Solanum anguivi Lam., Tabl. encycl. 2:23. 1794 (syn. (=) Solanum hermannii Dunal; (=) Solanum indicum auct.; (=) Solanum sodomeum L.);
Poison berry; ‘Katheli-Badhi’; Hindi: Barhanta; Malayalam: Putharichunda, Cheruchunda; SANSKRIT: Brihati, Simhi;
Solanum indicum described in FBI, as understood now represents more one species: S. erianthum D. Don, S. anguivi and S. violaceum. Latter is quite distinct in its purple flowers (white in first, white with purple veins in
branches and underside of leaves tomentose, prickles curved on stem, straight on petiole and leaf beneath; leaf unequal at base, sinuately lobed; flowers in leaf-opposed cymes, 2 cm across, calyx finely stellate; berry green mottled with white when young orange when ripe, about 1 cm across.
S. anguivi is supposed to have many flowered infl, smaller flowers and fruits in clusters:
The plants originally placed in Solanum indicum especially in Indian context are now recognised as at least two distinct species:
Solanum anguivi: Leaves elliptic-ovate with 2-4 pairs of lobes, base oblique; flowers in raceme-like cyme, 5-20-fld; corolla 6-12 mm across; white with occasional purple veins on outer surface; berry subglobose, 8-11 mm green or white when young, red when ripe, in clusters of up to 20 fruits…….refer to eFl Pakistan
Solanum violaceum: Leaves sinuate to pinnately lobed, stellately pubescent, densely beneath, unequal at base, nerves with almost straight prickles on both surfaces; corolla blue-purple, 2-2.5 cm across; berry globose, orange, 1 cm across. ….refer to Flora of Ceylone vol. 6 page 378.
S. lasiocarpum: Robust shrubs, to 1.5 m high; stems densely spineus prickled and stellate hairy. Leaves to 35 x 35 cm, ovate-orbicular, entire or shallowly lacerate; stellate hairs unequally armed; petioles 5-10 cm long. Flowers in groups of 2-3, axillary, epedunculate; pedicels short; calyx densely stellate hairy; corolla 3-4 cm across, blue, hairy outside; ovary densely hairy. Berry 3-5 cm across, globose, densely covered with spineus bristles.
Solanum violaceum Ortega ssp. violaceum: Armed undershrubs, up to 1.5 m tall; branches minutely stellate-hairy on young parts, glabrate when mature. Leaves 5-12 x 4-7 cm, ovate or ovate-oblong, sinuately to deeply lobed, base rounded or unequal, apex subacute, sparsely stellate-hairy above, stellate-woolly beneath, prickly on the nerves; petiole to 2.5 cm long. Flowers bluish-violet in extra-axillary racemes; peduncle c. 4 cm long; pedicel to 8 mm long. Calyx cupular; lobes 5, c. 5 mm long, triangular, prickly. Corolla c. 2 cm across, campanulate. Stamens 5; anthers c. 5 mm long. Ovary c. 2 x 2 mm, globose; stigma acute. Berry 0.8-1.3 cm across, globose; orange yellow when ripe.
As per recent interpretation of S. lasiocarpum (these species have been much confused in the past), S. lasiocarpum has only white (and not purple) flowers and characteristic hairy ovary and berry.
The plant often gone under the name
Solanum indicum in Indian Floras has now been understood as several species. One such is S. anguivi which has again white flowers with purple veins on outside and more important there are numerous berries in a bunch.

Solanum viarum                                           Solanum anguivi
Prickcle on stem recurved or needle-like    prickles up to 10 mm long,
up to 5 mm long                                        slightly recurved or erect
Petiole 3-7 cm, with flat straight prickles    Petiole up to 2.5 cm,
Leaves unequal pairs, 3-5 lobed                Leaves oblong-ovate, repand
Flowers in 1-5 fld racemes                        Flowers 4-15, in extraaxillary cymes,
white or green                                          flowers bluish-purple
Berry glabrous, pale yellow, 2-3 cm           Berry glabrous, yellow, 8-10 mm


“Solanaceae week”/06/04/2011/YRP/02/Chethalayam, Wayanad.De:
this is a small plant with small purple flowers around 8 mm in diameter, the fruit when mature is around 7 mm in diameter, green in the beginning, orange colour when ripe and black when dried up. Could someone identify it please?

–  It is a woody shrub. The height varies from 2′ to around 3.5′. The flowers are in clusters. The fruits in clusters is evidence of that. Prickles are present both on the stem as well as on the leaves. The prickles are small ranging from 3 mm in length to around 8 mm in length, they are thin and very sharp. Towards the tip of the tender shoot, the prickles are small and dense, however along the rest of the stem, they are between 18 mm apart to around 30 mm apart. Flowers definitely occur in clusters, however there are a few flowers that stand out in singles and twos.

– My key takes me to Solanum anguivi

A Solanum sp : Attachments (2).  20 posts by 7 authors.

A Solanum (wild), i.d. requested
From Pingla, Midnapore, W.B.

This plant in the attached photo is Solanum surattense syn. Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad & Wendl., Solanum virginianum L. Solanum jacquini Willd.

try with Solanum albicaule Kotschy ex Dunal

Attaching a cropped photo which may help i.d.Thanks to all for the trouble taken by them

I think this is Solanum Viarum Dunal
Please go through the link below.
Discover life

this is Solanum indicum (= S. anguivi), i think (to be different!!).

Please let us come into a decision regarding the specific epithet of this particular plant. Let us all supplement our responses with morphological points; i.e why you call calling this plant belonging to the partical species of Solanum sp [ diagonistic feature of the species]. It will help us all to get into a conclusion and decipher the correct name of the plant.

It can not be Solanum Indicum because, the fruits in the case of Solanum Indicum turn to black (almost colour, as seen in the picture in the link given below). Whereas Solanum Viarum Dunal is green in colour with white lines and it turns to red when it ripens.
Please go through the links sent earlier. Please also go through the link sent today to confirm that it is not solanum Indicum.
Mother herbs

you have a valid point to share. let wait for other responses.

I have the following observations

The plant can’t be Solanum xanthocarpum which has subsequently been named as S. surattense and now correctly as S. virginianum, because that plant is a small spreading subshrub with leaves not velvety.
The name S. indicum applied to Indian plants is not valid. Some of Indian Plants i.e. S. indicum auct with glabrous fruits is correctly S. anguivi, S. indicum L. now correctly known as lasiocarpum has tomentose berries.
S. verbascifolium L. now correctly known as S. erianthum has unarmed stems and leaves.
I think the toss is between S. viarum and S. anguivi:
Solanum viarum Dunal in A. de Candolle, Prodr. 13(1): 240. 1852

Syn: Solanum khasianum C. B. Clarke var. chatterjeeanum Sen Gupta.

Herbs or subshrubs, erect, 0.5-1(-2) m tall, armed, minutely tomentose with many-celled, simple, mostly glandular hairs. Stems and branches terete, densely and evenly pubescent with many-celled, simple hairs to 1 mm, armed with recurved prickles 2-5 × 1-5(-8) mm and sometimes with needlelike prickles 1-4 mm. Leaves unequal paired; petiole stout 3-7 cm, armed with erect, flat straight prickles 0.3-1.8 cm; leaf blade broadly ovate, 6-13 × 6-12 cm, with prickles and coarse, many-celled, glandular simple hairs on both surfaces, these mixed with sparse, sessile, stellate hairs abaxially, base truncate to short hastate, margin 3-5-lobed or -parted; lobes blunt at apex. Inflorescences extra-axillary, subfasciculate, 1-5-flowered racemes; peduncle obsolete or short. Flowers andromonoecious, only basal ones fertile. Pedicel 4-6 mm. Calyx campanulate, ca. 10 × 7 mm, lobes oblong-lanceolate, 0.6-1.2 mm, hairy and sometimes prickly abaxially. Corolla white or green; lobes lanceolate, ca. 2.5 × 10 mm, pubescent as on calyx. Filaments 1-1.5 mm; anthers lanceolate, acuminate, 6-7 mm. Ovary puberulent. Style ca. 8 mm, glabrous. Berry pale yellow, globose, 2-3 cm in diam. Seeds brown, lenticular, 2-2.8 mm in diam. Fl. Jun-Aug, fr. Jun-Oct.

Wastelands, grasslands, thickets, open forests, along ditches, roadsides; 1400-2200 m. E Xizang (Zaya Xian), Yunnan [widespread in tropical Asia and Africa].

8. Solanum anguivi Lam., Tabl. Encycl. 2:23. 1794. Hepper, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 76:290. 1978.


A prickly undershrub, 1.5-2 m tall, with dense stellate-tomentose parts. Prickles up to 10 mm long, erect to slightly recurved. Leaves 4-15 x 3.5-9 cm, ovate to oblong-ovate, repand, acute, both surfaces stellately hairy and prickly on the nerves. Petiole up to 2.5 cm long. Flowers 4-15 in number, bluish-purple, in extra-axillary cymes. Calyx ± 4 mm long, campanulate, stellately hairy. Corolla limb 18-20 mm broad; lobes acute. Anthers 6-7 mm long; filaments glabrous. Ovary and style pilose-pubescent. Berry globose, (5-)8-10 mm broad, glabrescent, yellow. Seeds ± 3 mm long, subreniform, minutely reticulate, foveolate.

Fl. Per.: Mostly throughout the year.

Type: Described from Madagascar, Commerson (MPU, syntype P).

Distribution: S. & S. E. Asia, Arabia and tropical Africa.

Solanum viarum                                                                                       Solanum anguivi
Prickcle on stem recurved or needle-like                                                 prickles up to 10 mm long,
up to 5 mm long                                                                                            slightly recurved or erect
Petiole 3-7 cm, with flat straight prickles                                                Petiole up to 2.5 cm,
Leaves unequal pairs, 3-5 lobed                                                             Leaves oblong-ovate, repand
Flowers in 1-5 fld racemes                                                                      Flowers 4-15, in extra axillary cymes,
white or green                                                                                            flowers bluish-purple
Berry glabrous, pale yellow, 2-3 cm                                                        Berry glabrous, yellow, 8-10 mm
I would go with S. viarum on the basis of longer petioles and prickles on leaf surface.

On the basis of the relevant taxonomic characters discussed by … we all can come into a positive conclusion that “The plant in the attached photographs belong to the genus Solanum sp and its specific epithet is Solanum viarum“. I personally thank all of you for taking the tedious effort and well planned techniques to decipher the name of this long discussed plant from West Bengal brought into our notice by …

I am not very sure now, because since posting my last mail, I have seen pictures of ripe fruits that are yellow in colour, but the fruits I have seen in my farm is of fruits that are red in colour.
We may have to wait a while and study a bit more.

The flowers in Solanum viarum Dunal are usually white and the fruits (small wild brinjals, some 3 cm across?) are used as vegetable by local people in TN. Plants are smaller when compare to S. anguivi (= S. indicum). So the pictures shared by … must be Solanum anguivi (shrub 1-1.5 m high, with fruits of about 1 cm) and not S. viarum. He may like to provide more pictures for better understanding.

check these links: Fleppc

Taking the clue from …, I am attaching some more photos,

one of them (100_1031 JPG) was sent earlier which I labeled as S.xanthocarpum/ surattense, but did not get any response from others. The other (100-1137-1) was also sent earlier . It was identified as S.viarum. If that is a viarum, the present one is likely anguivi– waiting comment from …

attached photo is of 2 different plant first and last one is of Solanum torvum (100_1031 JPG & 100_1137-1.JPG) and the middle one is S surattense (100-1137-1) . please see the leaf morphology and you will understand that i am correct .

You seem to be getting confused with long thread. First photo is same as first in original set above, only that flower is clearly seen. As … has pointed out ( and earlier …) it is S. anguivi. Third one seems to be S. viarum, as suggested by … Second one with highly dissected leaves and paniculate white flowers is definitely not S. xanthocarpum (S.surratense correct name S. virginianum). This perhaps is still unidentified and needs further critical examination.

you are write i got confused with long thread. sorry for it. now i got hold of it.

The second picture (100_1031) with white flowers and dissected/lobed leaves probably belongs to Solanum sissimbrifolium.

Yes … Seem seem to have solved the riddle ultimately.

Requesting ID of this Solanaceae plant – Lohagad : 20082013 : ARK-03 : August 2013 : Attachments (3). 9 posts by 5 authors.
Requesting to please ID this Solanaceae plant captured at Lohagad near Pune in August 2013.

Solanum torvum?

Thanks … for possible ID, however as per FoI, the Solanum torvum flowers are white…
Could this be a variation?

From photographs flowers appear white or pinkish, a feature of S. Torvum, along with unequal leaf base, angled leaves and broad-based prickles.

What about Solanum anguivi?

looks like Solanum xanthocarpum.

I support … on S. anguivi

Looks like Solanum indicum used in traditional Ayurveda medicine, as part of Dashmoolarishtam.
Other names, Dorli, Brhati.
This is erect.
Solanum suarattense or xanthocarpum will spread on ground and not stand as seen.
Leaves also have thorns.
Baigan or egg plant, S. melongena also looks like this.

Solanum anguivi


Solanum for identification no090114sn1 : Attachments (3). 7 posts by 6 authors.
Your help in identification needed.

location:ambyvalley rd.,lonavala,pune
plant habit;–
height:about 3 ft.

How about Solanum anguivi Lam. ?

Yes looks like Solanum anguivi

It is a variant of Solanum nigrum only. Solanum anguvi (=S. indicum) is an armed shrub)

…, this is an armed shrub. I think … and … are correct

Thanks …
As you rightly said
Solanum anguivi an armed shrub is very common in Western ghats.

Yes S. anguivi



Solanum anguivi——-for sharing and validation : Attachments (1). 1 post by 1 author.
Pic of Poisonberry flower, taken at ambyvalley rd., lonavala, pune in dec12.


Solanum anguivi Lam SN Oct 30 :  1 post by 1 author. Attachments (3).
Solanum anguivi Lam (= Solanum indicum var. lividum (Link) Bitter), wild herb from the hilly areas of Krishnagiri dt. Tamilnadu and adjacent Karnataka. The elevation is around 1000m


Solanum anguivi Lam.
at Koraigad on January 16, 2011
at Koraigad on October 8, 2011


Attached are pictures of Solanum anguivi captured at Lohagad in August 2013.
Was posted on the forum earlier and identified.

Solanaceae Fortnight:: Solanum anguivi::SMPFEB 1/1 : 1 post by 1 author. 3 images.
Sharing pictures of Solanum anguivi from Amboli


Solanum ¿ anguivi ?
Armed shrub growing in wild, height about 1.5 m;
flower measuring about 20 – 25 mm; berry about 8 – 10 mm.
These photos may not be sufficient for getting to ID.
I got a feeling it must be Solanum anguivi. Please validate.
along Saphale Ghat on September 28, 2009

Seems to be Solanum anguivi Lam. {Synonyms: Solanum indicum var. lividum (Link) Bitter; Solanum indicum var. maroanum Bitter; Solanum lividum Link}
Keys to species:
1.       Plant armed
2.       Leaves subpinnately lobed.
3.       Spines recurved at joint, less than 1.0cm long,
4.       Corolla bluish-violet,
5.       Calyx lobes acute,
6.       Calyx are not prickly;
7.       Berries c 0.8cm across, yellowish-red when ripe.
Flowering and Fruiting: July – February
Distribution in Maharashtra: Common in moist deciduous forests.
Vernacular names in  Maharashtra: Dorli, Mothirigani, Ravang, Ringni 


This is in connection with my thread of Solanum violaceum Ortega. Since this thread is a request for providing me one simple information only I have not serialized it with a new number.
My question is – Does BSI publication recognize the presence of Solanum anguivi Lam. in India?
Those who have access to BSI publications please help.
This is because all sources I have found recently in the net inform me that Solanum anguivi Lam. is an African species, while Solanum indicum L. of Asia is Solanum violaceum Ortega.
Several articles/papers in this regard can be viewed/downloaded from the net. I would only provide two links which I think is the most authentic source. The links give details of both the species, anguivi and violaceum and their distribution and differences. I cannot help but copy a few words form these two links, “…. The distribution of S. violaceum and S. anguivi do not overlap; the closest proximity of the two species is S. violaceum in Mauritius and S. anguivi in Madagascar.”

Thank you

…, answer to your question lies in my this thread
Solanum violaceum from Dakpathar (

Attached are pictures of Solanum anguivi captured at Rajgad in September 2014.
Requested to validate the ID.

Talegaon Dabhade Pune
July 2015
Requesting to please identify this wild shrub with purple stem, leaves with purple thorns and purple flowers. no fruits were seen

Check Solanum species.

Thank you. I will check Solanum species

Solanum sp

Solanum indicum
Synonym: Solanum anguivi
Marathi Name: Ran-Vangi, Dorli, Chichardi

Solanum nigrum

I’ll go with …! Solanum nigrum is never thorny!!

Solanum nigrum is never thorny. It is S. indicum only

I think its Solanum anguivi only. These color differentiation are usually found. Attachments (1)

Thank you for the Id and sharing the image.

Solanum violaceum ??

Solanum anguvii


Bannarghatta-17-09-09; From Pingla, Midnapore, W.B.;

A Solanum sp – efloraofindia | Google Groups
Wild Flower for ID-210909-RK-1 – indiantreepix | Google Groups

Solanaceae fortnight 06 : 5 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (1)
Solanum americanum Mill.(= Solanum nigrum L), wild as well as cultivated under shrub, wondered by seeing it from
coastal area to 2300 m at Doddabetta, Nilgiris, immature fruits are fried and taken as a crispy side dish, leaves are used as green. Fresh ripen fruits are eaten raw. Two varieties are found here, one with small scales on the stem another nearly smooth.

Thanks, … But Solanum americanum & Solanum nigrum are different.

As I searched for information on Indian Solanaceae for the past two days I came across a number of articles and papers. I didn’t understand much of the content though.
I copy the following words from an article found in
“Working on the S. nigrum complex of the Indian subcontinent, Schilling and Anderson (1990), on the basis of chromosome number as well as some other morphological characters, recognized three distinct species, viz. (i) S. americanum Mill., 2n = 2x = 24 (inflorescence umbellate, fruits shiny purple-black with reflexed sepals), (ii) S. villosum Mill., 2n = 4x = 48 (fruits very distinctive orange, orange-brown or reddishorange), and (iii) S. nigrum L., 2n = 6x = 72 (inflorescence racemiform, fruits dull purple-black with sepals adhering to the fruits).”
The KEY and description is available at –
I do not know if more recent papers negate the above claims.

Thank you very much for your information.

I think it can be Solanum anguivi Lam. as in … images at Solanaceae Fortnight :: Solanum anguivi FOR VALIDATION :: Saphale Ghat :: DVFEB25/33, though the image does not provide many details.

Which Solanum? – efloraofindia | Google Groups : 5 images.
Wayanad, Kerala;

To me appears close to images at Solanum anguivi Lam.

To me appears close to images at Solanum anguivi Lam. (1st set of 4 images)


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