images by Prashant Awale; Yazdi Palia; inserted by Gurcharan Singh

 

S. viarum is somewhat similar to S. capsicoides (syn: S. aculeatissimum) in longer prickles, but latter has much more longer prickles often reaching 2 cm and much less hairy leaves often lustrous in appearance, berries yellow (S. aculeatissimum) or orange red (S. capsicoides (s. str.). S. viarum has typically young berries with white and green patches, mature yellow, leaves much densely hairy, and shorter mixed straight and curved prickles.
With the merger of Solanum aculeatissimum with S. capsicoides (as per Kew Plant list) the latter species can now have both pale yellow, orange red or red fruits even in ripe stage. What I know about these two (when they were considered separate species) that their leaves are more greener, somewhat shining and prickles are much longer (up to 2 cm long as against only 5 mm long in S. viarum).
Solanum aculeatissimum: Yellow berries, straight prickles, more hairy deeply lobed leaves , hirsute unarmed calyx with longer fruiting calyx.
Solanum capsicoides: Berries orange red when mature, green with dark green markings when young; stems with slender delicate priclkles; leaves some what shining, sparsely hairy, deeply lobed, shorter prickly calyx.
Solanum viarum: Yellow berries, densely hairy and glandular pubescent stems and leaves, short broad based curved (barely 5 mm long) prickles in addition to long straight ones on stem and straight strong up to 18 mm long on petiole and both leaf surfaces, densely glandular and sparsely prickly calyx, and shallowly lobed leaves.

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I had seen this Solanaceae sp. in North Karnataka. Kindly help me in identifying this..
Bot. name: Solanum capsicoides
Location: Karikale, North Karnataka
Habitat: Garden
Fruits were spherical, red and approx 1inch dia..

 


 

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Solanaceae fortnight SN 09 : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)

Solanum aculeatissimum Jacq.(= Solanum khasianum C.B. Clarke), wild undershrub found both in the east and western ghats of India


 

Very distinctive fruits.


 

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Solanum of 18-2-15 of goa : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (1)
Location GOA, Feb 15.

white small flowers, with central portion bearing the anthers appearing as a small yellow rod like projection. Fruits orange color, could not locate any throns. For ID.


 

Seems to be S. capsicoides

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Solanaceae sp. for ID–13022011-PKA1: I had seen this Solanaceae sp. in North Karnataka. Kindly help me in
identifying this..

Date/Time: 17-01-2011 / 02:00PM
Location: Karikale, North Karnataka
Habitat: Garden
Fruits were Globuse, red and approx 1inch dia..


–  I hope Solanum capsicoides All. (syn: S. aculeatissimum Clarke in FBI     4:237 (non. Jacq.); S. ciliatum Lam.):


– Yes … It does look like Solanum capsicoides. Have a look at this link.

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“Solanaceae week”: Solanum capsicoides/05/04/2011/YRP/02/­Chethalayam, Wayanad.: Friends, once again old pictures. Pictures of flowers are not added,
however, the pictures of raw fruit, partially turning yellow before fully ripening and fully ripe fruits.

Solanum viarum & Solanum capsicoides (and Solanum aculeatissimum): Solanum viarum and Solanum capsicoides (and S. aculeatissimum) are closely related but distinct species that have an interesting history in Indian context.
Clarke in Flora of British India described Solanum khasianum Clarke characterized by hisute stems, straight spreading prickles, deeply lobed hirsute leaves covered with up to 2 cm long straight prickles on both surfaces, flowers in lateral clusters of 1-4 flowers, nearly 2 cm across flowers (white to pink), hirsute unarmed calyx and 2 cm across yellow berries, with fruiting calyx about 8 mm long. Distributed in Khasia hills Assam and Manipur. This species is now known to be the synonym of Solanum aculeatissimum Jacq.
Flora of Britsh India also described Solanum aculeatissimum Jacq. characterised by very slender straight prickles, lobed leaves which are sparsely hairy, 1-7 flowered clusters, each producing usually one fruit, berry 3 cm; calyx in fruit prickly but barely 6 mm long and seeds winged. It also has berry which is pale green with dark markings when young orange red when mature. This plant of Clarke as understood now is Solanum capsicoides All. and not S. aculeatissimum Jacq.,
In 1961 Sen Gupta established a distinct variety from Nilghiri mountains in Tamil Nadu, differentiated by softly pubescent plants, densely glandular pubescence, distinctly recurved prickles on stem, shallowly lobed leaves, prickly calyx with shorter ovate or deltoid lobes and pubescent ovary. This variety is now being considered as synonym of Solanum viarum Dunal.
Although The Plant list treats Solanum aculeatissimum Jacq. as synonym of S. capsicoides All., both GRIN (updated November, 2010) and Flora of China treat them distinct.
In any case we should be looking for three types of plants
Solanum aculeatissimum: Yellow berries, straight prickles, more hairy deeply lobed leaves , hirsute unarmed calyx with longer fruiting calyx.
Solanum capsicoides: Berries orange red when mature, green with dark green markings when young; stems with slender delicate priclkles; leaves some what shining, sparsely hairy, deeply lobed, shorter prickly calyx.
Solanum viarum: Yellow berries, densely hairy and glandular pubescent stems and leaves, short broad based curved (barely 5 mm long) prickles in addition to long straight ones on stem and straight strong up to 18 mm long on petiole and both leaf surfaces, densely glandular and sparsely prickly calyx, and shallowly lobed leaves.
Solanum viarum has been uploaded by … from Manipur and by me by from Morni hills area
Solanum capsicoides was uploaded by … from Wayanad
Perhaps some member can upload the third species. It should be common in Assam and Manipur

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Safed Kantakari revisited: In January 2011, we had a detailed discussion on plant known as Safed Kantakari and used as important herbal medicine. This plant is apparently mostly identified Solanum xanthocarpum (also known as S. surattense, but correctly S. virginianum now.). White flowers are reported in this species occurring rarely and in fact photographs with white flowers were uploaded by … but according to … this is not real Safed kantakari. Here is that old thread

In the same thread … reported: ” In Kerala, there are 10 sacred herbs that are grouped under the name of “Dashapushpam”. Lakshmana [ Thirutali in Malyalam] is one of them. The same book names the white flowered Kantakari as Solanum. It’s botanical name as per the book “Ayurvedic Drugs and their Plant Sources” is Ipomoea Marginata/ Ipomoea Obscura. It’s a creeper with heart shaped leaves and white funnel like flowers. The same book names the white flowered Kantakari as Solanum Capsicoides and the purple flowered one as S.Surattense/xanthocarpum/virginianum.”
Today I received a phone call from … about Safed Kantakari. I advised him to send me the photographs of it. He sent me one and on the basis of that it is clearly not Solanum xanthocarpum, it is rather S. capsicoides, as suggested by ….

I am uploading the same for further inputs on this. It is a smaller gif image, but I think it should help


 

 

I find the entire story of differential diagnosis of kantakari to be very confusing…
is there a key that you have come up with , …?
Bigger question is …if I find it so difficult, how do the tribals or poor day laborer who go out and do wild crafting for the ayurvedic pharmacies do in their quest for a quick daily wage??? and how much trust can we as consumers put on these pharmacies???

Yes … The key to Indian Genera of Solanaceae and Indian species of Solanum is there on our website:

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Solanum ¿ species ?
Small armed herbaceous shrub, branched, height just about 0.5 m, growing along trail, under cover of large evergreen trees.
Flower about 10 – 12 mm across, berry about 12 – 15 mm in dia.
These photos may not be sufficient for getting to ID.

at Munnar on June 5, 2014


I hope S. capsicoides


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Solanaceae Week: Solanum capsicoides PKFEB07/07 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1)

Please find Solanum capsicoides All.:collected from Munnar.


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Which species of the Solanaceae family? : 6 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (1)- 6 MB. 

Place: Bombay Shola, Kodaikanal, Tamil Nadu

Date: 19/01/18

Looks like Solanum violaceum..


Thank you. Here’s another photo. Could you confirm?  Attachments (1)- 4 MB.


Solanum aculeatissimum Jacq.


References:

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