Populus alba L. (Iran (EC-Iran, NE-Iran: Mts., N-Iran, Iranian Aserbaijan, W-Iran), Afghanistan (Badghys, Herat, Kabul, Kunar / Nuristan, Paktia / Khost), Pakistan (Baluchistan, Quetta, Waziristan, Kurram, Chitral, Swat, Gilgit, Baltistan, Astor), Jammu & Kashmir (Hazara, Murree, Kashmir), Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan as per Catalogue of life (Populus caspica (Bornm.) Bornm syn. of Populus alba L. as per POWO))



(E-Europe (I), Croatia (I), European Russia (I), China (I) (Hebei (I), Heilongjiang (I), Jilin (I), Liaoning (I)), Kazakhstan (I), Uzbekistan (I), Canada (I) (Ontario (I), Quebec (I)), Estonia (I) as per Catalogue of life)


(USA (Arkansas, California, Delaware, Georgia, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, North Carolina, North Dakota, New York, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Tennessee, Utah, Virginia, Wisconsin, West Virginia, Wyoming), Canada (Nova Scotia, Ontario, Quebec), Anatolia (I), China (I), Korea (I), Estonia (I), Ecuador (I), Mexico (I), Europe (I), Germany (I), Albania (I), Vietnam (I), Greece (I), Czech Republic (I), Slovakia (I), Slovenia (I), Croatia (I) as per Catalogue of Life)













Populus ciliata Wall. ex Royle (Tibet, China (Yunnan), Bhutan, India, Myanmar [Burma] (Kachin), Nepal, Pakistan (Dir, Chitral, Swat, Astor, Gilgit, Baltistan), Jammu & Kashmir (Hazara, Murree, Kashmir), Sikkim as per Catalogue of Life)



















Populus deltoides Marshall (Native to: Alabama, Alberta, Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Manitoba, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Québec, Saskatchewan, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming; Introduced into: Argentina Northeast, Austria, Azores, Belgium, Bolivia, Bulgaria, Cape Provinces, France, Free State, Germany, Great Britain, Hungary, Italy, Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Morocco, Netherlands, Northern Provinces, Peru, Portugal, Spain, Tadzhikistan, West Himalaya, Yugoslavia as per POWO)
















Populus euphratica Oliv. (Georgia [Caucasus], Northern Caucasus, Azerbaijan, Afghanistan (Badakshan, Badghys, Farah, Helmand, Herat, Kabul, Nimroz), Pakistan (Karachi, Sind, Quetta, Waziristan, Lahore, Baltistan), Jammu & Kashmir (Ladakh), Morocco, Algeria, China (Gansu, Nei Mongol, Qinghai, Xinjiang), Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Turkey (S-Anatolia, SE-Anatolia, SSW-Anatolia), Egypt (Desert Oases), Iran (EC-Iran, E-Iran, NE-Iran: Mts., Iranian Aserbaijan, S-Iran, W-Iran, W-Iran, N-Iran), Iraq (NE-Iraq, NW-Iraq, SE-Iraq: Mesopotamia, W-Iraq: Desert), Israel (Rift Valley, Negev Desert), Jordania (S-Jordania), Syria (Jazira, Jbel Druze) as per Catalogue of life)




Populus gamblei Dode (INDIA (West Bengal, Sikkim, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland); BHUTAN as per efi thread)



(Europe (I), European Russia (I), Northern Caucasus (I), Japan (I), Australia (I) (Victoria (I)), China (Fujian, Hebei, Jiangsu, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Shaanxi, Sichuan), Ryukyu Isl. (I), Pakistan (I), Jammu & Kashmir (I), South Africa (I), Lesotho (I) as per Catalogue of life)











(China (Sichuan), Tibet as per Catalogue of life)

/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/Salicaceae-Populus-ciliata-P1070382-Kashmir.jpg /wp-content/uploads/2020/10/Wallichsheet_CAL.jpg

Here is the list of Populus …  found in India.

1. Populus alba              

P. ciliata

P. deltoides                         

P. euphratica

P. gamblei

6. P. glauca

7. P. nigra var. italica

szechuanica var. tibetica    

Thanks a lot, …, These have been incorporated at Salix & Populus
You have done wonderful work during Saliaceae fortnight. Kudos to your hard work.

Thanks for species list of Salicaceae.
However, in Populus, one species is missing: Populus pamirica Kom.
I have seen this species in entire Ladakh.

… can you please share the picture of Populus pamirica in this group? It would be really interesting to see the plants from Ladakh.

As per eFlora of Pakistan P. balsamifera of Indian authors incl. FBI 5: 638 and R. Parker, For. Fl. Punj. ed. 3: 510. 1956 (non L.) is actually P. palmirica. This is significant as your list does not list either.

My plant from Dachigam should be this if not P. balsamifera

Plz confirm whether it is Populus pamirica Kom.

Please indicate the place. Looks similar to my herbarium sheet of P. balsamifera, common in Dachigam.

Wurdwan Khistwar – a region at trijunction of zanaskar, pahalgam and Marwa Dachan in j & k.

As I already discuss in my previous mail regarding this P. pamirica P. balsamifera issue. I’m not willing to include neither P. pamirica nor P. balsamifera in Indian list.
I would like add some more facts that this decision is a result of my five year’s research work and it is based on studies of so many authentic materials deposited in different foreign herbaria and literature. I’m fortunate enough to view those images through Dr. P. Lakshinarasimhan and Dr. S. Srivastava, Indian Liaison Officers, (both were posted at Kew) who not only send the pictures from K but also provided me images from other major European herbaria (P, G, LINN, BM, UPS) during their visit. I’m also thankful to Dr. I. Belyaeva for sending me type images of P. pamirica from Lenningrad. I really enjoyed this discussion.
Dear … Thanks so much for your posting. This is Populus szechuanica var. tibetica. Basically Indian “Populus balsamifera”(of Hooker, Brandis) is now considered under Populus szechuanica var. tibetica following C.K. Schneider (Pl. Wilson., 1916). I do not agree with to eFlora of Pakistan that “Indian specimens of P. balsamifera actually belong to P. pamirica”. You can check the character through Flora of China and also from the book Pl. Wilson., 1916. Thanks for providing the fruiting catkin which helps a lot for identification. Next time when you collect Populus please try to follow their fruiting and ovary characters (shape & hairiness of ovary, length of stipe of ovary and number of valves in the fruits after dehiscence). And if possible try to take photographs of the entire catkin and fruits.

Thanks a lot … for settling this issue.

Thanks … for your expert comments.
I believe in India we badly require family experts like you. But that is not priority agenda for funding agencies.
They fund molecular studies of wrongly identified taxa.

… I’m totally agree with you. The confusing taxa can be properly identified with the help of molecular technique. But it is pretty expensive. 


I’m sure about that after seeing the type material of P. pamirica (deposited at Leningrad) and checking the description of this species in Flora of the USSR. I do not agree with to eFlora of Pakistan that “Indian specimens of P. balsamifera actually belong to P. pamirica”. Rather I believe on the work of C.K. Schneider (Pl. Wilson., 1916) who included the Indian “Populus balsamifera”(of Hooker, Brandis) under Populus szechuanica var. tibetica. Schneider’s work seems to be more justified as his work is very original (not copied from other) and simply marvelous.

The leaf of your specimen looks like some hybrid of P. nigra var. italica. But for further confirmation reproductive parts are required. I’m not willing to include neither P. pamirica nor P. balsamifera in Indian list

Willows and Poplars (SALICACEAE) of INDIA- Selected Salix and Populus species of Himalaya Photos by Sukla. Chanda. Produced by S. Chanda, R. Foster, J. Philipp, T. Wachter; with support from Connie Keller, Ellen Hyndman Fund & Andrew Mellon Foundation:
Populus ciliata,
Populus deltoides,
Populus gamblei
Populus nigra var. italica

Future of Poplar in India by Jagdish Kishwan1, Dinesh Kumar2 
a) Indigenous species:
Indigenous species of poplar occur in the Himalayan region in northern part of India.
P. ciliata
P. gamblei
P. jacquemontii var. glauca
P. rotundifolia 
P. euphratica
P. alba

b) Exotic species:
P. deltoides
P. nigra
Other species/hybrids:
P. x euramericana
P. x berolinensis
P. canescens
P. maximowiczii
P. trichocarpa
P. simonii
P. szechuanica
P. yunnanensis
P. deltoides performed better than all other exotic poplars in the plains of North India, and relegated most other exotic poplars to the status of anonymity in India. In the hills, P. yunnanensis and P. x euramericana ‘Robusta’ proved better than other species (Seth, 1969).

In India two genera Populus L. and Salix L. are reported under Salicaceae sensu stricto. A key to the genera is presented below:
1a. Vegetative buds with many outer scales; terminal buds frequently present; catkins  mostly pendulous; 
       floral bracts  dentate or lobed; flower with disc but without any glands …………………………  1. Populus
 1b.Vegetative buds with one outer scale; terminal bud absent; catkins generally erect; occasionally
      spreading or pendulous; floral bracts generally entire; flowers without any disc, but with glands..  2. Salix
I’ll post some more text in coming days.


Very good and clear to understand description.
Some addition which I found from Flowers of Himalaya by Polunin which might be useful. (… may add or alter if anything is not correct)

SALIX : The flowers are insect pollinated. The leaves are narrow and short stalked.

POPULUS: Flowers are wind pollinated numerous and pendulous. Leaves with broad blade and slender leaf stalk.



Leaves lobed, buds dry hairy


Leaves toothed (Not lobed) buds sticky

   P.ciliata (Himalayan Poplar)

   P.pamirica (P.balsamifera)

   P.jacquemontiana Dode var. glauca

   P. nigra L. cultivar italica. (Lombardy Poplar)

The genus Populus L., popularly known as Poplar distributed throughout the world chiefly in the northern temperate regions and a few are extending to East Africa ( Mabberley, 2008).
The genus Populus has the characters as follows:
Deciduous trees; branches lon. Leaves alternate; leaf bladesovate, deltoid, rhombic, elliptic,rarely lanceolate or linear, often dimorphic or even polymorphic; petioles long, terete, or laterally compressed. Catkins appear before the leaves ( precocious), long pedunculate, pendulous, often lax-flowered; flowers pedicellate; borne on a disc; male flowers: stamens 4-many; female flowers: ovary sessile, surrounded by the disc, 1-loculed. Capsules 2-4-valved; seeds numerous.
The genus Populus L. consists of 35 species ( Mabberlay, 2002 and 2008), but according to Fang et al.( 1999) and Ali( 2001) Populus L. have 100 species which are distributed in Asia, Europe, North America and Northern Africa.
Most of the species of Populus L. are distributed in the North-Western Himalayan region in India. P. ciliata has extended distribution from Jammu & Kashmir to Arunachal Pradesh of India. This genus shows a longer path of distribution from Afghanistan to China touching Pakistan, India, Nepal, Bhutan and Myanmar. P. alba, P. nigra var. italica, and P. deltoides etc. are stated to be basically introduced for a long time. Several exotic species and their hybrids are in trials mainly in the North-western Himalaya.
Large scale cultivation are mainly occur in tarai and Hilly regions of Uttar Pradesh and Punjab. As the wood of Poplars are directly related to wood industry, different business houses and companies take initiative for spreading and increasing Populus cultivation. Species of Populus L. in cultivation are known as Poplar, Aspen, Cottonwood are also known to cultivated in gardens. However, much plant is planted for pulp wood, windbreaks, avenues and also as ornamental. ………………………………….

of Peninsular India
with keys at
species links

Populus ciliata

Populus afghanica (Aitch. & Hemsl.) C. K. Schneider (Pakistan (Kurram, S. Waziristan, Quetta, Kalat); Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Kirgyzstan, Kazakistan, N. Africa and eastern Mediterranean region)

  • Populus alba Linnaeus (Europe, N. Africa, South West and Western Central Asia including Kashmir and Pakistan (N.W.F. Province, Murree, Baluchistan))
  • Populus ciliata Wall. ex Royle (Pakistan (Chitral) eastwards to Kashmir, 4-10000 ft, along the Himalayas through India, Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan, Myanmar)
  • Populus euphratica Olivier (Pakistan (Sindh, Baluchistan, Punjab) Kashmir; Afghanistan; Iran; Iraq; Kazakstan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, China (Gansu, W Nei Mongol, Qinghai, Xinjiang), N. Africa, Spain)
  • Populus nigra Linnaeus (Native in China (Xinjiang), widely cultivated in Pakistan, Kashmir, China, West and Central Asia, Europe, N. Africa)
  • Populus pamirica Komarov (Afghanistan, Pakistan (Chitral, Gilgit), Kashmir, Tajikistan, China (Xinjiang))

    Populus ciliata Wall. ex Royle (2000- 3200 m; Himalaya (Kashmir to Bhutan), N. Burma, S.W. China (Yunnan))

  • Populus deltoides Marshall
  • Populus jacquemontiana var. glauca Dode (2600-3000 m; E. Himalaya (Nepal to Bhutan))
  • Populus tremula L. (Planted- 1400 m; Europe to W. Siberia)


    Some species found in India with description & keys from Flora of China [Distribution other than China]:

    Populus alba [N Africa, SW and WC Asia, Europe].

    Populus ciliata var. ciliata ([Bhutan, India, Kashmir, N Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Sikkim].)
    Populus euphratica [Afghanistan, ?India, Kazakhstan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan; SW Asia].
    Populus glauca [India, Sikkim]
    Populus nigra var. italica [native to WC Asia, Europe]
    Populus szechuanica (No distribution given for India)

    Populus : 1 post by 1 author.

    I have updated eFI (efloraofindia) page on Populus

    Attempts have been made to incorporate most of the species available in India & nearby areas with details & keys directly or through links as far as possible. It’s quite possible that there may be some discrepancy in the accepted names & synonyms taken from other links.

    Species discussed so far in efloraofindia are given at the bottom of the page in the form of links against Subpages. On clicking them one can see all the details.

    If someone can provide complete list of Indian species with source references it will be wonderful.

    Any comments/ corrections are welcome.

    Pl. go throughPopulus (Salicaceae) page with comparative images of species in efloraofindia. On clicking the link of species, one can check the complete details.

    I request you to pl. go through & point out mistakes, if any. I hope this will aid in identifications in future. If anybody can send images of other species of this genus (for incorporation in the website), if any, or can identify unidentified images, it will be really nice.

    Thank you very much for the nice compilation … You are more than an Expert Botanist.

    Thanks, … I am just using the expertise of our members and Experts, in various threads of our discussions.

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