Rhododendron arboreum Sm., Exot. Bot. 1: 9, pl. 6 9 1805.;
Tree Rhododendron • Hindi: बुरांस Burans, लाल बुरांश Lal buransh • Tamil: பிலி Billi • Malayalam: Kattupoo varasu • Kannada: Pu • Nepali: लाली गुराँस Lali gurans;
Evergreen tree up to 12 m tall, leaves leathery, up to 15 cm long, lanceolate to oblong, glabrous on upper surface, silvery scales beneath, usually clustered at ends of branches; flowers crimson red, in dense terminal clusters, pedicels and bracts covered with hairs; sepals ovate; corolla campanulate, 4-6 cm long; stamens 10; capsule up to 2.5 cm long, cylindrical, woolly.

Rhododendron arboreum (Tree Rhododendron) is an evergreen shrub or small tree with a showy display of bright red flowers. 
It is found in Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Thailand.  

Rhododendron arboreum (Laligurans) is also the national flower of Nepal.
Its name means “tending to be woody or growing in a tree-like form”. It has been recorded as reaching heights of up to 20 m,[2] although more usually it has a height and spread up to 12 m (36 ft) x 12 m (36 ft).
In early- and mid-spring, trusses of 15-20 bell-shaped flowers, 5 cm (2 in) wide and 3–5 cm (1.25–2 in) long are produced in red, pink or white. They have black nectar pouches and black spots inside.
(From Wikipedia on 25.4.13)



Rhododendron fulgens from Chakrata: 9 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (7)
Rhododendron fulgens

Rhododendron fulgens J. D. Hooker, Rhododendr. Sikkim-Himalaya. 3: t. 25. 1851.

This plant is Rhododendron arboreum. Rhododendron fulgens is not found in western Himalaya.

This plant is Rhododendron arboreum.

Belonging to family Ericaceae (In one of earlier post Apiaceae has mentioned as family of Rhododendron)

Many of such renowned websites have such human errors for sure. It’s us who copy and paste unscrupulously, without checking much.
Thanks for pointing out. You may try writing a mail to eflora especially the Ericaceae authors. They will certainly change it in no time.

Dr. David F.Chamberlain of RBG Edinburgh is one of the authors for Ericaceae and Rhododendrons on eflora of China.

Rhododendron arboreum from Chakrata Mussoorie Road Chakrata

pls validate

Yes, this appears to be R. arboreum subsp. arboreum.

Yes it is Rhododendron arboretum



Rhododendron for ID : Uttarakhand : 120413 : AK-1 : Attachments (2). 3 posts by 2 authors.
Red Rhododendron trees with flowers seen on way to Nainital on 23/3/13.

Species id please

Rhododendron arboreum Smith (Ericaceae).

Rhododendron arboreum Sm. (Ericaceae)
It is an evergreen shrub or small tree with a showy display of bright red flowers.
Rhododendron arboreum is the national flower of Nepal and the state tree of Uttarakhand.
Place of photography: Shingba Rhododendron Sanctuary, Lachung valley, North Sikkim.

Date: May, 2008

Thanks … for this unique series… beautiful pictures…

Yes the most beautiful flowering tree in the Himalaya. Sir J.D.Hooker was amazed by the beauty of this tree and carried it to kew. Many ornamental Rhodos developed in Europe have blood of this tree in them.

The specific epithet is always changed to “arboretum” by computers, it is “arboreum“.

This small tree was shot from trek to Ghanghariya..
No flowers were remaining, can this be identified based on leaves and fruits..

Seems R.arboreum; but experts will have the final say.

I agree with …—R. arboretum


This tree was shot from Chakrata..
Hopefully this tree is Rhododendron arboreum, the commonest Rhododendron, locally called “Buraans

… correctly identified.


Ericaceae (Incl.Vacciniaceae) : Rhododendron arboreum : Uttarakhand : 060414 : AK-5 : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (2).

Reposting under Family Fortnight.

Identified by … when posted earlier.

It is Rhododendron arboreum Sm. ssp. arboreum (Ericaceae)

Rhododendron arboreum

Observed in large numbers around our hotel in Binsar Jun

Now … correctly identified!

I am lucky to see this majestic tree in full blooms this week in Chakrata..

I have the pics but the fortnight is over, I will share my observations for validation..

Rhododendron sp. photographed from Tungnath, Uttarakhand at alt of about 3400 m. pl. help in ID

All photographs are of R. arboreum only


27122014GS1 a tree for ID from Uttarakhand-GSDEC13 : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (3)

Kindly help in the ID of this small tree photographed from along Chopta Mandal road in Uttarakhand in June, 2013.

May be Rhododendron sp.

Yes …, I take it as Rhodendron arboreum.

Rhododendron arboreum ABFEB01/01 : 11 posts by 7 authors. 14 images.
I was away for about two weeks and in my absence Rhododendrons appeared and almost vanished (locals collect them for various delicacies and I have had chutney, pakoras, wine and sherbet made from theses flowers). I had seen some trees flowering early this year—as early as late December. Before leaving I had collected a couple of flowers to study closely and today I photographed some trees in the evening. Here are the results;
Rhododendron arboreumRose Tree, and locally Brah and Brans
1750m and above, pure forests above 2000m
Above Mcleodganj, Dharamshala, HP
Photos through February
Full bloom;
Lovely pink-brown bark;
Flowers appear in cluster such as this. The black spots on the inside are clearly visible;
Stamens (x10) with tube like anthers to contain pollen;
Black spots at the base of fused petals;
One long pistil coated in pollen which is also seen spilling out of the anthers;
The whole pistil with ovary which is ridged and hairy;
Shades of leaves through the season;

Thanks for sharing beautiful photos with each part well described.

…, Your photographs are extremely beautiful. Congrats.

Rhododendron blossom is a delight to watch and it also declares arrival of spring in temperate areas of the Himalaya.
These are very fine pics to understand morphology of floral parts. I am particularly impressed with the close up of anthers showing pollen dissemination through apical pores.
Thanks for sharing beautiful pics.

One more stunning set from you !!! this is a larval host plant for Fawn Hairstreak butterfly.

May I format these images?

I realised I haven’t shared the seedpods of these rhododendrons yet. Here they are. The trees are in full bloom now.

The green pods are from December, 2016 while the brown open ones are from yesterday.
6 images



SK1208 16 JUNE 2018 : 8 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (8)- around 600 kb each.

Location: Sandakphu, India
Date: 13 May 2018
Altitude: 12000 ft.
Habit : Wild
ID for this Rhododendron please !

Pl. check

Yes …! Checked before posting.

Some friend suggested R. arboreum. May be … could guide us.

I think more closer to images and details at Rhododendron barbatum Wall. ex G. Don

It is R. arboreum. it has 4-4 varieties and its one of it.


Ericaceae (incl. Vacciniaceae) Fortnight: Rhododendron arboreum from Kausani, Uttarakhand -GSAPR11 :  Attachments (2). 3 posts by 2 authors.

Rhododendron arboreum Sm., Exot. Bot. t. 6,. 1805.
Local name: Buras
Tree rhododendron
Evergreen tree up to 12 m tall, leaves leathery, up to 15 cm long, lanceolate to oblong, glabrous on upper surface, silvery scales beneath, usually clustered at ends of branches; flowers crimson red, in dense terminal clusters, pedicels and bracts covered with hairs; sepals ovate; corolla campanulate, 4-6 cm long; stamens 10; capsule up to 2.5 cm long, cylindrical, woolly.

Photographed from Kausani, Uttarakhand on 15 April, 2012

Correct—R. arboreum ssp. arboreum


Rhododendron arboreum photographed from University of California Botanical Garden.

Correct—R. arboreum Sm


Rhododendron arboreum Sm.

Date: May, 2006

Place: Elephant Falls, Shillong, Meghalaya​

… you correctly identified as R. arboreum Sm.

Rhododendrom arboreum, locally called ‘Burash’/ ‘Brah’, is an important NTFP.
Its flowers are extensively – often by destructive means – collected for making chutney, jelly and syrups and as raw material for herbal medicines.
This tree shows two distinct forms; one- more common- with crimson flowers, and the other – less frequent – with pink flowers.

Both are Rhododendron arboreum Sm. complex: Above—ssp. arboreum, while below—ssp. arboreum var. rosea

I remember drinking the syrup from Binsar.

Rhododendron arboreum Sm.
This photo was taken in the dense Rhododendron forest of Shingba Rhododendron Sanctuary, North Sikkim during May, 2007.

Attached is a picture of the buds of Rhododendron arboreum from Almora captured in November 2012.

Kindly validate.

…, you are correctly identify Rhododendron arboreum Sm. ssp. arboreum (Ericaceae)


Photographed from near Ukhimath in Uttarakhand, R. arboreum with possibly hypertrophied buds/ flowerbuds?

This is due to virus infection. In many species you come across like it.

Rhododendron arboreum Sm., Exot. Bot. t. 6,. 1805. 
Local name: Buras
Tree rhododendron
Evergreen tree up to 12 m tall, leaves leathery, up to 15 cm long, lanceolate to oblong, glabrous on upper surface, silvery scales beneath, usually clustered at ends of branches; flowers crimson red, in dense terminal clusters, pedicels and bracts covered with hairs; sepals ovate; corolla campanulate, 4-6 cm long; stamens 10; capsule up to 2.5 cm long, cylindrical, woolly.

Photographed from Ukhimath, Uttarakhand  on 31 May, 2013

Wonderful colour! Sirji I think these belong to Rhododendron arboreum Sm. ssp. delavayi! Ok. I will come back very soon after verification

Seems to me is R. arboreum only


Another species of Rhododendron for ID from Tungnath, Uttarakhand. Pl. help in ID.

Rhododendron arboretum

This should be Rhododendron campanulatum

Looking R. arboreum Sm. (never campanulatum)

Rhododendron for ID-PC-20-21.10.2015 : 8 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (2)

please identify this Rhododendron plant from Uttarakhanda near Ranikhet.

Could it be R.arboreum?

I think so.

This is Rhododendron arboreum only.       

These two photos are of the same species, Rhododendron arboreum  subsp. arboreum Smith. Frequent in the Western Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim, in the alt. 1800 – 3000 M.

Rhododendron arboreum (accepted name) : 3 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (4)
Location: Kakani , Nepal
Altitude:  6000 ft.
Date: 2 March 2013

Yes, this is surely Rhododendron arboreum, which as you know is ‘Lali Gurans’ the National Flower of Nepal.  The only Rhododendron recorded in ‘Flora of Kathmandu Valley’.  Apparently the young leaves are poisonous (which would help explain its success in heavily-grazed places) and applied to forehead for headache.  Flowers are known to be edible in Nepal and Indian Himalaya.

Flower colour recorded as deep scarlet to pinkish-white in Kathmandu Valley.  The most widely distributed tree-rhododendron in the Himalaya found over a wide range of altitudes (1500-3600m) and in many different forms, some of which have been described as separate species.  Flowers presented as offerings in hill temples.

A pressed specimen photographed in the Ann Arbor Herbarium, University of Michigan.
Rhododendron arboreum collected on 5th April 1931 by Dr Walter Koelz for the Urusvati Institute, Naggar, Kulu valley (now Himachal Pradesh) No. 1835.
Scattered trees on steep rocky slopes @ 2850m in Kulu Valley.  Ht: 6-7m.  Trunk Diam: 60cm.
Flowers crimson, spotted & darker in throat.  Flowers eaten with mint & onion as a salad.
Very attractive.

rhododendron arboretum : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (4)

rhododendron arboreum

flowering was almost over
we saw this near chopta Uttarakhand
at an altitude of about 8,000 feet
in the first week of may 2018


Rhododendron arboreum Sm. : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (3)- around 850 kb each.

Location: Ghandruki, Kaski Dt.
Date: 23 March 2019
Elevation: 2145 m.

Habit : Wild


Rhododendron arboreum AT/May 2019/06 : 26 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (1)- 1 Mb. 

Rhododendron arboreum
Tree Rhododendron
बुरांस Burans
May 2019

is this what the ethnic use includes making cough and cold syrups from? do you know? or find out?

…, never heard of its uses in cough and cold. Although it is a good remedy for high blood pressure. I am compiling details at my Blog “Plants & Environment”

Red Rhodo Green Tea

Attachments (1)

Red Rhodo Chutney 

With and without mint
Attachments (2)– 1 Mb each.

i was at a CSIR symposium in 2016 in Delhi. the kitchen guys became friendly because of my dietary restrictions for certain grains. one of them had a relative with cancer etc
i could help a bit. they became more talkative after that he told me about Buransh…. tree laden with red flowers, Rhododendron tree. it was the first time i was hearing the word Buransh. he showed me a picture of the tree on his cell hone, let me copy it. he told me about the cough syrup.
Another man who seemed to know a bit more said it was not really syrup but juice. it was really juice of the red flowers and his village the elders advised // used it for the heart. this is in my note on blue stickies that i took a picture of. don’t know where the rest of my original notes are. they have to be around in my voluminous files. does not seem to have been filed in ethnobotany or heart.


Red Rhodo Chutney 

Without and with mint
Attachments (2)– 1 Mb each.

i meant how do you make it

Petals, onion and mint blended and salt and spices added to the taste. A lemon was also added.

Thanks, … i guess one could make similar chutneys of other edible flowers, will try if i get enough flowers. will try

These petsls are slightly sour, …

so. must look for flowers with slightly sourish taste. ok

We make juice also from flowers in Nepal.

how do you use it. what conditions does it help ? do you add anything else?

It is prepared in a small commercial scale but I do not have the idea about the process..

uses is what i am after

I have also prepared Rhodo squash.

Used for drink like other fuit juice/squash !



in Uttarakhand; Near Jaswant Nagar (11000ft. ), Arunachal Pradesh- June’09?; Mukteshwar, Uttarakhand- June’09?; enroute to Yamunotri- June’09?; 18 th Jan. 2010 / 01.30 pm- Horton Plains, Sri Lanka; a Rhododendron – indiantreepix | Google Groups PLANT FOR ID 53 SMP JUN 06 – indiantreepix | Google Groups Rhododendron arboreum? – indiantreepix | Google Groups Rhodoendrons! – indiantreepix | Google Groups Flora of Lava-Rikisum – efloraofindia | Google Groups

Rhododendron arboretum : 5 posts by 4 authors.
This is a link to my Blog article on Rhododendron arboreum.


SK971 10 FEB-2018 : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (3)

Location:  Balthali, Kabhrepalanchowk, Nepal
Altitude:  5000 ft.
Date: 26 March 2016
Habit : Cultivated/ Wild (not sure)

Any chance Rhododendron

It looks very close but image did not have ID . However, it could be non other that Rhododendrom arboreum.



SK869 21 NOV-2017:ID : 9 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (3)

Location: Dangsing, Kaski, Nepal
Altitude:9600 ft.

Date: 18 November 2017  

Rather difficult to ID without proper inflorescence ! Still try !
Image Credit : Sameer Kasaju


I suspect Rhododendron arboretum.

R. arboreum only.

This is Rhododendron sp.

Rhododendron arboreum Sm.

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