Salix tetrasperma Roxb., Pl. Coromandel 1: 66, pl. 97 66 1795. (Syn. Pleiarina populifolia N. Chao & J. Liu; Pleiarina pyrina (Wall. ex Andersson) N. Chao & J. Liu; Pleiarina tetrasperma (Roxb.) N. Chao & G. T. Gong; Salix apiculata Anderss.; Salix azaolana Blanco; Salix calophylla Wall.; Salix cuspidata D. Don; Salix densa Wall.; Salix glabrescens Lindl.; Salix higelii Wimm. ex Anderss.; Salix horsfieldiana Miq.; Salix javanica Anderss.; Salix lenta Fries; Salix myurus Wimm. ex Anderss.; Salix nilagirica Miq.; Salix nobilis Fries; Salix populifolia Anderss.; Salix pyrina Wall.; Salix suaveolens Arderss.; Salix urophylla Lindl.; Salix wallichii Wimm. ex Anderss.; Salix zollingeri Miq.) as per Catalogue of Life;
Saudi Arabia (Hejaz, C-Saudi Arabia, Nejd Desert), S-Egypt, Pakistan (Baluchistan, Quetta, Kurram, Gilgit, Punjab, Lahore), Jammu & Kashmir, Java, India, peninsular Malaysia (Perak, Pahang, Selangor), Sumatra, Lesser Sunda Isl. (Lombok, Sumbawa, Sumba, Flores), Borneo, Philippines (Luzon, Bohol, Mindanao), China (Guangdong, Hainan, Yunnan), Tibet, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Sikkim, Myanmar [Burma] (Bago, Kachin, Mandalay, Sagaing), Nepal, Bangladesh as per Catalogue of Life;
Indian Willow, Walunj,  • Hindi: Bod, Bains • Manipuri: ঊযুম Ooyum • Bengali: Panijama • Tamil: Atrupalai • Kannada: Niranji • Malayalam: Arali, Atrupala;
As per efi thread

Two species of Salix are however reported from Karnataka. One is S. tetrasperma and the other is S. ichnostachya. Both appear very similar in the field and shared many common features as both these species belong to the sect. Tetraspermae. Their blooming season is also same i.e. October-December. A key to the species is presented below:
A.A. Stamens 5-10; ovary stipitate, glabrous; capsules ovoid ……………………… S. tetrasperma
A’. Stamens 4-6; ovary sessile or rarely subsessile, densely pubescent; capsules subglobose …….. S. ichnostachya

15112011-BS-1 A small tree for id from village Kalkha Panipat Haryana:
A small tree for id from village Kalkha Panipat Haryana (220 Mts)
Planted on the border of field by farmers
Simple lanceolate leaves about 5-6 inch. Inflorescence about 3-4 inch
pls id



Salix tetrasperma indeed
Family : Salicaceae
A tree often found growing on the banks of rivers.
In Wai Near Mahabaleshwar there is a line of these trees.
Male and female flowers on different plants.
We have a sole tree in Pune on the banks of River Mutha which is male one and produces flowers similar to the posted ones. Every year without fail I have seen it flowering exactly in the first week of November (Maximum mature blooms) and it is a nice sight to watch. Being a male tree no fruits are observed as there is no companion.



Is it flowering now?

The new leaves are coming up, you have to see the photo of … one week back from the same spot


Flora Picture of the Year 2012- Shrikant Ingalhalikar:
Krishna river entering an avenue of flowering Indian Willow trees (Salix tetrasperma) near Bhuinj on Mumbai-Banglore highway.

Oh! What a maevellous scape!!!

Many Thanks … for sharing this habitat of a tree species.
These Salix trees in large number makes one really happy. The lone tree of Salix tetrasperma on the banks of river Mutha is struggling for survival due to the so called developments of the city but there is a hope as many such trees still survive some 100km from Pune city as shown through this picture which makes it special.
Salix is a genus of cold and temperate regions but still Maharashtra has 2 species mentioned in BSI Flora S.tetrasperma and S. ichnostachya. Have you ever come across the latter one?
I have included the picture at Flora picture 2012

Flora Picture of the year 2012- Sukla Chanda: I’m sharing my Flora Picture of the year 2012.

These are male plant and male catkin and of Salix tetrasperma Roxb. (Salicaceae). I have collected this plant just beside river Ganges in Barrackpore Sheoraphully ferry ghat( station in river bank for launch and boat), West Bengal.

I have kind of funny experience with this plant. I visited that place for 5-6 times in winter during 2005-2007. The place was so dirty and it’s very bad smelling too. People around the ferry ghat were surprisingly looked at me and even asked “why are you going in such a dirty place for collecting that plants?” My simple answer could not satisfy them. Then they had through their next question! “Is the plant has any anti-cancerous property”. I said “no” and told them it’s other medicinal value. They were little bit disappointed!! 

Good to know One can see this in west bengal
it seems it is a volunteer, most likely not a planting by the civic authorities so there is hope that one could find other specimens if we were to look for it

Very well narrated incident, which everybody always faces.

I am in the process of updating the blog and your picture will get included shortly.
Interesting story indeed.
In Pune city there is only one tree on the banks of the only river Mutha.
Few years back one bridge was being erected very close to it. One of the botany Professor used to travel daily near this tree. One day he saw some men trying to chop the tree for construction of the bridge. He was disappointed and asked them whether they knew the importance of the tree. Obviously they didn’t. He told them : If someone cuts this species the whole clan/Kul or family of the person gets destroyed. The men became afraid and shifted the digging process by some feet and the tree got saved and still stands tall very close to the bridge. I have shared the photographs on the forum earlier.


Indian Willow Tree, Lalbagh, Bangalore :  Attachments (3 + 3).  18 posts by 12 authors.

Indian Willow tree in full bloom in Lalbagh, Bangalore
These pics were taken on Jan 7th, 2012.

Beautiful pictures … This is Salix tetrasperma of Salicaceae.

It does not show this much profuse flowering in Delhi.

Can’t wait to go and see it.

oh yes, really have to see it …

Amazing beauty of willow, I could not imagine this can look so elegant.

Really nice pictures of Salix tetrasperma.
Family : Salicaceae

spectacular….  later, can you also take pictures of the leaves, branches, and tree trunk…
and canopy… sorry I am asking for a whole lot…. but not seen this in Calcutta..
the flowers are out of this world and your photo is as I said: spectacular…

There are good number of species of Salix in Kashmir (though not S. tetrasperma). This year I am visiting Kashmir in April mainly to capture these in flower. I don’t know whether I would be able to catch the most spectacular of all the Salix caprea, the first species to flower in Kashmir as early as late February, producing most fragrant flowers, whose fragrance like Magnolia grandiflora can be felt from several metres. We used to keep twigs of this in flower in flower pots to give fragrance in the room for several days.

Attaching few more pics …

This season, you must to go to Mandya district(Karnataka) and watch these blooms along streamsides and along the Vishveshwaraya canal or around Nanjangud temple along the banks of the kaveri river.
Striking colours. Unmistakably Salix tetrasperma inflorescense. from 500 metres away you can make it out.

I went to Lalbagh again today and looks like the flowering is over. It was full of fresh leaves today.


Fwd: ID of tree/shrub : Attachments (4).  5 posts by 3 authors.

Need help with identification of a tree /shrub.
it was seen along the banks of river Godavari (riparian area) in marshy area.
the plant was small, not in flowering. I am sorry for that as this would make the identification difficult
date of siting: 8th Jan 2012
size: 8-10 ft
tender brabches and petioles were reddish.
margins of leaf were serrate
leaf was shiny green
the plant also did not show any branching
the rest of information has been depicted in the photographs.

This can be a Salix species in my opinion..

Thanks a lot … this is Salix tetrasperrma in my opinion !

Yes … It does appear to be Salix tetrasperma.
The under surface of the leaves is silvery white.
Near Wai Mahabaleshwar rivers are lined by a large number of these trees

… the photos of S. tetrasperma you uploaded on efloraofindia were really helpful in identification

Request for tree ID: Is this some kind of Acacia ?
Date/Time : November 2011/ Afternoon

Location : Nanjangud [ Near Mysore]
Habitat : Field
Plant Habit : Tree

May be a Salix species?

Yes I too think this is some species of Salix rather than Acacia.

One more picture in case it helps.

Decidedly Salix sp., not Acacia. Not sure which species though.

Was it on the banks of any river. The typical habitat of Salix tetrasperma.
But personally your pictures do not look like Salix tetrasperma to me(Though they appear to be some Salix species)

The pictures that I sent were from a paddy field [wetland] with the trees growing along the bunds. But there were a few of these trees growing on the banks of the River Kabini some distance away.

I did think of Salix tetrasperma after I read the description and saw the picture here. But the trees I saw were much more golden/yellow hued as in my photo.The leaves look similar, but I really don’t know enough to distinguish!

You might be knowing but I would like to add:
Nov is the season of flowering of Salix tetrasperma
The lower surface of leaves of Salix tetrasperma is silvery white which you might like to check. Attaching my pictures of S.tetrasperma from Wai Maharashtra for comparison.

The trees on the river bank look very similar.

I hope to check on the leaves when I travel that way again next week.

The photographs show habit and male catkins of S. tetrasperma Roxb. The male catkins are much larger than those of its closely allied S. ichnostachya.
Two species of Salix are however reported from Karnataka. One is S. tetrasperma and the other is S. ichnostachya. Both appear very similar in the field and shared many common features as both these species belong to the sect. Tetraspermae. Their blooming season is also same i.e. October-December. A key to the species is presented below:
A. A. Stamens 5-10; ovary stipitate, glabrous; capsules ovoid ……………………… S. tetrasperma
A’. Stamens 4-6; ovary sessile or rarely subsessile, densely pubescent; capsules subglobose…….. S. ichnostachya

Salix tetrasperma Roxb.
Ovary ovoid-conical, long stipitate and glabrous. Infructescence 5-14 cm long, lax.

Thanks … I have seen lot of this species in Delhi, but unfortunately not clicked it ever. Hope to do it soon, but perhaps flowering period is already over.

Salix tetrasperma
Many trees on the banks of River Krishna Wai Mah
A lone tree (Male) in Pune on the banks of river Mutha

Excellent photographs … But I think the collection is a mixed of S.tetrasperma and S. ichnostachya. I have one doubt regarding your 3rd picture. It is perhaps S. ichnostachya. I’m under impression that you took photograph 3 and 4 from different plants. The leaves of picture 4 represent good numbers of supportive characters of S. tetrasperma (blades lanceolate, serrate to serrulate at margin, silvery glaucous and glabrous beneath). But in picture 3, I found many character of S. ichnostachya like crenate-serrate leaf margin; petiole, rachis of catkins and under surface of leaf are pupescent and bracts of male flower reach almost ½ of the filaments. Can you please other close up photograph (if you have) of the 3rd picture for its further confirmation? Do you remember whether the bracts are glabrous or much hairy in the male flowers (of the 3rd picture)? I’ll post Salix tetrasperma from West Bengal. You can compare it with your specimens.

Thanks for the feedback.

Yes you are right. The first two photographs are from Wai. The last two are from Pune city. The only tree of its kind in the city and male one so won’t bear fruits.

Will check if I have any more photographs esp the macros and put them for critical analysis


Salicaceae (including Flacourtiaceae) Fortnight: Salix tetrasperma from Barrackpore, West Bengal, SC17 : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (8). 
Salix tetrasperma Roxb.

This species is not a Himalayan one and found in the tropical regions in our country. S. tetrasperma have many primitive features like tree habit, leaves acuminate, catkin lax-flowered, stamens multiple, ovary stipitate etc.
It is the most common species of the genus Salix in India and growing mainly along the river, stream side and moist places. This species is collected just beside river Ganges, Barrackpore.



Salicaceae (including Flacourtiaceae) Fortnight:: Salix for id from Gori Valley Area- NS Feb 10 : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (6).
This Salix species was shot from near Shilling in Gori Valley area Uttrakhand… please help to fix the id..

This is Salix tetrasperma


Salicaceae (including Flacourtiaceae) fortnight :: Salix tetrasperma at Mahabaleshwar :: DVFEB12 : 2 posts by 2 authors. Salix tetrasperma Roxb. at Mahabaleshwar on 12 JAN 08

A glaring image… thanks …


This majestic Salix was shot from periphery of Bhimtal lake in Uttrakhand.. was fully laden with male catkins… please give id suggestions…

Excellent photographs … This is also Salix tetrasperma …

Wonderful pictures of flowers!

This Salix was shot from near Renukla Ji lake in Nahan, Himachal Pradesh…. please provide id hints..

… can you please post the picture of the entire catkin and a twig of this specimen?

…, can this be Salix tetrasperma… I apologize for not having any more pics..

perhaps I was in some hurry due to being with a large group of students..

If the fruiting catkin is larger, 5-14 cm then it is S. tetrasperma, if it is 2.5-4.5 cm long then it is S. acmophylla.

…, could you please give the complete keys for Salix (and Populus). This will help the group significantly.

You are right … This is Salix tetrasperma.

While compiling regional names for the Indian willow, Salix tetrasperma, I came across two names mentioned in The Useful Plants of India published by NISCAIR …
panijama & boishakhi
Would panijama be written as পানিজাম
Not sure of how boishakhi would be written.
Will be glad to get these two names in Bangla script.

Attachments (1)

Thank you very very much… for the two names in Bangla script !!

via Species‎ > ‎S‎ > ‎Salix tetrasperma Roxb. … family: Salicaceae

Flowers of India Discussions at efloraofindia more views in flickr more views on Google Earth
SAL-iks or SAY-liks — to spring or leap; referring to the genus Salix … Dave’s Botanary
tet-ra-SPERM-a — four-seeded … … Dave’s Botanary
commonly known asfour-seeded willowIndian willow • Assameseভেহ bhe • Bengaliবৈশাখী boishakhiপানী জমা pani joma •Garo:bheshbol-slak • Hindiबेद लैला bed-laila • Kannadaಬೈಚೆ ಮರ baiche maraನೀರುವಂಜಿ neeruvanji • Kashmiriवीर् vir • Khasi:jamynrei• Konkaniवाळुंज walunj • Malayalamവഞ്ചി vanji • Manipuriঊযুম ooyum • Marathiवाळुंज valunj OR walunj • Sanskritजलवेतस jalavetasa • Santalgada • Tamilஆற்றுப்பாலை arru-p-palaiசுவேதம் cuvetamநீர்வஞ்சி nir-vanci • Teluguకొండగన్నేరు konda ganneru
and more namesHindiबक्षेल bakshelबेधा bedhaबेगस begasबेंट bentभैन्स bhainsजलमाला jalmalaमगशेर magsher • Marathiबच्चा bachchaबाका bakaबितसा bitsa, बोक bok • Sanskritनादेय nadeyaवानीर vaniraवञ्जुल vanjulaवरुणा varuna
botanical namesSalix tetrasperma Roxb. … synonyms: no synonym known … NPGS / GRIN

That must be from riverside Wai. Beautiful pictures!

The lone tree in Pune has less number of flowers this year. Season remains same.

Thanks … This sighting was on 26 SEP 2015 near Mahabaleshwar lake on Tapola Road.

Bengali : Panijam – in Bengali vocabulary I am reading it is Pani jama – the akar will be after ja and not after ma.  See spelling in … image.  There … is slight mistaken for the bengali script of Baisakhi but you have correctly typed it.

Thanks … for re-validating the spelling of pani-jama.
A day before you responded with… reply, … had helped me with that word in Bangla script as per reference from Voight’s record. I have attached it. I decided to maintain the spelling as in Voight’s illustration. Thus পানী-জমা. I hope this is okay. My thanks to … too. Attachments (1)

I still have doubts. In Bengali, Juma has no sense but jam  meaning edible Syzygium which we call Kalo jam. Anyway, the authentic spelling has to be followed.

what is Voight’s illustration??? full citation please including name of book, name of author, publisher, publishing city, publishing year and

where does one get to see or download one from if its a copyright expired book… so i can look at its  publication history and who was this author etc. … on of you or all of you can tell me this. so i hope to get the answer

…, please help with the book details requested by …  Thank you … for the efforts.

…, as per your request please find the attachment and search the above sites for the books. It’s not possible to remember which e-book I downloaded from where…. Attachments (7)


Fwd: SALIX TETRASERMUM( INDIAN WILLOW ) : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1)
Attaching a collage of Salix tetraspermum (INDIAN WILLOW).  

Fwd: SYMBIOSIS : 1020 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1)

Attaching a collage of Chestnut Tailed Starling visiting flowers of Salix tetrasperma (INDIAN WILLOW)

Fwd: SYMBIOSIS : 1021: 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1)

Attaching a collage of Red Vented Bulbul visiting flowers of Salix tetrasperma. (INDIAN WILLOW).

Fwd: SYMBIOSIS : 1022 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1)

Attaching a collage of Red Base Jezebel visiting flowers of Salix tetrasperma (INDIAN WILLOW).

Fwd: SYMBIOSIS : 1023 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1)

Attaching a collage of Grey Pansy visiting flowers of Salix tetrasperma (INDIAN WILLOW)

Salix tetrasperma :: Yercaud :: 24 JAN 18 : 4 posts by 3 authors. 4 images.
Yercaud … (literally, lake forest), Tamil Nadu on the banks of lake … Date: January 24, 2018 … Altitude: about 1,623 m (5324 feet) asl
Salix tetrasperma Roxb. … (family: Salicaceae)

Superb… Beautifully captured..

SALIX TETRASPERMA ( INDIAN WILLOW/ JALMALA/ BAISHAKI ) : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (8)

I was sure that there were Salix tetrasperma at this place near water bodies. On 14-11-2017 I notices for the first time a tree of that species was in bloom. Few visits more and I captured a Red base Jezebel visiting the flowers. I visited other places where I saw this tree. But they were missing due to human greed. This year I recorded some insects visiting flowers of another two trees in the area on 27-10 2018, 30-10-2018 and 1-11-2018. On 7-11-2018 I noticed another tree with buds. I thought it to be a late bloomer. I visited the tree on subsequent days to see the tree in bloom and insects visiting the flowers. But a surprise was waiting for me on 20-11-2018, I saw some cotton like substance being released by the catkins. I thought the tree to be a different species of Salix. My friend Dr A P Das told me that the two trees are of same species ie Salix tetrasperma (INDIAN WILLOW/ JALMALA/ BAISHAKI). He also told me that the tree is dioecious

ie male and female flowers bloom on different trees. This was a fascinating information for me.

Attaching tree images of male and five images of female tree of Salix tetrasperma. Nature is full of wonders.


Tree ID request, Delhi (230509.ys.1st) – indiantreepix | Google Groups


Fwd: Photograph for Identification : 4 posts by 2 authors.  Attachments (1) – 6 mb.
Please Identify this plant. I found on the bank of water-body in Natore, Bangladesh.

Looks like Salix sp.
Check Salix tetrasperma.

Habitat indicates towards Salix sp., however inflorescence may help to confirm.

Plant ID assistance SD03 : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (3)
Clicked at Keshopur Chhumb bird sanctuary (wetland). Pls assist with plant ID

Pl. check with Salix tetrasperma

Also check with images and details at Salix tetrasperma as suggested by …


Which tree?/ABDEC53 : 6 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (6)

This willow like tree is growing in a nearby building compound. I am not sure this is the right time to identify this foliage deprived tree. Please advise.
Mcleodganj, Dharamshala, HP

28 December, 2014

Looks like Salix wallichiana, but the conspicuous reddish bud in the axil of the leaves have not benn seen by me earlier during winters.

Wait for its flowering which can help us for correct idntification
However the other remarks regarding its identification may be incorrect as S. walchiana is not so robust as it resembles to Salix gracilis

efi page on Salix wallichiana

To me this appears close to Salix tetrasperma Roxb. as per images and details herein.


Fwd: Please Identify- Salix species? : 3 posts by 2 authors.

Please ID
Location:  Maharajganj, Uttar Pradesh
Date: 15 Dec. 2015
Altitude: 95 mt.

Pl. check Salix species as available at the link, as per suggestion of …

Pl also check for Vitex species. If possible please send a clear photograph of the leaves, as they their structure is not seen clearly in the present photograph, for proper ID. 

To me this appears close to Salix tetrasperma Roxb. as per images and details herein.

Re: SALIX SPECIES ??? : 4 posts by 2 authors.

Attaching a collage of a tree (to me it seems to be some species of Salix). It is not Salix tetraspermum (There are some trees of this species here). This is the only tree standing on the bank of a pond. And it is in bloom now.
Can any one validate the identity of this tree ?

Also check with species available with images at Salix

To me this appears close to Salix tetrasperma Roxb. only as per images and details herein and as per comparative images at Salix‎.


photograph for identification: 4 high res. images.
Today (27.11.21) I got a Salix sp. from Natore, Bangladesh but I am confused about its species. Number of stamen 3 or 4, hairy. Please help me to identify this species.

Side of a pond like water body.

Salix tetrasperma

To me it also appears close to images at Salix tetrasperma Roxb.
S. ichnostachya appears to have 4-6 stamens, and is now being treated as a syn. of Salix tetrasperma Roxb. as per POWO.
Are there any other species reported from the area?


Tree for ID : Nasik : 28APR22 : AK – 09: 3 images.
Seen earlier this week near a river bank.

I couldn’t go closer.

It may be Salix tetrasperma.

I will observe the tree for flowers.

Pl. post high res. images to check the details.

3 very high res. images.

Yes, to me also appears close to images at Salix tetrasperma