Ruellia prostrata Poir., Encycl. 6:349. 1804 (syn. (≡) Dipteracanthus prostratus (Poir.) Nees);
Bell Weed, Prostrate Wild Petunia, Black weed • Marathi: Kali dhawani • Tamil: Pottakanchi • Malayalam: Upudali • Telugu: Neelambaram • Gujarati: Kalughavani, Kali Dhraman; 
Prostrate to suberect herb with ovate sparsely hairy 2-3 cm long leaves; flowers pale purple to nearly white, few together or solitary; 2.5 cm long, tube expanded above. 
As per efi thread :
The key in Flora of Pakistan reads:
Erect shrublet with hoary shoots. Flowers pale-white. Capsule glabrous, 8-10-seeded 1 Ruellia patula
Prostrate to procumbent, ± pubescent herb. Flowers purple-violet. Capsule sparsely hairy, 16-20-seeded 2 Ruellia prostrata

another Ruellia ? (Hooghly, WB) 01-04-12 SK:
This is a wild herb, less than 10 inches in height, bearing faint pink-white flower. Is this Ruelllia prostrata ?
Species : UNKNOWN
Habit & Habitat : wild herb, uncultivated rural area, roadside
Date : 01-04-2012 & 14-03-2012
Place : Nalikul (Hooghly), WB

Thank you Sir for the ID & the link. We call it POTPOTI in Bengali. But this Bengali name finds no mention in the text book, ‘Plant Groups’, that i follow as the first reference guide for ID of any unknown (to me) species.

Ruellia rivularis Schltdl. is a synonym of Hygrophila costata Nees as per The Plant List.
And it looks completely different from the pictures posted here. Pl check these links:
This looks like a Dipteracanthus species to me.

Good morning Sir… thank you for the link and ID suggestion. The illustrated flower in the above link depicts longer corolla tube, thereby suggesting that my species might not be R. rivularis.

Dipteracanthus prostratus (Poir.) Nees

Yes, Ruellia prostrata; Some other common members Nelsonia, Cardenthera, Hemigraphis are also growing now

Now, i am getting more confused with the ID of this plant. After google searching all the keywords suggested by veterans i found out that i am not alone – /species/a—l/a/acanthaceae/dipteracanthus/dipteracanthus-prostratus !!!

Moreover –
1. Dipteracanthus prostratus (Poir.) Nees = Ruellia prostrata Poir. =
2. Dipteracanthus prostratus (Poir.) Nees = Ruellia prostrata Poir. =
3. Ruellia rivularis = Ruellia prostrata = Dipteracamthus dejectus = Flowers of India

Acanthaceae Fortnight:: Ruellia Sp for ID:: NSJ-MAR-34 : 5 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (3)
Ruellia Sp for ID. Photo taken at Mahabalipuram, Aug 12

Ruellia species in eFloraofindia (with details/ keysfrom published papers/ regional floras/ FRLHT/ FOI/ Biotik/ efloras/ books etc., where ever available)
efi pages on Ruellia prostrata & Ruellia tuberosa (Cultivated)

First of all let me state clearly that Ruellia tuberosa L. may be a cultivated plant in some places. but it has long been naturalized here. This one looks like R. prostrata Lamk. of FBI.

Ruellia prostrata.

Ruellia prostrata
Poir. (=Dipteracanthus prostratus (Poir.)Nees), frequently observed herb.


Acanthaceae Fortnight :: Ruellia rivularis :: Mumbai :: ARKMAR-55/67 : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (3)
Attached are pictures of Ruellia rivularis captured in a cultivated garden in Mumbai in October 2012.

I think Ruellia prostrata & not Ruellia rivularis.

Looks like so. I meant R. prostrata Poir.


Climber for ID 1 : 6 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (6).
Found in Bangalore 21st May

Ruellia sp.

Ruelliaspecies in India & eFI with details & some keys

It is Ruellia prostrata Poir.

Thank you, Sir. It’s Ruellia nudiflora.

To me it  does not appear like any of the above species as per images at Ruellia prostrata Ruellia nudiflora (Cultivated) 

I think members prefer posting only photographs rather than texting formatted description. I suggest that guidelines be posted regarding what needs to be seen in pictures for suggesting id. This can be drawn from the posting guidelines.
The attached pictures are a good example of bad illustration.

Pl check for Ruellia pedunculata.

I do not have info on species no. 4 and 8 of link, but those two sp come from Kerala.
Ruellia prostrata Poir. is a creeping or rambling herb, and this species looks like R. prostrata Poir.

SK247DEC18-2016:ID : 5 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (10)
Location: Nuwakot , Nepal
Altitude:  3200 ft.
Date: 25 April 2015


Ruellia prostrata Poir. (accepted name) ??
Dipteracanthus prostratus (Poir.) Nees (synonym) ?? ??

Thanks, … I think most closer to Ruellia prostrata Poir. as per comparative images at Ruellia

Thank you … No Nepali Name so far.

Ruellia prostrata : For Validation : Lalbagh,Bangalore : 09MAY17 : AK-11 : 6 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (1)
Saw this weed in Lalbagh last week. (9.5.17)
For validation.

Although only part details are available, I feel it is closer to images at Ruellia prostrata Poir. as per comparative images at Ruellia

Dipteracanthus prostratus….


Dipteracanthus or Ruellia from Lohari Panipat for id -26042011-BSA-1:
the present sp is medicinally important. this resembles with Dipteracanthus prostratus (Poir.) Nees.
this is a large spreading shrub in a roadside area flowers pale violet solitary axillary corolla caducous
In this name is in unresolved list. This may also be Ruellia makoyana Closon

Thanks for confirmation, i also think so but this name is still not resolved and no much information available. if anyone make available protologue of this with herbarium specimen images. It can be clarified more then.

In fact I have already uploaded this on 24th April as possibly Ruellia under the title 24042011GS2 perhaps Ruellia for ID from Tikkar tal Lake, Morni
Identified in my thread as Dipteracanthus prostratus

Dipteracanthus or Ruellia from Lohari Panipat for id -26042011-BSA-1:
the present sp is medicinally important. this resembles with Dipteracanthus prostratus (Poir.) Nees.
this is a large spreading shrub in a roadside area flowers pale violet solitary axillary corolla caducous
In this name is in unresolved list. This may also be Ruellia makoyana
Closon <>
pls help to resolve this id

I think we photographed similar plant from Morni Hills. I am uploading it separately

Identified in my thread as Dipteracanthus prostratus

More pics shot recently from village Khukhrana (Panipat) 220 mts from a roadside area, wildly grown there


ID: (mixed thread): Kindly help for Id this plant.

date/time:Sept 2011
location:Near Nagpur
plant habit:herb?
height:about 1-2 feet
other info: growing among the green grasses

Dipteracanthus prostratus: Acanthaceae family


dipteracanthus prostatus:
dipteracanthus prostatus
in an open field in goa


Wild Plant For ID : Uttarakhand : 300513 : AK-1 :  Attachments (3).  6 posts by 3 authors.
Small wild plants seen on way to Nainital with light purple bell shaped flowers.

A guess – Ruellia rivularis???

Ruellia prostrata Poir. (=Dipteracanthus prostratus (Poir.) Nees of Acanthaceae.

Many thanks for the id. You have identified many of my Uttarakhand plants.


ruellia rivularis, morni hills : Attachments (3). 3 posts by 2 authors.
ruellia rivularis, morni hills
in may and june 2013

There is some confusion w.r.t. this name
Flowers of India gives it as an accepted name as does the The Plant List 1 (Ruellia prostrata Poir. is a synonym of Ruellia rivularis (Benoist) Boivin ex Benoist).  The Plant List 2 also gives Dipteracanthus prostratus (Poir.) Nees is an unresolved name. Thus ythere seems to be a problem with The Plant List.  
While other records from India  & outside does not have any mention of Ruellia rivularis  as per the links below: 

GRIN (As in bold at top)

Flora of Pakistan (Ruellia prostrata Poir. in Lam. with Dipteracanthusdejectus Nees, Dipteracanthusprostrata (Poir.) Nees & Ruelliaprostrata var. dejecta (Nees.) Clarke as syn.)

Annotated checklist of Flowering plants of Nepal (Dipteracanthus prostratus (Poir.) Nees with Ruelliaprostrata Poir. as syn.) 

The Plant List 2 (Dipteracanthus prostratus (Poir.) Nees is an unresolved name)
efi page is available at Ruellia prostrata
I hope somebody clarifies it.

The Plant list Ver. 1.1 seems to have corrected it now as Ruellia prostrata Poir. while Ruellia rivularis Schltdl. is a synonym of Hygrophila costata Nees

The plant in this thread is Ruellia prostrata Poir. (=Dipteracanthus prostratus (Poir.) Nees; Dipteracanthus dejectus Nees; Ruellia prostrata var. dejecta (Nees) C.B. Clarke.

Ruellia sp. : 2 correct images. 4 posts by 4 authors.
Id these two Ruellia sps.
At Akshi beach, Alibag

May be R tuberosa and R rivularis

… is right. Most probably Ruellia tuberosa of Acanthaceae.

First pic is Ruellia tuberosa and the second one is Dipterocanthus prostratus (R. prostrata).

Ruellia prostrata Poir. : Attachments (2). 1 post by 1 author.
Ruellia prostrata Poir., Fam: Acanthaceae (= Dipteracanthus prostratus) Ascending herb, fruiting, used by villagers to cure some ailments Krishnagiri DT, Tamilnadu


Acanthaceae Fortnight :: Ruellia prostrata :: Bassein Fort & Thane :: DVMAR93/104 : 2 posts by 2 authors. 5 images. Ruellia prostrata Poir. in Bassein Fort on January 17, 2010 & at Vaghbil, Thane on October 18, 2009

Images by Nidhan Singh (Inserted by J.M.Garg)


ACANTHACEAE FORTNIGHT:: Dipteracanthus prostratus from Morni:: NS MARCH 15/15 : 1 post by 1 author.  Attachments (4)
This is again a common wild herb of lower hills as well as plains..
Dipteracanthus prostrates


Attachments (5)
These pics were recorded from Panipat, I hope the id is right as Ruellia prostrata..

Posted earlier, identified by …
Syn Dipteracanthus prostratus (Poir.) Nees 


at Bhadreshwar, Hooghly, West Bengal on 14/10/2007; On 17/8/08 in Talakona forest, AP; in Bandhavgarh;  in Phansad WLS – Alibaug- Dec.’08?; at Alibag- 19/12/08; at Go Green Nursery, Karnala, Maharashtra- March’09?; Sariska Tiger Reseve Rajasthan on 26-7-09; Srirangapatna- 13-11-09; Srirangapatna, Karnataka-13-11-09; on Vetal tekdi Pune- July’10;
plant for ID -21 – indiantreepix | Google Groups

Wild Flower for ID-121209-RK-1 – efloraofindia | Google Groups
Wild Flower for ID-221109-RK-1 – indiantreepix | Google Groups
Ruellia prostrata from Sariska – NSD 34 – indiantreepix | Google Groups
FLOWER SIMILAR TO WAYSIDE Tuberose – indiantreepix | Google Groups
PLANT FOR IDENTIFICATION – 9 – indiantreepix | Google Groups
ID240309PHK 3 – indiantreepix | Google Groups
ID181208phk – indiantreepix | Google Groups
Nicotiana-plumbaginifolia. – indiantreepix | Google Groups

need help with id of this bluish purple flower : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (2)- 1 mb ach.
Shot in Bhopal, today. (23.6.20)

Ruellia sp. ??

I too agree with … for Ruellia prostrata,

SD018 Plant ID : 9 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (4)
Found in Delhi, elevation 245 m. Kindly assist with ID.

Ruellia nudiflora (Engelm. & A.Gray) Urb. !

Thanks … Does it drop its flowers sometime during the day, and then gives out new flowers again at night ?
I have observed Ruellia petula do that…wondering if this does the same.

Sorry, I have no idea about this !

It’s Ruellia prostrata,

Thanks … Any key available to differentiate Ruellia prostrata and Ruellia nudiflora ?

Erect or decumbent herb up to 50 cm height; Leaves ovate to lanceolate; Flowers axillary and terminal racemes (Fl. 3-5,6,7) ……. R. nudifloa
Prostrate or decumbent herb up to 2 m long; Leaves orbicular- obovate, elliptic; Flowers axillary solitary (Fl. 1) …… R. prostrata.

Thanks so much, … Is there any place where I can get these descriptions from? Any flora of Delhi book, or any website online where one can refer to Latin descriptions of plants?

Which I wrote key is as per my own observation …, you can go through these webs for cross-checking, hope will help you,

Need help with this lavendar annual : 6 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (2)- around 700 kb each.
id please. Bhopal. 19.8.2020. Black soil

Ruellia sp.

I too agree with …,  could be R. prostrata,

Thanks, …, for the id.
To me also appears close to images at Ruellia prostrata


SK434 17MAR-2017:ID : 5 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (4)

Location: AIT, Bangkok, Thailand
Date: 20 May 2016
Altitude:  40 ft.
Ruellia … ???

I also think so.

Which one ?

Pl. check if you can find match among Indian species as per comparative images at Ruellia

Appears close to images at Ruellia prostrata Poir., but may be some other species.

I guess it is matching as you have suggested.

Hope it’s …

Yes, I also agree as per Ruellia prostrata Poir. 


Goa, August 2021 :: Ruellia prostrata for validation :: ARK2021-115: 6 images.
This was clicked near Varca, South Goa in August 2021.
Guessing this to be Ruellia prostrata
Requested to please validate.

Yes !

Yes it’s ma’am


ID Plz. Herb Seems Acanthaceae member Ruellia sp., colleted from Delhi: 1 image.
ID Plz.
Seems Acanthaceae member Ruellia sp., collected from Delhi

Ruellia prostrata Poir. ??

Yes, as per images at Ruellia prostrata


Chilika lake, December 2021 :: Ruellia for ID :: ARK2022-035: 1 high res. image.
This was clicked at Behrampura on the banks of the Chilika lake, Odisha in December 2021.
I have have this lone pic.
Is it possible to ID? Ruellia prostrata?

Yes, appears close to images at Ruellia prostrata Poir.


Ruellia prostrata for validation: 3 images.
Request for validation of Ruellia prostrata growing wild in Bilaspur. Photographed in May 2023.

For me the ID is correct.

Correct ID

Yes, appears close to images at


Identification needed for this plant: 2 images.
Location:  jammu, j and k
Date: 19/05/2023

Ruellia prostrata Poir. !

Yes, as per images at



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