji (I), trop. Africa (I), Guyana (I), Surinam (I), French Guiana (I), Ecuador (I), Lesser Antilles (I) (St. Martin (I), St. Barts (I), St. Eustatius (I), St. Kitts (I), Montserrat (I), Guadeloupe (I), Dominica (I), Martinique (I), Grenadines (I)), Cayman Isl. (I), Cook Isl. (I) (Rarotonga (I)), Marshall Isl. (I) (Kwajalein (I)), Society Isl. (I) (Tahiti (I), Raiatea (I)), Southern Marianas (I) (Guam (I)), Mauritius (I), La Runion (I), Mozambique (I), Hawaii (I) (East Maui (I) (Kaupo) (I)), USA (I) (Florida (I)), Virgin Isl. (I), Venezuela (I), Colombia (I), Bolivia (I), Trinidad & Tobago (I) as per Catalogue of Life;



This looks like Murraya paniculata  locally called kamini. Flowers have a pleasant fragrance.

Murraya paniculata ( Rutaceae) for me also. These are naturalised in Guindy National park, Chennai. This is called kattu karuvapile (wild curry leaves). This is one of the important plants of  eastern coast vegetation.
Another cultivated variety of Murraya  is M.exotica (China box), commonly cultivated in gardens. I have one in my house. The flowers are very fragrant.

– Yes Murraya paniculata. Called Madhukamini



ID Requested:
Photo taken in December 2010, in Asansol (W.B.). These shrubs are in good numbers in a dense shade of pine trees (dried leaves can be seen fallen on the subject). Normally very little sunlight reaches them. It caught my eye due to the bright red fruits, though there were no flowers. On peeling one of the fruits a sticky fluid came out. Please help with the ID.

Here are some more links of Murraya paniculata fruits.

Flora of Panipat: Murrya paniculata from Arya PG College Campus Panipat:
Murrya paniculata from Arya PG College Campus Panipat
white fragrant flowered
common garden shrub

Yes… wonderful scent… and we had a long conversation about it recently, right here……

Very common garden shrub in South India (Chennai, Mysore and Bangalore).  I have one in my place.

Request for ID – 270911SR1:
Date/Time- June 26, 2011
Location- Salt Lake, Kolkata, West Bengal
Plant Habit- Tree
Height -Around 8 ft.
Leaves Type/ Shape/ Size- Green
Flowers Size/ Colour/ Calyx/ Bracts- White, grows in clusters

Looks like Murraya paniculata … *commonly known as*: Chinese box, cosmetic bark tree, Hawaiian mock orange, Indian box tree, mock orange, orange jasmine, satin wood • *Assamese*: কামিনী kamini • *Bengali*: কামিনী kamini • *Gujarati*: જાસવંતી jaswanti, કામીની kamini • *Hindi*: कामिनी kamini • *Kannada*: ಕಾದು ಕರಿಬೇವು kadu karibevu • *Malayalam*: കാട്ടു കറിവേപ്പ് kaattu kariveepp, മരമുല്ല maramulla • *Manipuri*: কামিনী কুসুম kamini kusum • *Marathi*: कुन्ती or कुंटी kunti, पांढरी pandhari • *Tamil*: கருவேப்பிலை karu-veppilai, கடற்கொஞ்சி katar-konci, கொஞ்சி konci • *Telugu*: నాగగొలంగ naga-golanga

Here are references for … Chinese Box:
Wikipedia :
For more references, please feed the following words … Murraya paniculata Chinese Box .. into search box of Google.
But what OR why Chinese Box ?
Most probably this is the trade name used by the wood industry.
Here are references for … જાસવંતી jaswanti
Trees of Gujarat:
AND also found in a publication of Gujarat Ecological Education and Research ( GEER ) Foundation with the name ગુજરાતનાં ઔષધિય વનસ્પતિઓ
This name in some languages reminds us of the shoeflower, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, in Gujarati dictionary, found they call it જાસુદી jasudi.

Study idea to resolve the issue or distinguish Murraya paniculata and m exotica:  it seems murraya paniculata and m. exotixca is a hot issue… for what reason… I am not exactly sure… but it would be an easy test case to resolve… since it grows every where in indian gardens and woods apprantly… every body reconises it and has a story about it… its easy to look after nd follow… in a thread that went on and on… I hhad proposed the following … but it got buried in the rest of the arguments… so I am posting what I said there here in an independent thread so that this proposal may get and independent airing… free of previous threads interpersonality discourse… its a purely scientific endeavor…. lets start thinking.. at the end what may emerge will /may be totally different from what I wrote…
that’s ok too…
I quote myself from that thread:
” Dear all:
one thing I learned from studying cancer …. which is also a study of structure, biology behaviour…
one thing I learned: is that we should try to keep an open mind…
things may turn out to be quite different and may surprise the heck out of the learned minds, sometimes…
nothing is written in stone… none of these floras.. or hortuses or whoever… went on the mountain and returned with a burning bush… these are not commandments from god… merely guidelines made by experts from some local university groups or botanical gardens,  they study hard and make deductions BUT what they say should sometimes be taken as a guideline and not a commandment…
I am sure they never came to India and saw these murraya plants in action…
may be it behooves someone/ one two a few … from our group to do that…
somewhere in this thread I had even agreed to collect specimen and preserve and send for genetic analysis if someone was interested… or had the grant monies and lab equipment and grad students to do the research….
so lets not fight … but do something constructive…
may be we should have a Murraya panniculata week…. once every 3 months, that will cover the entire year’s worth of the plants behaviour… leaf only, leaf and flowering stage,  fruiting stage and dormancy in deep winter… which would perhaps be different  in different parts of India… where people will take pictures in Prescribed format, with rulers ///    and collect twigs, plant material fruits… etc… and press herbarium specimen… from all states of India….
and may be ceylon … kamini grows there too…

Thanks for this new idea, I fear studying only morphological features of few photographs won’t help much. As you must be aware the important decisions these days are taken on the basis of collecting data from thousands of specimens/populations regarding attributes of morphology, anatomy, embryology, palynology, and more recently DNA, RNA and proteins. This huge data is subjected to sophisticated phylogenetic analysis to generate phylogenetic trees, and the nesting of different taxa decides which two are closer and how much. supposing out of 20 taxa studied 18 are separated by at least 20 percent (or any other unit) and two by only 5 percent (or so). It would be logical to merge these two. It is only these studies which led to the merger of Apocynaceae and Asclepiadaceae, and separation of Liliaceae into so many families.
For more than 100 years or so Nerium indicum and Nerium oleander were treated as distinct species, and no one questioned it, but now that studies have shown that especially the molecular data does not support this separation, the two are merged, and no one seems to question it. The same has been true for the merger of tomato back into Solanum after nearly 250 years.
Yesterday I went through the revision of genus Acmella, monograph being based on phylogenetic trees and nesting of species to take his decisions, and producing a good revision. I have yesterday provided key to nearly eight species which were earlier considered as single Spilanthes acmella. It is also uploaded on our website.
Yes this can be taken as a subject of thesis where the person studies all species of Murraya. There are 38 names and only 8 recognised species. A multi-attribute analysis mainly molecular of all these taxa can help to decide how many clusters (and consequently taxa should be recognised.
Molecular data can some times throw interesting results. I had described a new species Tragopogon kashmirianus, and was a tetraploid, intermediate between other two species in Kashmir T. porrifolius (red florets) and T. dubius (yellow flowers), both diploids. This hybrid was the result of hybridization and subsequent duplication of chromosome number (amphiploidy). since this species shared features of both these species and was independent (setting seeds), it deserved a distinct species recognition. I published this but was always in doubt, since a tetraploid hybrid between these two species was already known in USA, under the name T. mirus. My worry was how can same two species give rise to two different species through hybridization and subsequent tetraploidy. Lucky for me a paper was published in Botanical Society of  America in 2006, in which 5 different authors (one from Kashmir) did detailed molecular analysis on different species and concluded that T. mirus and T. kashmirianus are quite distinct, and real relief came to me when they discovered that T. dubius of Kashmir is distinct from T. dubius of USA. The parents are not clear, but is clear that two species are distinct.…


Flora of Panipat- Murraya paniculata from PIET Campus Samalkha Panipat:

Murraya paniculata
Family Rutaceae
From Garden of PIET Campus Samalkha Panipat

This is a common garden plant in Trivandrum. The flowers are very fragrant and attract a lot of bees and butterflies. This small tree suddenly blooms in one burst now and then and the whole tree would be full of flowers. The most interesting thing that I have observed is that all the Murraya paniculata plants in the city blooms in synchrony. If I see a plant in blossom I can be pretty sure that all the other trees would be full of fragrant flowers!

Yes, Murraya paniculata. Orange Jessamine. The flowers are fragrant in the night.

yes I agree with totally. This in Marathi called as Kunti. It flowers for 3 to 4 days profusely and is fun to watch. otherwise has lustrous green leaves, very healthy, thick leaves without flowers also make the plant a delightful sight.

It is known as Kamini in hindi.

My understanding is that the cultivated ornamental plant (in India) is Murraya exotica and the one that occurs in wild is M. paniculata.
Of course some works treat them together. But according to few & me, the two species are different.
What do you think?

According to theplantlist Murrayapaniculata(L.) Jack is accepted name and M exotica is a synonym

I agree with … I am of the same opinion.

…, beautiful flowers. These are highly fragrant especially during the rain and the fruits are liked by birds like bulbul.

In Bengali its called Kamini…..grows in both east and west bengal as Kamini…
In kolkata, it flowers profusely in summer, esp if it rains a little…
as children we knew it would rain that day if the KAMINI would flower in early am…. filling the air with intoxicating scent…
Only problem with flowers is if you pluck an individual flower…
the petals fall off by the time you bring them in …
so one has to cut the twig without causing any jarring reverberations…
then it survives inside the home for a day…

NOT all plants develop fruits though.. in Kolkata..
my friends have a tree that gets beautiful red berries, I have two that never give any berries, though they flower profusely… and my friend’s and my plants are
in the same kinda micro-climate and surroundings… so the same pollinators are around …
DOES ANY ONE KNOW WHY IS THIS that some get fruits and some other not??

M. paniculata and M. exotica are two different plants.

M. paniculata leaves are quite smaller and different than of M. exotica, flowers of exotica are fragrant and not of M. paniculata,, even size differs.. these are some morphological differences..
M. paniculata can grow like a tree, whereas M. exotica remains shrub or small tree.

Plant here in foto is M. exotica
Dr. Almeida treat this as var. of paniculata

Thank you all, now its clear that there is difference of opinion in the nomenclature and synonymy of Murraya exotica with M. paniculata.
The synonymy is still under review in I have already mentioned the big difference i.e. the former is cultivated (may be a cultivar?) and the latter is wild.
Other differences as I observed are in the leaf shape and flower size.
Let’s hear from other members who have seen both.

Googling brought up several interesting facts…
Murraya panniculata is native to Australia,
yet considered a noxious weed in some parts now…
interferes with their cow pastures and beef harvesting I guess….!!!
Gardenweb ( a community of home gardeners who exchange info and experiences in USA
has this pic… see attached file…
Relevant accompanying write up was :
I quote: “” * Posted by Joanmary_z10 z10 Ft. L. Fl. (My Page) on Thu, Feb 3, 05 at 22:16

I’m in Zone 10, semi tropical. Both my Murraya Paniculata and the smaller version M. ‘Exotica’ P. are outside. The ‘exotica’ grows at the base of the M.P. which is 6′ tall. In this way, I have a longer ‘flowering flush’ = fragrance!
The soil is warm here resulting in very fast germination. Try setting up a system where your soil will be kept warm, not hot then you’ll have faster germination, if that is a problem for you.
In reaping the berries: if you ‘pluck’ them off, they are probably not mature yet. Very gently give a very slight ‘pull’. If it does not come off, leave it till its more mature. In fact, you will find that when the berries are ‘ripe’ they will fall to the floor.
I’ve included a picture here of the difference between the larger and smaller types. Notice the larger leaves and the elongated seed of the M.P. The smaller ‘exotica’ has smaller leaves and rounded berries, and when opened, they are both absolutely different.
In warmer soil, the little seedlings will also grow faster.
Hope this helps.
* Posted by Joanmary_z10 z10 Ft. L. Fl. (My Page) on Sun, Feb 6, 05 at 23:57
Am using Photobucket (Webshots wont allow posting of pics here) to post this comparison between Murraya Paniculata (large shrub) and Murraya ‘Exotica’ Paniculata, the smaller shrub. “”.
PLEASE NOTE THAT THESE ARE MOSTLY HOUSEWIVES…so discussion may be not be academic ..
but I like their energy and openness and desire to learn… love it in fact…

googling for ” murraya paniculata flower dissection”
some where along the way a nice bw line drawing of the
flower and ovary etc of murraya paniculate…
the figure could non be copied…
but I could access the accompanying text which red, I quote:
”  Murraya paniculata is cultivated as an ornamental shrub, whereas M. koenigii is cultivated for its curry leaves. Leaves of Skimmia laureola are burnt in order to purify air. Ruta (rue), Zanthoxylum (toothache tree), and Casimiroa are medicinal. Boenninghausenia (‘Pisu-mar-buti’) is used as an insecticidal. Murrayapaniculata ‘Kamini’ Cultivated evergreen shrub. Leaves: Alternate, imparipinnate, leaflets 5-7, gland-dotted, coriaceous, exstipulate, unicostate reticulate. Inflorescence: Axillary or terminal many flowered cymes. Flower: Ebracteate, pedicellate, complete, actinomorphic, bisexual, hypogynous, pentamerous, cyclic. Calyx: 5, gamosepalous, valvate, green, inferior. Corolla: 5, polypetalous, imbricate, gland-dotted, fragrant, white, inferior. Androecium: 10, in two whorls, outer whorl alternating with petals, inner opposite (diplostemonous), anthers bithecous, basifixed, dehiscence longitudinal, introrse. Gynoecium: Bi-to tricarpellary syncarpous superior ovary, bi-to trilocular, 1-2 ovules in each loculus, placentation axile, style long, stigma 2-3-fid, ovary surrounded at base by a large nectariferous disc. Fruit: Red ovoid berry.” it turned out to be a google doc type page… scrolling up got me your name…. its a wonderful chapter… the entire chapter is many many pages long …at a website called Wiz IQ… that apparently charges money for accessing the full paper to students…. This file was put up by NOT YOU/YOURSELF but by somebody called Richard…
URL for this page is
I am telling you all this , ,,, so that IF THIS IS INFRINGEMENT OF YOUR COPYRIGHT … you may decide what to do
about it…

This is getting more and more interesting and cofusing!
Had a look at the pictures and the link that … had posted.
According to it Murraya paniculata has elongated seeds and M.exotica rounded ones. The berries I have collected recently from different plants in various gardens in Trivandrum have elongated seeds. So they have to be Murraya paniculata according to the above link.
But … says M.paniculata is the wild one and … says M.paniculata flowers are not fragrant. But the flowers of the trees with elongated seeds are very fragrant.
Just wanted to share these observations.

I think these differences are not significant when we realise that all modern books and databases including GRIN and The Plant List treat M. exotica L. (as well as M. exotica DC.) is treated as synonym of M. paniculata. Except from shape of fruit and other minor differences there is nothing to warrant treating exotica as an independent species.

Was studying on the net about M. paniculata and came across the following link which states that the only difference in the two that is M. paniculata and M Exotica is the size where M exotica is smalller that M Paniculata but there is some overlap

Another link M. exotica & M. paniculata are not much different. exotica has slightly larger flowers, paniculata has narrower petals & smaller flowers.

That is why the two are treated as synonyms
Hortus Third the most complete book on cultivated plants treats them synonyms
Even GRIN which treats it as distinct species has this comment: “perhaps best treated as M. paniculata ‘Exotica’”

I think many times treating the two different species under the synonym of one species is ignorance of the distinct characters. (terms like forma, sub species, etc etc.. rarely used in naming the plants,,, atleast in India)

I agree with …   Both are different species. Both these species are available in IIT Madras Campus and C L R I Campus, Adyar Chennai. While the M. paniculata is wild, M.exotica is cultivated. In photograph both the plants look like.
Unfortunately, I am not in Chennai now. I had the photographs of both. I will try to dig out from the archives in due course and post it to the group (depends on getting the photographs)

For that that matter all species which have been described on the basis of different holotypes would be different species, because they will have some differences. If we have that concept there would be no heterotypic synonyms and we will have more than 5 lac species of angiosperms on this Earth, whereas most authors agree on this number being below 3 lacs. As I have written earlier also Hortus Third (considered Bible for cultivated plants), The Plant List, now even GRIN, and numerous other publications treat them as synonyms, and we would be doing little service to ignore them.

If plant is different surely they will have some differences i guess…
I think every one will agree that M. paniculata present in the wild as well as in cultivation whereas M. exotica or M. paniculata var. exotica or cv of M. paniculata whatever we say its commonly cultivated in the garden for the glossy laeves and beautiful flowers.. if its cv than who had made it???? no doubt they are different and in Maharashtra both can seen very commonly,, those who eager to see the species can visit Amboli, Mahabaleshwar, Mathera, Pune, Bhimashankar etc places to see M. paniculata and M. exotica in Nashik garden, Mumbai (Rani baug, Bombay trust garden, Gorai, Sanjay Gandhi National Park in Plantation near pond,, etc etc..), Kolhapur, Pune garden.. etc etc.

We all know that Flora of China (FoC) is one of the most trusted efloras, and most of the time a ready reference for identifying our Indian plants, too.
It treats Murraya paniculata and M. exotica as different species. We knew this based on our field experience.
The differences, as per FoC are: []

Leaflet blades mostly suborbicular to ovate to elliptic, 1.5-6 cm wideM. paniculata
Leaflet blades elliptic-obovate or obovate, 0.5-3 cm wide M. exotica
These may appear to be variable characters if we refer only herbarium specimens.
Some taxa for e.g. Flacourtia indica & F. romantchii, we know they are different based on their differences in habit, ecology etc., but its hard to find strong characters to distinguish them convincingly.

Pl read “Flacourtia ramontchi“.

I am sure He won’t neglect FoC’s treatment. The editors of FoC also had the same opinion like ours, in both the cases Murraya and Flacourtia. We know that they are (the spp.) different. That’s why when several Indian Floras treated them as synonyms, we could not agree. But someone does come with solutions, and now we are comfortable. Its matter of time. Thanks to the dynamic nature of plant systematics. Nothing is final!

I am very much aware of eFlora of China and treatment in It, but let us appreciate the fact that Flora of China is 1997 publication. I have following to support my conclusion:
The Plant list …. 2010
Wikipedia …….. September, 2011
GRIN ……….. note on Sept, 2011 based on Beattie, A. 2011. pers. comm. via E–mail to L. Fowler on 15 Sept 2011. [re. M. exotica vs. M. paniculata].
Perhaps many more will follow. In my opinion two plants looking differently does not make much difference. What is important are differences are sufficient enough to merit distinction or merger. I believe in what taxonomic World thinks currently.

I think one has to check the “specimens” of both the “species” to conclude this.
While I was searching for Murraya, I found that, Murraya exotica L. is the accepted name for GRIN with Murraya paniculataauct. nonn. (just put your pointer here to know what is auct. non.or refer as synonym

Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack. is the accepted name for “the plant list” with M. exotica L. as the synonym.
Why they come to a different conclusion?

Please refer this link for contents in “the plant list”

Yes … The Plant List and GRIN did differ, but please read note under M. exotica updated in September 2011
” perhaps best treated as M. paniculata ‘Exotica’”

Besides Wikipedia, please also see the following link
I would be interested to know any recent treatment which considers them separate.

Thank you sir ji the link provided by you is very informative. This discussion turn to be interesting as the naming and treatment of the plants are so complicated.
Earlier people working from different parts of the world were not well connected by any means as that of today.
Further, most of the publications were made regionally that was not reaching to the people in the other parts of the world. These publications has started reaching people now with the advancement of communication and digitization.
The communication gap would be the reason why there are so many synonyms for several species.
Now we have a good platform to discuss and dig out the right thing. But we need to understand the characters of a plant/animal that discriminate taxonomically with due respect to the concept of species.

Yes … The discussion is getting interesting. For decades we had been following original Index Kewensis. This time Kew has come into collaboration with Missouri Botanical Garden making use of huge databases like Tropicos, IPNI and hundreds of other collaborators, and they are trying to build a list of accepted names and synonyms. Agreed there are several mistakes, several unresolved names but these would be resolved over next few years. We have to point out these mistakes where they exist, but simply rejecting these would only harm us not the Plant List, which surely going to be the undisputed reference source. Perhaps no one has been as busy as me in sending them the possible errors in their list, I send them at least one mail in one week to highlight ambiguities. But finally once established the List would be followed by almost the whole World. I always base my decisions on recent evidence, and keep my opinions open. That is the right scientific approach.

This is not just studying this plant alone but there are several such ambiguities in the classification (especially plant classification) that had happened because of several reasons. It is time to rectify such ambiguities.
I do think that we need lots of discussions like this especially when people are of different opinion. Because opinions of taxonomists who work in different arena has their own share to it.
I am pretty sure that people who work on revision of plants such as “the plant list” and GRIN will go for several discussions to get it concluded. Single person may not be able do this kind of work. Whenever there are more people working on the same aspect, there would be different opinions. We would be conclude the same only with help of fruitful discussions and debates .

I request all members to please come up with the pictures of both the plants (M. exotica and M. paniculata) depicting the characters. We will decide it later at the end of the discussion whether to call them same or different species. If you don’t get both, please get whatever is there in your area and we shall differentiate which is which.

I would appreciate if you can take some effort to get some clear close up pictures of leaves (to see the shape and preferably with a scale) flowers (both front and side view) and fruits (if available). Please dont forget to collect notes for valid discussion.
Let us see what happens. I am not accessible to any of these plants at present and when ever I get I will put my share in to it.
I request … to kindly lead the discussion based on the pictures.
We will clear the doubt with evidences. Further we can submit a report to the plant list or GRIN and why not we can go for a publication on behalf of “efloraofindia”
At the same time, if someone can catch hold of the picture/scan copies of type specimens it would be better.
It is not good to stop a discussion without result.

Please find attached herewith the pictures that I took from a garden at Calicut 2 days back. I think this can be treated as M. exotica, since it has been collected from garden.
Please share if someone has any pictures related to this topic and if someone has pictures of Murraya from the wild, please share the same here in this thread. 
Date/Time- 23-10-11
Location- Place, Altitude, GPS- Parambath, Calicut, Kerala
Habitat- Garden/ Urban/ Wild/ Type- Garden
Plant Habit- Tree/ Shrub/ Climber/ Herb- Large shrub/small tree
Height/Length- 3-4m height
Leaves Type/ Shape/ Size- Compound leaves, leaflets are ovate
Flowers Size/ Colour/ Calyx/ Bracts – White flowers that are about 2 cm produced on terminal cymes (mostly corymbose cymes)
Fruits Type/ Shape/ Size Seeds- Oval shaped drupe that is about 1cm long. Dark green when young and orange to red when ripened


Rutaceae week: Murraya paniculata from Panipat-2012:
This one is
Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack, Malayan Misc. 1 (5): 31, 1820, a common ornamental shrub/hedge plant, photgraphed from IB College campus, Panipat….May 6, 2012.


Rutaceae Week – Bangalore – RA – Murraya paniculata – Mock Orange Tree – Kamini:
Kamini flowers have an aromatic orange-like fragrance. Native to India, Kamini is a large, multi-trunked shrub, but can grow to become a small tree. It can be pruned and also grown as garden hedge! The evergreen leaflets are dark green and pinnately compound with three to nine leaflets arranged alternately along the spine. The dark green leaves make a dramatic backdrop for the highly fragrant cream colored flowers. The shrub blooms most of the year. The flowers are followed by small oval red fruits with one or two seeds. The shrub is usually propagated from seed.

Rutaceae week: Murraya paniculata
‘Kunti’, ‘Kamini’,’Pandhari’,’Chula juti’.
Small tree with highly fragrant flowers.


Rutaceae Week :: Murraya paniculata at Mumbai and Karnala:
Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack mer-RAY-yuh — named for J A Murray, 18th century Swedish student of Linnaeus
pan-ick-yoo-LAY-tuh — referring to the flower clusters (panicles)
Dave’s Botanary

May 22, 2010 … at Veermata Jeejabai Bhosale Udyan, Mumbai
commonly known as: Chinese box, cosmetic bark tree, Hawaiian mock orange, Indian box tree, mock orange, orange jasmine, satin wood • Assamese: কামিনী kamini • Bengali: কামিনী kamini • Gujarati: જાસવંતી jaswanti, કામીની kamini • Hindi: कामिनी kamini • Kannada: ಕಾದು ಕರಿಬೇವು kadu karibevu • Malayalam: കാട്ടു കറിവേപ്പ് kaattu kariveepp, മരമുല്ല maramulla • Manipuri: কামিনী কুসুম kamini kusum • Marathi: कुन्ती kunti, पांढरी pandhari • Tamil: கருவேப்பிலை karu-veppilai, கடற்கொஞ்சி katar-konci, கொஞ்சி konci • Telugu: నాగగొలంగ naga-golanga
Native to: s Asia, n Australia; naturalized / cultivated elsewhere
References: Flowers of IndiaWikipediaNPGS / GRINENVIS – FRLHTDDSAFlowers of Sahyadri by Shrikant Ingalhalikar
more views: May 9, 2008 and May 22, 2010 … at Veermata Jeejabai Bhosale Udyan, Mumbai

A highly fragrant plant and a very good alternative for hedges.


Rutaceae week: Murraya paniculata at Nagpur:
Sharing few photographs of Murraya paniculata.
Location: Nagpur.


Rutaceae Week: Murraya paniculata from PIET Campus Samalkha Panipat:
Murraya paniculata from PIET Campus Samalkha Panipat


Rutaceae week: Murraya paniculata (কামিনী) from Hooghly:

One of the most common garden shrub in our area is Murraya paniculata. We call this plant KAAMINI (কামিনী) in Bengali. Since it is not their flowering time it would be difficult to get any flower or fruit at this time of the year. For the last few days i checked as many as 10 to 15 shrubs in different places in Hooghly. This morning, to my marvel, noticed one smiling at me from my own backyard… and as i went nearer it whispered, “How about taking my shot!”
Also attaching some more from my not so old stock.
Species : Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack
Habit & Habitat : garden shrub, backyard, front-yard, also on roadside
Date : 10-05-2012, 8.00 a.m. (first four pics)
Place : Hooghly, WB

…And here is a short video link showing Common Crow Butterfly on the flowers of this plant. The video was recorded in May, 2010 and is of poor quality because it was produced by me! –

Common names: Burmese-boxwood, Chinese-boxwood, Chinese-myrtle, cosmetic-bark-tree, mock orange

Photographed from Delhi


Rutaceae Week : Murraya paniculata:
Am submitting photographs of Murraya paniculata
Locally called Kamini in bengali/bangla and Gujarati
We grew up with these plants and their very gragrant flowers they burst forth at the slightest provocation of heat, increased ambient humidity and impending rains… anything will do and up comes / wafts up the sweet smell…
Not all plants set flowers, and not all plants set fruits … variability is source of much anguish and debate…
we have had our episodes of debates here at eflora… last year…
First four pics are from a street bush from a friends sidewalk. Rest are mine and last one is from the lakes.
MY QUESTION: Can some one tell me about the leaf pics … the ” holes” ???/ please… these pics will be submitted in second post here in this same thread.

Continuing this thread … leaves with transmitted light and my question as above

They are pellucid glands (mostly oils are stored there) and not holes.
Further reading…

I am glad its a useful trait…
is it only in Murraya clan or in all citrus?

I think most Rutaceae members, including Citrus sp. have glands, though all immersed glands may not be transparent (pellucid).

so, how many types of glands do leaves have?
one seems to be what this leaf had: immersed and pallucid ..


efloraindia: 111111 BRS154:

Flower of Orange Jasmine (Murraya paniculata) Rutaceae, from NBNP Garden, Anaikatti, Coimbatore.
Habitat: Garden
Habit: Tree

Murraya paniculata fruit as well as flower images.

Date/Time-Oct 2011
Location-Place, Altitude, GPS-Pune
Habitat- Garden/ Urban/ Wild/ Type-Private garden
Plant Habit-Tree/ Shrub/ Climber/ Herb- Tree
Height/Length- 10-12 feet
Leaves Type/ Shape/ Size- green appear dusty as some renovation work was in progress
Flowers Size/ Colour/ Calyx/ Bracts- white single
Fruits Type/ Shape/ Size Seeds- not seen
Other Information like Fragrance, Pollinator, Uses etc.- mild fragrance

Murreya paniculata, of Rutaceae family, I think.
Day time mild fragrance and in the night quite good fragrance.

I was thinking about M paniculata and went through previous discussions on this tree but was not sure for 2 reasons.. I found that 1) the flowers are in clusters

2) petals a little broader.
My tree shows single flowers, with narrower petals.
Attaching a picture for comparison. Can this be a variant of M paniculata. Please validate

Please check for other inflorescence/flowers on the same plant as well.
From one picture we may not conclude that the plant produce only single flower.

I went to check the flowers but to my surprise there were none. Probably it is the end of the flowering for this tree this season. The day I photographed I remember to have seen just one more flower. Probably I have to wait till the next flowering season occurs.

Yes I agree. A small correction in spelling. It has to beMurraya paniculata
Kunti (कुंती) in मराठी.

Thank you … for the Marathi name. May be there is some mythological story attached to this tree named Kunti.

27 July 2012
This tree is flowering at present profusely. … I could see flowers in clusters 🙂 The tree is a beautiful sight that I missed last year. Very nice fragrance too. Attaching some pics of the same


Bangalore – RA – Murraya Paniculata – Mock Orange Tree – Kamini: (8 pictures)
Kamini flowers have an aromatic orange-like fragrance. Native to India, Kamini is a large, multi-trunked shrub, but can grow to become a small tree.

It can be pruned and also grown as garden hedge!
The evergreen leaflets are dark green and pinnately compound with three to nine leaflets arranged alternately along the spine. The dark green leaves make a dramatic backdrop for the highly fragrant cream colored flowers. 
The shrub blooms most of the year.
The flowers are followed by small oval red fruits with one or two seeds.
The shrub is usually propagated from seed.

Nice pictures. Last week I noticed fruiting of this sp. in Coimbatore.

Nice set of pictures! I am waiting for uploads of Murraya Paniculata from wild condition.

Here … has mentioned that this is native to India. Please share if you have any reference for this.
But still it is not clear about the nativity of this species. Some literature says that this is native to South Asia and some others say that this is native to Australia.
Still the hunt is on to clarify the uncertainty between Murraya Paniculata and M. exotica


Murraya paniculata :: Hooghly, West Bengal : Attachments (5).  3 posts by 2 authors.

A search in the Wikipedia informs me that what i knew as Murraya exotica is now Murraya paniculata. We call it KAMINI in Bengali.
Though it is not their flowering time yet almost all of them are bearing a few flowers even in this off-season.
Species : Murraya paniculata
Date : 26/02/2012, 9.51 a.m.
Place : Hooghly, West Bengal
ID help :

Very nice pictures …
I can feel the fragrance through your beautiful pictures.
In Marathi we call it ‘Kunti’
A very good plant for hedges if one is looking for a native plant for the hedge.

Thank you Sir for appreciating those photographs. I wonder who named it as KUNTI and why! However, it can also be found here, these days, on roadsides in villages.

SYMBIOSIS : 383 : Attachments (1).  1 post by 1 author.
Attaching an image of a Striped Albatross butterfly on the flowers of Murraya paniculata. (KAMINI).


SYMBIOSIS : 500 :  Attachments (1). 1 post by 1 author.
Here goes the 500th member of the series. In this a Blue-throated Barbet is eating fruits of Murraya exotica(Syn Murraya paniculata). This is famous KAMINI in Bangla and Hindi.

20052014NVR ornamental Garden tree for ID : 3 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (4).
The flower is similar with Murraya paniculata, Rutaceae

Yes. It is Murraya paniculata. कुंती


Bush For ID : Uttarakhand : 100914 : AK-6 : 2 posts by 1 author. Attachments (5).
Bush seen outside a restaurant on 16/5/14.
Murraya paniculata?

Murraya exotica

Thanks. If I am not wrong, Murraya paniculata is the valid name and M. exotica a Syn.
Experts, kindly correct me if wrong.


SYMBIOSIS : 730 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1)
Attaching an image of a Red Vented Bulbul on fruits of Murraya paniculata (KAMINI).

FLOWERS/PLANTS MENTIONED BY TAGORE IN HIS SONGS : ( KAMINI -1 ) : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1)
Attaching translated version of a song by Tagore where KAMINI has been mentioned.
The scientific name of he plant is Murraya paniculata (syn. Murraya exotica).

Seen in a housing complex in Mumbai
Kindly confirm if these are fruits of Kamini

Yes, it is Kamini– the Murraya.

28-TSP-ID-11JAN2016-5:: Rutaceae sp for ID : 5 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (4)

Kindly identify this plant.. Could this be Murraya paniculata (Rutaceae)….?

Habit: Shrub

Habitat: Wild, Shola forest ffringe

Sighting: Mullaianagiri, Chikmagalur, about 1700 msl

Date: 26-03-2015

Murraya paniculata = M.exotica

The nomenclature goes as follows:
Murraya paniculata(L.) Jack in Malayan Misc. 1(5): 31. 1820; Yognar. et al., Fl. Chikmagalur Dist. 66. 1981; B.D. Sharma et al., Fl. Karnataka-Anal. 41. 1984; C.J. Saldanha, Fl. Karnataka 2: 221. 1996. Chalcas paniculata L., Mant. Pl. 1: 68. 1767. Murraya exotica L., Mant. Pl. 2: 563. 1771 (‘Murraea‘); Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 1: 502. 1875; T. Cooke, Fl. Bombay 1: 182. 1901 [1: 193. 1958 (Repr. ed.)]; Gamble, Fl. Madras 1: 155. 1915 [1: 111. 1957 (Repr. ed.)]. ‘Angara kanagida, Kadu bevu, Kaadu karibevu‘.

Murraya paniculata (L.) Jacq. (accepted name) ?? : 5 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (5)
Location: Pilot Baba Ashram, Bhaktapur, Nepal
Altitude: 5000 ft.
Date: 11 September 2016
Nepali Names: कामिनी फूल /सिमाली / बजरदन्ते

I think yes.

कामिनी फूल Kaamimi Phool / सिमाली Simaali / बजरदन्ते Bajaradante

Location:  Golfutar, Kathmandu, Nepal
Date: 2 September 2017
Elevation : 4400 ft.
Attachments (4)

Please ID this plant : 3 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (5)

Location- Sadavali, Dapoli, Maharshtra
Habitat- Wild
Plant Habit- Tree
Height-7 meter
Inflorescence Type/ Size-
Flowers-White colour
Fruits- Red Colour

I think Murraya paniculata…!!

Fwd: SYMBIOSIS : 1152 : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)
Attaching a collage of Red Base Jezebel visiting flowers of Murraya paniculata (KAMINI)


Re: SYMBIOSIS 1151 : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)
Attaching a collage of Honey bee visiting flowers of Murraya paniculata (KAMINI).

Pollinator series I think. Good to see honey bees active. very nice and clear pictures

Fwd: SYMBIOSIS : 1153 : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)
Attaching a collage of Psyche visiting flowers of Murraya paniculata(KAMINI)

wonderful to see pollination of kamini.  i wish i could say the same about my three kamini trees.

no wonder we dont see fruits here in the eastern city…no butterflies, almost. an occasion straggler around kali puja. too many insecticides to destroy mosquitoes, which i am sure also affects honey bees and butterflies and larger moths and too many crows, i have seen them catch butterflies in flight!!!  populations of crows increase when there is open garbage accumulating esp in carnivorous society. we are the poorer for it but ever an optimist, here’s to hoping,

So far I have recorded some 26 species of butterflies visiting flowers of Kamini.
In addition I have seen Bees, Wasps and Bumble bee etc visiting. Once I saw a Hawk Moth on the flower but could not take an image. I have recorded Blu throated Barbet and Bulbuls relishing the fruits. You are right, Pollution and destruction of vegetation in the name of development has created problems for the other life forms,

yes …  may be i will start a page with plant name and pollinators you have sent in. may be in december when i am going to relax a bit. will be good data

Fwd: SYMBIOSIS : 1154 : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)
Attaching a collage of Common Mormon (m) visiting flowers of Murraya paniculata (KAMINI).

love it, one more pollinator of kamini. the 1st pic shows complete profile

Re: SYMBIOSIS : 1155 : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)
Attaching a collage of Common Emigrant (male) visiting flowers of Murraya paniculata (KAMINI)

Fwd: SYMBIOSIS 1156 : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)
Attaching a collage of Grey Pansy visiting flowers of Murraya paniculata (KAMINI).

grey pansy another pollinator on kamini flowers. well, i need to start counting, makes me happy just looking at the pictures

Fwd: SYMBIOSIS : 1157 : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)
Attaching a collage of Bumble bee visiting flowers of Murraya paniculata (KAMINI).

very nice. do bumble bees bite humans? i wonder
i do not wish that anyone find out now, only retrospective anecdote will suffice if any

Bumble bee/ Carpenter bee/ Blue banded bee etc don’t sting so far I know.

Fwd: SYMBIOSIS : 1158 : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)
Attaching a collage of a male Striped Albatross visiting flowers of Murraya paniculata (KAMINI)

what an efficient camouflage. and great shots

Fwd: SYMBIOSIS 1159 : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)
Attaching a collage of Red spot Jezebel visiting flowers of Murraya paniculata (KAMINI).

one more pollinator of kamini flowers. very pretty pic

Re: SYMBIOSIS 1160 : 4 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)
Attaching a collage of Coloured Sergeant visiting flowers of Murraya paniculata (KAMINI).

Thank you. …. this also becomes a sort of a list of butterfly you find in cooch behar. one more pollinator of kamini flowers

Murraya paniculata, : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (2)
Murraya paniculata,
this was seen growing in Chinnar WLS, right besides Chinnar River in Idukki district in Kerala.
Chinnar is in the rain shadow area of the Nilgiris and the vegetation in the forest is deciduous in nature

SYMBIOSIS 1255 : 3 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (1)
Attaching a collage of Indian Cabbage White visiting flowers of Murraya paniculata (KAMINI)
Identification of cultivated tree : 6 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (2)- around 550 kb each.
Is it Murraya?

Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack !

Yes.  I have this plant in my garden

It is not a tree but a big shrub. Lots of medicinal importance.  Common names : Orange Jasmine, Chinese box.

It has overgrown like a tree in our garden.


SYMBIOSIS : 1467 : 1 image.
Attaching a collage of  Common Mime (Dissimilis) visiting flowers of Murraya paniculata (KAMINI)


I’d please place kota Rajasthan: (Mixed thread): 1 high res. image.

Murraya paniculata (L.) Jacq. !


Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack :: Waghbil, Thane :: Jun 10, 2007 · JUN23 DV358: 5 images.

Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack
Waghbil, Thane :: Jun 10, 2007 · 2:41 PM IST :: about 3 m (10 ft) asl
Many thanks to Radha Veach for validating the ID at iNaturalist


Rutaceae: Murraya paniculata (L.) Jacq.: 1 high res. image.

synonyms: Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack, Murraya exotica L.
location/date: Nandi Hills, Bangalore, Karnataka, July 1997