IUCN Red List Status: Vulnerable (VU)
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Santalum album L., Sp. Pl. 1: 349 349 1753. (syn: Santalum ellipticum Zipp. ex Span.; Santalum myrtifolium L.; Santalum myrtifolium L. ex Roxb.; Santalum ovata R.Br.) as per Catalogue of Life;

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India (Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu), Bangladesh, Thailand (I), Nepal (I), Sri Lanka, China (I) (Guangdong (I)), Australia (Northern Territory: coastal and Islands), Taiwan (I), Java (I), Palau Isl. (I) (Pohnpei (I)), Society Isl. (I) (Tahiti (I)), Mauritius (I), La Runion (I), Rodrigues (I), Myanmar [Burma] (I), Vietnam (I) as per Catalogue of Life;
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¿ sun-TUH-lum ? — most possibly from Sanskrit चन्दनं (chandanam) … Wiktionary
AL-bum — white … Dave’s Botanary

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commonly known asIndian sandalwoodwhite sandalwood • Assameseচন্দন chandan • Bengaliচন্দন chandan • Gujaratiચંદન chandan • Hindiचन्दन chandanसंदल sandal • Kannadaಶ್ರೀಗಂಧ srigandha • Konkaniगांद gaandhश्रीगंध shrigandh • Malayalamചന്ദനം chandanam • Manipuriচংদন chandan • Marathiचंदन chandanश्रीखंड shrikhand • Mizosawndawn • Nepaliश्रीखण्ड shrikhand• Odiaଚନ୍ଦନ chandan • Paliचन्दन chandana • Punjabiਚੰਦਨ chandanਸੰਦਲ sandal • Sanskritचन्दनम् chandanam • Tamilசந்தனம் chandanam • Teluguశ్రీగంధం srigandham • Tibetantsan dan • Tuluಚಂದನ chandanaಶ್ರೀಗ೦ಧ shrigandha • Urduچندن chandan

… more names derived from Sanskrit in Odiaଭଦ୍ରଶ୍ରୀ bhadrashriହରିଚନ୍ଦନ harichandanaଶ୍ରେଷ୍ଠ ଚନ୍ଦନ shrestha-chandanaଶ୍ରୀଖଣ୍ଡ shrikhandaଶୁଭ୍ର shubra

… and more names in Sanskritअर्केष्ट arkestaबर्बरी barbariबर्बरोत्थ barbarotthaभद्रश्री bhadrashriचन्द्रद्युति chandradyutiचन्द्रकान्त chandrakantaएकाङ्ग ekangaगन्धसार gandhasaraगन्धाढ्य gandhadhyaगन्धराज gandharajaहरिद्रक haridrakaहरिगन्ध harigandhaहिम himaकोशी koshiमहार्ह maharhaमलयज malayajaमङ्गल्य mangalyaनन्दनज nandanajaनारायणप्रिय narayanapriyaपराग paragaपटीर patiraपट्टराग pattaragaफलकिन् phalakinपीतसार pitasaraप्रचेल prachelaप्रविर praviraरौहिण rauhinaसारगन्ध saragandhaशीतल shitalaश्रीखण्ड shrikhandaशुभ्र shubhraश्वेतसार shvetasaraसित sitaसुगन्ध sugandhaसुक्कडि sukkadiसुरोत्तर surottaraतैलपर्णी tailaparniवल्गुक valgukaवर्णक varnakaवेधक vedhakaविकट vikataयाम्य yamyaयोग्य yogya
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Evergreen trees, to 10 m high, bark surface dark grey to nearly black, rough with short vertical cracks. Leaves simple, opposite, estipulate; petiole 12-18 mm long, slender, glabrous, grooved above; lamina 3.7-12 x 2-4 cm, elliptic, elliptic-ovate or ovate-lanceolate, base acute or round, apex acute, margin entire, glabrous, shiny above and glaucous beneath, coriaceous; lateral nerves 8-13 pairs, pinnate, faint, intercostae reticulate, obscure. Flowers bisexual, 5-6 mm across, reddish-purple, in axillary and terminal paniculate cymes, much shorter than leaves; tepals 5, basally connate into a campanulate tube of 2 mm long, shortly connate to the basal part of the ovary; lobes 2.5 x 1.5 mm, ovate, thin, fleshy, glaucescent without, minutely ciliate; disc concave, adhering to the bottom of perianth, its lobes alternates with tepals; stamens 5, alternates with disc; filaments 1 mm; anthers 0.7 mm, ovoid, 2-celled; ovary superior later half inferior at the time of flowering, globose, 1 mm, 1-celled, ovules 2-3, pendulous from below the long, acuminate, central column; style 1.5 mm, stigma 3 lobed. Fruit a drupe, 8-12 mm across, globose, blackish-purple, annulate above, beaked with the basal part of the style; seed one.

Flowering and fruiting: November-December
Dry deciduous forests, also grown in homesteads
Peninsular India and Malesia

Santalum album or Indian sandalwood is a small tropical tree, the most commonly known source of sandalwood. This species has been utilised, cultivated and traded for many years,[clarification needed] some cultures placing great significance on its fragrant and medicinal qualities. For these reasons it has been extensively exploited, to the point where the wild population is vulnerable to extinction. It still commands high prices for its essential oil, but due to lack of sizable trees it is no longer used for fine woodworking as before. The plant is widely cultivated and long lived, although harvest is viable after 40 years.

The species is threatened by over-exploitation and degradation to habitat through altered land use; fire, agriculture and land-clearing are the factors of most concern. To preserve this vulnerable resource from over-exploitation, legislation protects the species, and cultivation is researched and developed.[4][5][6]
The Indian government has placed a ban on the export of the timber.[1]
The use of S. album in India is noted in literature for over two thousand years. It has use as wood and oil in religious practices. It also features as a construction material in temples and elsewhere. The Indian government has banned the export of the species to reduce the threat by over-harvesting. In the southern Indian state of Karnataka, all trees of greater than a specified girth are the property of the state. Cutting of trees, even on private property, is regulated by the Forest Department.[8] The infamous forest bandit Veerappan was involved in the illegal felling of sandalwood trees from forests.
(From Wikipedia on 30.9.13)
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Sandalwood buds and flowers: Seen on a sandalwood tree growing wild in Bangalore.


-Botanical name is Santalum album, as I know.  This is most common in Mysore city and surroundings.   Comes up naturally and protected tree.  If this tree comes up in any house one has to inform the Forest department and one cannot cut this tree. Another common tree in Mysore city is Magnolia champaka.  Infact many varieties are seen if you walk on the road during the flowering season.


-Adding my picture of Sandalwood flowers taken at Nasik, Maharashtra on the 8th of Sept,09.



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SYMBIOSIS: I received a sapling of Chandan ( Santalum album ) from my friend Col ..,in 2002, from Pune .That sapling is now almost 10 ft tall tree. Bears flowers and fruits. Many butterfly species visit the flowers. Koel, Bluethroated Barbet and Redvented Bulbul relish the fruits. I can observe these activities from close quarter. Attaching an image. You may like it.


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VALMIKI : OBSERVER OF NATURE (mixed thread): 1 correct image.
Do you know that Valmiki did not mention about any LAKSHMAN REKHA in his Ramayan? I was surprised when I came to know about this information, by reading Ramayan by Valmiki in orgianal. I did it in 1995. I think this famous Lakshman Rekha is from Ramcharit Manas by Tulsidas. If you are surprised, please go through Valmiki Ramayan.
I am attaching an image of another plant mentioned by Valmiki. This one is famous CHANDAN.
At first I want to apologize for an error on the image of CHANDAN, I fwd yesterday. …  was nice to point out the error. I am thankful to him. The scientific name of this plant is Santalum album. I am attaching a corrected version of the image.



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Santalum album:  Santalum album
Chandan
Today at Alibag,Maharashtra



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SYMBIOSIS: 1 correct image as above.
Attaching an image of Redvented Bulbul eating fruit of Santalum album (CHANDAN). So far I have recorded 5 birds on Chandan flower/fruit. But the score of Redvented Bulbul is 87 fruit//flower!!! I find it amazing.

Attaching an imge of a Great Eggfly butterfly ( Female ) on Gomphrena flower( a garden flower ,blooms at this time of the year ).I have recorded 11 species of butterfly on this flower so far.The score of Great Eggfly is 24 flowers.



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Location- Place, Altitude, GPS-Pune
Habitat- Garden/ Urban/ Wild/ Type-Garden
Plant Habit- Tree/ Shrub/ Climber/ Herb- Shrub
Height/Length- 4-5 ft
Leaves Type/ Shape/ Size- pale green
No flowers or fruits seen

This is Santalum album (Indian Sandalwood Tree) of Santalaceae family.


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SYMBIOSIS 70: Attaching the image of the 70th member of the series. Here a Blackheaded Oriole is eating the fruit of Chandan (Santalum album). The bird took the fruit from the Chandan tree and flew to the nearby Oleander tree and ate the fruit there. This is the first time i saw a Blackheaded Oriole eating Chandan fruit.


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SYMBIOSIS : 76: Attaching an image of the 76th member of the series. Here avagrant butterfly is on the flowers of Santalum album.



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efloraindia: 151111:

Pl. find the attached file contain photos of Santalum album.
Location: NBNP Garden, Anaikatti, Coimbatore Dist.,
Habitat: Garden
Habit: Tree.

Flowering season Oct. to Nov.


Nice pictures of the flowers…of Chandan tree..


have seen creamish flowers.. never these reddish… may be I should have hung around the place for a few days? older flowers are red???


I have seen flowers which are same like these ones.
The younger flowers may not have that colour and are white as you say. Agreed



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SYMBIOSIS : 180:  Attaching an image of Striped Albatross butterfly on the flowers of Santalum album (Chandan)


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SYMBIOSIS : 201:  Attaching an image of a Blue tiger butterfly on the flowers of santalum album. This is our famous CHANDAN.



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SYMBIOSIS : 202:  Attaching an image of a Common Bluebottle butterfly on the flowers of Santalum album. If you are having CHANDAN tree in your locality try to observe. You will be surprised to note the number of species of butterfly visiting this small size flower.



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SYMBIOSIS : 204:  Attaching an image of Tailed Jay butterfly on the flowers of Santalum album ( CHANDAN )..


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efloraofindia:”For Id 17102012MR2’’ tree with green, red and black cherry like fruits at Pune:

09/10/2012 Pune

Requesting identification of another tree about 15 feet, with green, red and black berries in the same public park. The branches were at a lower height. Is this also some Ficus sp?


what about santalum album


Many thanks … for the Id. I had not seen fruits of Santalum album before but only flowers. Now I know how they look.



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efloraofindia:”For Id 17102012MR3’’ tree with green, red and black cherry like fruits at Pune: 09/10/2012 Pune

Requesting identification of another tree about 15 feet, with green, red and black berries in the same public park. The branches were at a lower height. Is this also some Ficus sp?

Pardon me if this post appears twice as when I sent it the first time it bounced.


I think … had IDd this as Santalum album. I agree on his ID.



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SYMBIOSIS : 288:  Attaching an image of a male Koel on the fruits of Santalum album. This is famous CHANDAN.



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SYMBIOSIS: 1 correct image as above.

Butterflies are very active these days. Sending an image of male ofGreat Eggfly, on flowers of Santalum album (CHANDAN).



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efloraofindia:”Id 09032013MR1’’ flowers of Santalum album at Pune :  Attachments (4).  3 posts by 2 authors.

June 2012

Sharing images of flowers of Santalum album at a housing society garden at Pune


Beautiful close-ups!



SYMBIOSIS : 375 : Attachments (1).  1 post by 1 author.

Attaching an image of a Commanderbutterfly on the flowers of Santalum album (CHANDAN).



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SYMBIOSIS :378 :  Attachments (1). 1 post by 1 author.

Attaching an image of Tailed jay butterfly on the flowers of Santalum album (CHANDAN).



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SYMBIOSIS : 385 : Attachments (1).  1 post by 1 author.

Attaching an image of a Grey Pansy butterfly on the flowers of Santalum album (CHANDAN).



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SYMBIOSIS : 387 :  Attachments (1).  1 post by 1 author.

Attaching an image of a Lemon Pansy butterfly on the flowers of Santalum album (CHANDAN).



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SYMBIOSIS : 388 :  Attachments (1).  1 post by 1 author.

Attaching an image of a Common Pierrot butterfly on the flowers of Santalum album (CHANDAN).



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Requesting to please ID medium sized with tiny red flowers captured in Mumbai in June 2013.


This has been IDed as Santalum album on Indian Flora by …



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05072013 ASP 79 :  Attachments (1).  2 posts by 2 authors.

Please Id this medicinal tree. Photo was taken in Sri Lanka in March 2013.


Santalum album, the sandalwood tree.



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SYMBIOSIS :414 : Attachments (1). 2 posts by 2 authors.

Attaching an image of a Striped tiger on the flowers of Santalum album (CHANDAN)



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Hooghly today : Santalum album L. : Attachments (8). 7 posts by 4 authors.

This seems to be Santalum album L., growing in a home-yard.


Yes Very good pictures of Santalum album

Santalaceae. Chandan tree.



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SYMBIOSIS : 495 : Attachments (1). 1 post by 1 author.

Attaching an image of a Koel (F), on the fruits of Santalum album.



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SYMBIOSIS : 496 : Attachments (1). 1 post by 1 author.

Attaching an image of a Koel (Male), on the fruits of Santalum album.



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SYMBIOSIS :514 : Attachments (1).  1 post by 1 author.

Attaching an image of Red Whiskered Bulbul on the fruits of Santalum album.



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OBSERVATION IN NATURE: SEDUCE :  Attachments (1). 1 post by 1 author.

If you are fortunate to have Santalum album (CHANDAN) tree near your home, you are likely to observe wonderful events on that tree. Some 50 species of butterfly visit the flowers of this tree. Some 5 species of bird visit the fruits of this tree. On 16-03-2014 I was lucky to observe a female Koel being seduced by a male koel by offering her fruit of Santalum album. On earlier occasion I have seen male Koel offering fruits of PAKUR and Weeping Palm to the female one to seduce her. Attaching an image of on the subject,



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SYMBIOSIS : 612 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1) .

Attaching an image of a Red Lacewing butterfly on the flowers of Santalum album.



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Santalum album from Trivandrum : 290614 : SS June01 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (9).
Sharing a few pictures of the Sandal wood tree in flower and fruit from my garden.
This tree was not planted but sprouted from bird droppings.

Santalum album. Family: Santalaceae



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Santalum album L. SN July 13 : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (3).

Santalum album L, wild sandal tree in fruiting, seeds also shown here.


Thanks … for posting nice images..



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SYMBIOSIS : 650 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1).

Attaching an image of a Red-spot Jezebel butterfly on the flowers of Santalum album.



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SYMBIOSIS : 651 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1).

Attaching an image of a femaleCommon Mormon butterfly on the flowers of Santalum album (CHANDAN).



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SYMBIOSIS : 652 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1).

Attaching an image of a Leopard Lace Wing (female) butterfly, on the flowers of Santalum album.



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SYMBIOSIS : 655 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1).

Attaching an image of a Black-hooded Oriole on the fruits of Santalum album.



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SYMBIOSIS : 662 : 1 post by 1 author.

Attaching an image of a Common Map butterfly on the flowers of Santalum album. This is the first time I saw this species at Cooch Behar town in last 10 years, but the species is common in North Bengal forests.



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SYMBIOSIS : 661 : 2 posts by 2 authors.

Attaching an image of a Commander butterfly on the flowers of Santalun album (CHANDAN).


Beautiful Symbiosis..



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SYMBIOSIS : 676 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1).

Attaching an image of a Common Jester butterfly on the flowers of Santalum album.



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SANTALUM ALBUM( CHANDAN ): AN UNIQUE ECOLOGICAL NICHE : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (10)

In 2002 my friend Col. P K Sarkar (AMC) sent a sapling of Santalum album from Pune. It has turned into a small tree now. I find it to be a laboratory for ecological studies. I recorded more than 50 species of butterflies visiting the tiny flowers of this tree and some 5 species of birds feasting on the fruits of this tree. Recently I found some larva on this plant. I knew these to be of Red Base Jezebel. In 2009 I saw a Brain fever bird(PAPIHA) feeding on these larva. As I was worried about the health of the tree, I removed the larva with the help of a stick. Some larva fell on the plants below. In course of time these larva pupate and butterflies emerged. I recorded the recent larva for 3 days. On 4th day the larva were missing. But on 5th day I found two visitors on the tree in the shape of BLACK-HOODED ORIOLE and BRAIN FEVER BIRD. To my mind either of these bird must have eaten the larva.

This story is depicted with the help of 10 attached images.



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SYMBIOSIS : 729 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1)

Attaching an image of a Chestnut Tailed Starling on the fruits on Santalum album.



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SANTALUM ALBUM: A LINK IN THE LIFE OF RED BASE JEZEBEL : 6 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (16)

On 01-01-2015 I located few larvae of Red Base Jezebel on a branch of Santalum album. I followed those larvae from 01-01-2015 onward. On 06-01-2015 I observed a Black Hooded Oriole feeding on the larvae and shifted them on an earthen plate and kept it on the balcony. To my surprise I found that the plate was lying upside down on the table with the larvae in it. I suspected that the same Black Hooded Oriole must have done it. Fortunately the larvae were still there. I found the Oriole visiting the tree in the evening. I shifted the plate along with the larvae in side the room. I used to supply fresh leaves of Santalum album (CHANDAN) every day till 17 -01-2015 (that is the day first pupa was formed). The butterfly emerged when the pupa was 14 days old. As the larvae of this species stay together even when they are full grown and ready to pupate I could see some 19 pupa on the plate (total number of larvae was 21). I followed this activity till 01 Feb when the last butterfly emerged. Taken few hundred images of this fascinating activity. Attaching some 16 images of this story as a New Year gift. My New Year is made. I think it’s a life time experience.


thank you, … for the pictures

for taking time to tell us the story and sending it in

yes indeed a life time story


A careful follow up and interest lead you to see what is not easily observable..

Nice to know that this task enabled you witness the great metamorphosis..

Thanks … for sharing your experience and nice images..


Thanks … for sharing this wonderful and exiting experience along with series of beautiful self explanatory photographs.. No doubt, it’s a life time experience.. Perfect New year Gift for all… Thanks again..and keep sharing.


dont thank me for liking the story

i loved it
I think the whole world should see this carefully studied case
You are a true example of citizen observing nature consistently and thus contributing to our knowledge and enjoyment, and hence a CITIZEN-SCIENTIST..


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SYMBIOSIS : 773 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1).

Attaching an image of a female Coloured Sergeant butterfly on the flowers of Santalum album (CHANDAN).



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SYMBIOSIS : 784 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1)

Attaching an image of a Common Rose butterfly on Santalum album (CHANDAN).



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SYMBIOSIS : 785 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1)

Attaching an image of Chestnut Bob butterfly visiting flowers of Santalum album (CHANDAN).



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SYMBIOSIS :796 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1)

Attaching an image of a Tree Pie on the fruits of Santalum album (CHANDAN).



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SYMBIOSIS :797 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1)

Attaching an image of a Common Jay butterfly on the flowers of Santalum album (CHANDAN).



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SYMBIOSIS : 799 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1)
Attaching an image of a Great Egg Fly visiting flowers of Santalum album (CHANDAN)


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SYMBIOSIS : 800 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1)

Attaching an image of a Common Spotted Flat visiting flowers of Santalum album (CHANDAN).


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SYMBIOSIS : 801 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1)
Attaching an image of a Chestnut Bob butterfly visiting flowers of Santalum album (CHANDAN).


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SYMBIOSIS : 802 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1)

Attaching an image of a Carpenter Bee visiting flowers of Santalum album (CHANDAN).


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Fwd: Malayalam name of Santalam album : 4 posts by 3 authors.

In the efi page on Santalum album the Malayalam name should be written as ചന്ദനം.

Hope this can be incorporated in the page.


Many thanks … for this name and for it in native script.


Malayalam: Chandanam, Gandharajan.



Image by tspkumar

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TSPNOV2015-1: Images of Santalum album (Santalaceae) : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (5)

It is my pleasure to share few images of Santalum album (Santalaceae)
Habit: Medium sized tree, a partial root parasite in the initial stages.
Habitat: Moist and dry deciduous forests.
Sighting: Chikmagalur, Karnataka, about 1000 msl
Date: 6-06-2014, 26-06-2014, 29-09-2014, 8-10-2014 and 8-07-2015


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SYMBIOSIS : 807 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1)
Attaching an image of a Leopard Lacewing butterfly (female) visiting flowers of Santalum album (CHANDAN).


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SYMBIOSIS : 818 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1)
Attaching an image of a male Leopard Lace Wing visiting flowers of Santalum album (CHANDAN). The butterfly in the image was released from the pupa just a while ago.


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SYMBIOSIS : 821 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1)
Attaching an image of a female Large Egg-fly visiting flowers of Santalum album (CHANDAN).


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CHANDAN TREE (Santalum album) has taught me a few lessons. I tried to understand Symbiotic relationship between butterfly and  this tree, tried to understand the symbiotic relationship between birds and this tree, tried to understand life cycle of Red-base Jezebel butterfly on this tree and diet of Black-hooded Oriole and Brain fever bird on this tree.

I saw two Rufous Tree Pie collecting materials (twigs of Saltalum album) from this tree. What a luxury to build a nest with CHANDAN!!. Attaching few images of that observation.


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Please find attached set of Santalum album (Santalaceae) from Rahata near Shirdi.


Happy to see an intact tree.


There were two of them !



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SK29JUL3-2016:ID : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (5)

Enclosing some pictures for identification.
Location : Sukute, Nepal
Altitude:  3000 ft.
Date: 23 July 2014


This looks likeSantalum album– (Sandalwood)..


Yes it is ! Thank you …



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SYMBIOSIS : 826 : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)
Attaching an image of a Asiatic Pied Starling feeding on the fruits of Santalum album (CHANDAN).


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SYMBIOSIS : 833 : 3 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (1)

Attaching an image of a Blue Throated Barbet with collection of fruits of Santalum album (CHANDAN) on beaks. This indicates the bird Is having a nest in the nearby area and the fruits are for the chick.


very clearly depicted. love it


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  I find Santalum album (CHANDAN) bloom almost throughout the year. As the tree is in our house observation is easy. There is one Alstonia scholaris tree (DEVIL’S TREE/CHATIM ) which is approximately 150 meters away from the Santalum album. I have recorded more than 50 species of butterflies visiting flowers of Santalum album and recorded some 38 species of butterflies visiting flowers of Alstonia scholaris.. Species of butterflies may be much more but as observation was made only for a limited period, number recorded may be less.

      During the month of October this year I observed the following butterflies visiting flowers of Santalum album,
       1. Peacock Pansy
       2. Grey Pansy
       3. common Crow
       4. Common Leopard
       5. Common Sailer
       6. Common Four Ring
       7. Blank Swift
       8. Great Egg fly

Alstonia scholaris was in bloom around 20-10-2016. I made some recoding on 28 and 29 October 2016 (Total period spent was not more than two hours).

      The following species of butterflies visited flowers of Alstonia scholaris during my observation.
     1. Red Spot Jezebel
     2. Red Base Jezebel
     3. Red Spot  Saw tooth
     4. Peacock Pansy
     5. Common crow
     6. Common Albatross
     7. Striped Albatross
     8. Blue Tiger
     9. Common Grass yellow
     10. Common Emigrant
     11.Great Egg fly
     12. Blank Swift
      It was interesting to note that huge number of Red Spot Jezebel and Red Base Jezebel were visiting the flowers of Alstonia scholaris but not a single one visited flowers of Santalum album (though I have recorded Jezebels on this flower earlier.)

      May be butterflies prefer flowers of Alstonia scholaris more than the flowers of Santalum album.


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Re: SYMBIOSIS : 869 : 1 post by 1 author.

Attaching an image of a Common Palm Fly (male), visiting flowers of Santalum album (CHANDAN).


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SYMBIOSIS :873 : 3 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (1)

Attaching collage in which both male and female Striped Albatross are visiting flowers of Santalum album (CHANDAN).



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SYMBIOSIS : 875 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1)
Attaching an image of a Red Spot Jezebel on the flowers of Saltalum album (CHANDAN).


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Kemmangundi Road Karnataka
Date: 13 NOV 2016 … Altitude: ~ 1021 – 1369 m (3349 – 4491 ft) asl

Santalum album L. … (family: Santalaceae)


Superb images, …



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Fwd: SYMBIOSIS : 880 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1)
Hello, attaching a collage of Commander visiting flowers of Santalum album (CHANDAN).


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Fwd: SYMBIOSIS : 886 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1)
Hello, attaching an image of a Red Whiskered Bulbul relishing fruits of Santalum album (CHANDAN).


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Fwd: SYMBIOSIS : 917 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1)
Attaching a collage where White Eye is visiting Santalum album.


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Fwd: SYMBIOSIS : 925 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1)

Attaching a collage of Purple Sunbird (female) visiting flowers of Santalum album (CHANDAN)



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Fwd: SYMBIOSIS : 938 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1)
Attaching a collage of 13 species of butterflies visiting flowers of Santalum album (CHANDAN). At this time of the year you find many visitors on these tiny flowers of this plant. Even though there are other flowering plants like Peacock flower, Bleeding heart, Crepe myrtle in the vicinity butterflies congregates on this plant.


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Fwd: SYMBIOSIS : 939 : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)

Attaching a collage in which seven species of butterfly are visiting flowers of Santalum album (CHANDAN).



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via Species‎ > ‎S‎ > Santalum album L. … family: Santalaceae
Flowers of India Discussions at efloraofindia more views in flickr more views on Google Earth
¿sun-TUH-lum ? — most possibly from Sanskrit चन्दनं (chandanam) … Wiktionary
AL-bum — white … Dave’s Botanary
commonly known asIndian sandalwoodwhite sandalwood • Assameseচন্দন chandan • Bengaliচন্দন chandan • Gujaratiચંદન chandan • Hindiचन्दन chandanसंदल sandal • Kannadaಶ್ರೀಗಂಧ srigandha • Konkaniगांद gaandhश्रीगंध shrigandh • Malayalamചന്ദനം chandanam • Manipuriচংদন chandan • Marathiचंदन chandanश्रीखंड shrikhand • Mizosawndawn • Nepaliश्रीखण्ड shrikhand • Odiaଚନ୍ଦନ chandan • Paliचन्दन chandana • Punjabiਚੰਦਨ chandanਸੰਦਲ sandal • Sanskritचन्दनम् chandanam • Tamilசந்தனம் chandanam • Teluguశ్రీగంధం srigandham • Tibetantsan dan • Tuluಚಂದನ chandanaಶ್ರೀಗ೦ಧ shrigandha • Urduچندن chandan
… more names derived from Sanskrit in Odiaଭଦ୍ରଶ୍ରୀ bhadrashriହରିଚନ୍ଦନ harichandanaଶ୍ରେଷ୍ଠ ଚନ୍ଦନ shrestha-chandanaଶ୍ରୀଖଣ୍ଡ shrikhandaଶୁଭ୍ର shubra
… and more names in Sanskritअर्केष्ट arkestaबर्बरी barbariबर्बरोत्थ barbarotthaभद्रश्री bhadrashriचन्द्रद्युति chandradyutiचन्द्रकान्त chandrakantaएकाङ्ग ekangaगन्धसार gandhasaraगन्धाढ्य gandhadhyaगन्धराज gandharajaहरिद्रक haridrakaहरिगन्ध harigandhaहिम himaकोशी koshiमहार्ह maharhaमलयज malayajaमङ्गल्य mangalyaनन्दनज nandanajaनारायणप्रिय narayanapriyaपराग paragaपटीर patiraपट्टराग pattaragaफलकिन् phalakinपीतसार pitasaraप्रचेल prachelaप्रविर praviraरौहिण rauhinaसारगन्ध saragandhaशीतल shitalaश्रीखण्ड shrikhandaशुभ्र shubhraश्वेतसार shvetasaraसित sitaसुगन्ध sugandhaसुक्कडि sukkadiसुरोत्तर surottaraतैलपर्णी tailaparniवल्गुक valgukaवर्णक varnakaवेधक vedhakaविकट vikataयाम्य yamyaयोग्य yogya
botanical namesSantalum album L., Sp. Pl. 349. 1753; Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 5: 231. 1886. … synonyms: no synonym known … Botanical Survey of India
November 13, 2016 … along Kemmangundi Road


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Fwd: SYMBIOSIS :956 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1)

Attaching a collage of male Purple Sun bird visiting flowers of Santalum album (CHANDAN).



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Fwd: KOELS ( MALE ) ON SANTALUM ALBUM : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (3)
Santalum album (CHANDAN) in our garden work as a laboratory for me. I observed life cycle of Red-base Jezebel (butterfly) on this tree. Recorded more than 50 species of butterflies visiting the flowers of this tree. I recorded a male Koel seducing a female Koel with fruits of this tree. Attaching three images of a pair of male Koels


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Fwd: RABINDRA SANGIT : CUCKOO-3 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1)
Here is translation of another song (translated by Rumela Sengupta). The bird in the image is on Santalum album (CHANDAN).


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Fwd: RABINDRA SANGIT : CUCKOO -5 : 2 posts by 1 author. Attachments (1)
Here is translation of another song. Translated by Rumela Sengupta. The bird is on Santalum album (CHANDAN).


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Fwd: RABINDRA SANGIT : CUCKOO-8 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1)
Here is the translated version of another song. Translated by Rumela Sengupta. The bird is on Santalum album (CHANDAN).


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Fwd: IT’S A WONDERFUL WORLD -10 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1)
In the attached collage a male Great Egg-fly is visiting flowers of Santalum album (CHANDAN).


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Fwd: SYMBIOSIS : 992 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1)

Attaching a collage of grey Pansy visiting flowers of Santalum album (CHANDAN)



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RED BASE JEZEBEL UNDER STRESS ( ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION ) : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)

We are having a Santalum album tree (CHANDAN) in our house at Cooch Behar. This plant was a gift to me by my friend Col Pradyot Sarkar. He sent this from Pune in 2002 when I was at Tezpur. It traveled with us to Binnaguri and at last it reached Cooch Behar in 2005 after few setbacks. since 2007 I was recording different species of butterflies visiting the flowers of this plant. In fact in my list, maximum species of butterflies visit flowers of this plant. Sometime in 2010 I observed a PAPIHA/BRAIN FEVER/HAWK CUCKOO feeding on some larva from this tree. On closer look I found many larva feeding on the leaves of this tree. I was worried about the health of the tree and I struck down these larvae. After few days I found some Red base Jezebel emerging from the pupa of these larvae. Till that time I was not aware that Santalum album is a host plant for Red base Jezebel. In January 2015 I saw a cluster of larvae on a branch which was within my reach. I knew that Hawk Cuckoo and Black hooded Oriole relish these larvae, to protect them I took them inside my room and started feeding them there. I saw them turning into pupa and release of butterfly. It was an experience by itself. Last time I saw this event in 2016.

In the meantime in the name of development hundreds of trees have been sacrificed in the area. Roadside weeds and grass has gone. I can see the effect on Red base Jezebel. I have not seen any larva of this butterfly species on our Chandan tree after 2017 till today.

Attaching a collage where you can see larva of Red base Jezebel feeding on leaves of Santalum album, pupa and release of butterfly.



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SYMBIOSIS : 1393 : 4 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (1)

Attaching a collage of Lemon Pansy butterfly visiting flowers of Santalum album (CHANDAN)



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SYMBIOSIS : 1394 : 3 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (1)

Attaching a collage of Peacock Pansy visiting flowers of Santalum album (CHANDAN)



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Hospet, KA :: Santalum album :: ARK2020-048 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (3)
Saw this Chandan tree in a resort complex in Hospet, KA in October 2019.

Taken at Haldwani FRH (Uttrakhand). April 2011.
Kindly Id.

Taken at Haldwani FRH(Uttrakhand).April 2011.first pic is not clear.


Any chance for Santalum album, the sandalwood tree?


Chances are there for this being Santalum album! But the picture with leaves are not clear.
Kindly upload a clear picture of a branch in which the leaves are in focus.


Though I don’t remember seeing this at Haldwani FRH, it is not uncommon to see sandalwood tree in a Forest Dept. garden…
This was just a clue…but to me both leaves and trunk/bark look like that of Santalum album. Of course clearer pictures with a close-up of leaves/flowers would help to confirm the id.



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26032020EPT66 : 4 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (3)- around 550 kb each.
Location : Javadhu hills, Eastern Ghats
Elevation : 3600 feet
Habitat : Roadside
Taken on 12.02.2020

Santalum album,

Santalaceae member,



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Santalum album L. : 9 posts by 1 author. 9 images- 5 to 7 mb each.

Location: Kamal Binayak, Bhaktapur, Nepal
Altitude: 1500 m.

Date: 15 July 2020

Habitat : Cultivated 
Nepali Name :श्रीखण्ड  Shreekhand


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SYMBIOSIS : 1451: 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)
Attaching a collage of different species of fly visiting flowers of Santalum album (CHANDAN)

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SYMBIOSIS : 1452 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1)

Attaching a collage of Potter Wasp visiting flowers of Santalum album


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Tell me the ID about the plant : 2 posts by 2 authors. 1 image.


More details are required to reach anywhere..


Cadaba species ?


Santalum album,


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