India (I); Andhra Pradesh; Arunachal Pradesh; Assam; Bihar; Delhi; Goa; Gujarat; Haryana; Himachal Pradesh; Jammu-Kashmir; Karnataka; Kerala; Madhaya Pradesh; Maharashtra; Manipur; Meghalaya; Mizoram; Nagaland; Orissa; Pondicherry; Punjab; Rajasthan; Sikkim; Tamil Nadu; Tripura; Uttar Pradesh; West Bengal and other countries as per ILDIS;

SEN-nuh — Latin form of Arabic word for a thorny bush
SOF-er-uh — an Arabian name for a pea flowering tree like those in the genus Sophora

commonly known as: sophera senna

Native to: India, s Mexico, Caribbean islands, tropical South America; widely naturalized in tropics
 

Here is the part of the key developed by me on our webside:
39b Gland at base of petiole, sessile, hemispherical; leaflets 4-6 pairs; pod 10-13 cm long, compressed, glabrous, often slightly curved, 20-30 seeded, torulose when mature Senna occidentalis
39b Gland situated 3-10 mm above the base of petiole, clavate; leaflets 6-10 pairs; pod 5-10 cm long, somewhat inflated, puberulent when young, glabrous when mature, not curved, 30-40 seeded, not torulose when mature 40
40a Leaflets 4-9 cm long, acute or mucronate, branches not purple Senna sophera var. sophera
40b Leaflets less than 3 cm long, obtuse at apex; branches slender, purple Senna sophera var. purpurea

The full key for Cassia complex in India is available at our website:


Two step identification keys for Senna occidentalis and Senna sophera from MM Bhandari’s flora.  

Bracts acute, 2-4 flowers- Senna occidentalis
Bracts obtuse, more than 4 flowers- Senna sophera.  



Petioles not grooved with large gland at the base- Senna occidentalis
Petioles grooved with a conical gland at the base- Senna sophera
From flora of Madhya Pradesh, published by BSI.

 

/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/Cassia%20sophera%20copy.psd%20ch.jpg
/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/Cassia%20sophera%20%20twig.jpg


 

/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/Senna%20sophora%20-12--4.JPG

/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/Senna%20sophora%20-21-.JPG
/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/Senna%20sophora%20-20-.JPG
/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/Senna%20sophora%20-17-.JPG
/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/Senna%20sophora%20-14-.JPG
/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/Senna%20sophora%20-13-.JPG
/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/Senna%20sophora%20-11-.JPG
/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/Senna%20sophora%20-9-.JPG
/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/Senna%20sophora%20-6-.JPG
/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/Senna%20sophora%20-5-.JPG
/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/Senna%20sophora%20-4-.JPG
/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/Senna%20sophora%20-1--7.JPG
/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/Senna%20sophora%20-18-.JPG

/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/Senna%20sophora%20-7-.JPG
Senna sophora from Bank of W Y Canal Karnal
Wild Shrub upto 6 feet

Senna sophera please


 

/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/rk_for-id_043_1.jpg
/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/rk_for-id_043_2.jpg
/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/rk_for-id_043_3.jpg

Flower ID request – RK43 – 2-Nov-2012:  Request id of this garden plant / shrub from Mumbai. It is flowering now and is around 5 – 6 feet tall.


This is Senna sophera [Cassia sophera].


 

/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/ID%20Pls%20-%20Cassia%201.jpg

/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/ID%20Pls%20-%20Cassia%202.jpg

ID Pls – Cassia ? which one ? & the cat. ? – at Kalyani , Nadia, West Bengal: ID Pls – Cassia ? which one ? & the cat. ?


This is the caterpillar of the Common Emigrant butterfly on Senna sophera [Cassia sophera].


/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/3._Senna_sophera_var._sophera__L.__Roxb_-_LeafIMG_3692.jpg
/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/1._Senna_sophera_var._sophera__L.__Roxb_-_Habit_IMG_3687.jpg

 

/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/2._Senna_sophera_var._sophera__L.__Roxb_-_Habit__Senna_sophera_var._sophera__L.__Roxb._IMG_3686.jpg
/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/4._Senna_sophera_var._sophera__L.__Roxb_-_Leaf_IMG_3691.jpg
/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/5._Senna_sophera_var._sophera__L.__Roxb_-_Inflorescence_IMG_3689.jpg
/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/6._Senna_sophera_var._sophera__L.__Roxb_-_Flower_IMG_3690.jpg

Senna sophera var. sophera (L.) Roxb. from Kamrup district(Metro) : Attachments (6). 2 posts by 2 authors.

Attached images may be Senna sophera var. sophera (L.) Roxb. Please validate
Date :18.10.13.2013
Location: Kamrup district(Metro)
Family : Caesalpiniaceae
Genus & species : Senna sophera var. sophera (L.) Roxb.
Habitat: Grows wild on road side
Habit : Shrub
Flower : Yellow 


Good Pics again …


 

/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/cass%20soph.JPG
/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/cassia%20sophera1.JPG
Senna sophera (L.) Roxb. SN Mar 28 :  2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (2).  
Senna sophera (L.) Roxb (= Cassia sophera L.), undershrub recorded near shimoga Karnataka.

Attachments (4).
Requesting to please ID this small tree captured near Devgad, Maharashtra in May 2014.


Senna sophera (L.) Roxb.


 /wp-content/uploads/2020/10/DSCN4436-Cassia.JPG

Cassia for ID : 310711 : AK-2: Also taken at Jijamata Udyan, Mumbai on 24/10/07.
This was a small plant ( probably a young one) with yellow flowers.


I guess Cassia sophera Linn.


Just came across this older post of mine taken at Jijamata Udyan, Mumbai.
Thanks for the id.


/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/DSC01728-4.JPG

 

/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/DSC01741.JPG
/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/DSC01738.JPG
/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/DSC01729-3.JPG

ID02122011phk: Cassia for id
At Ganeshgudi, Karnataka
30Nov,2011

SEN-nuh — Latin form of Arabic word for a thorny bush
SOF-er-uh — an Arabian name for a pea flowering tree like those in the genus Sophora
Oct 15, 2011 … at Chunchwad, Karnataka
commonly known as: sophera senna
Native to: India, s Mexico, Caribbean islands, tropical South America; widely naturalized in tropics
more views: Oct 15, 2011 … at Halabhavi, Karnataka
Oct 15, 2011 … at Londa, Karnataka


 

/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/photo%203-5.JPG
/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/photo%202-7-7.JPG
/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/photo%201-5-1.JPG
Fwd: Cassia I’d plz : 3 posts by 1 author. Attachments (3)


Pl. check Senna sophera & images of all Senna species at  Senna


Senna sophera


/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/IMG_0098-2.JPG

 

/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/IMG_0099-1.JPG
/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/IMG_0102-8.JPG
/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/IMG_0101-4.JPG
/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/IMG_0100-6.JPG
Senna for ID :: Mumbai, Nov 2017 :: ARKNOV1701 : 5 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (5)
Saw this plant (may be cultivated) near a butterfly garden in Mumbai, November 2017. Could you please provide ID for the same?

Pl. Check at 

Senna sophera, perhaps.


Thanks, …, for the id.
I also feel these are close to images at Senna sophera


/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/Cassia%20sp%20-16-.JPG

 

/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/Cassia%20Both%20for%20Comparision.JPG
/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/Cassia%20sp%20-7-.JPG
/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/Cassia%20occidentalis%20-4--8.JPG
/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/Cassia%20occidentalis-1.JPG
10102011-BS-2 Cassia sp from Bank of Western Yamuna Canal in Karnal Haryana:  Cassia sp from Bank of Western Yamuna Canal in Karnal Haryana
Looks like that of Cassia occidentalis but have differences in Leaves particularly. The sp under consideration looks more profusely branched than C occidentalis 
sharing both for comparison 
pls id

https://lh4.googleusercontent.com/-3FHmzK3UYcU/T3Cx8DhDFlI/AAAAAAAACnM/GB1_XbfbfrI/s1600/DSCN0708.jpg
https://lh4.googleusercontent.com/-uU3OO9QSgfw/T3CyDxL44bI/AAAAAAAACng/VscFbePo4mo/s1600/DSCN0705.jpg

 

https://lh4.googleusercontent.com/-CdvadVrO7no/T3Cxu0XIErI/AAAAAAAACms/L0byz_bwwsI/s1600/DSCN0707.jpg
https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-C4fa2GwmGqU/T3Cxj4ezleI/AAAAAAAACmY/MC_yNHZ0wRo/s1600/DSCN0722.jpg
https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/--GQYole2MTs/T3CxbeIVUOI/AAAAAAAACmE/K-vUM697Flg/s1600/DSCN0716.jpg

KALKASUNDA (Bengali) :: 26-03-2012 :: Hooghly (WB) SK:  

“Plant Groups” gives me two species Cassia sophera & C. occidentalis for the plant what we call KALKASUNDA in Bengali. Both the species are referred as KALKASUNDA in Bengali. Moreover, ‘wikipedia’ says Cassia should be replaced by Senna.
I go for Senna sophera for the images attached herewith because of its more elongated leaflets.
Species : Senna sp.
Habit & Habitat : wild herb, roadside
Date : 17-03-2012, 1.40 p.m.
Place : Hooghly, WB


Hopefully it is कालकसौंदा not कल्कसुन्दा

कसौंदा or कसौंदी is Hindi name of Cassia (Senna) sophera. What is the meaning of “Kal” in Bengali? Is it for black?
Kasaunda is mentioned in famous writing of Malik Md. Jayesi. There are many villages in Chhattisgarh named as Kasaunda or Kasaundi.
कोइ बिजौंर, करौंदा-जूरीकोइ अमिली, कोइ महुअ, खजूरी
काहू हरफारेवरि कसौंदा । कोइ अँवरा, कोइ राय-करौंदा ॥


Thank you … for pointing my mistake, it should be KAALKAASUNDA.

In Bengali KAAL = tomorrow, time, era…. Black is pronounced as KAALO (‘O’ as in go).


Thanks but not satisfied. What “Tomorrow” is doing with Kasaunda in Kaalkasaunda? Lets wait for our Bengali speaking members viz. 


The same question bothers me too – why it is KAALKASUNDA?! … may help. I myself will try by consulting Bengali lexicon.


As far as difference in Senna sophera and Senna occidentalis is concerned it can not be on leaflets but

Senna sophera is closely related to Senna occidentalis (L.)Link. The two are often confused, but the pods of the latter are circular in cross-section, not compressed, and have 2 rows of seeds.
KAAL may also stand for BLACK, pertaining to its BLACK SEEDS!!!


Thank you for the identifying keys to the both species. Attaching an image of the pod of the same plant.


Here is the part of the key developed by me on our webside:
39b Gland at base of petiole, sessile, hemispherical; leaflets 4-6 pairs; pod 10-13 cm long, compressed, glabrous, often slightly curved, 20-30 seeded, torulose when mature Senna occidentalis
39b Gland situated 3-10 mm above the base of petiole, clavate; leaflets 6-10 pairs; pod 5-10 cm long, somewhat inflated, puberulent when young, glabrous when mature, not curved, 30-40 seeded, not torulose when mature 40
40a Leaflets 4-9 cm long, acute or mucronate, branches not purple Senna sophera var. sophera
40b Leaflets less than 3 cm long, obtuse at apex; branches slender, purple Senna sophera var. purpurea

The full key for Cassia complex in India is available at our website:

/species/a—l/f/fabaceae/cassia 


Thanks … Is it based on published literature or field observations or both? May I know the number of plants studied (in how many number of locations) for range 20-30 seeds or 30-40 seeds? Its bit wide range the early workers were using when fields were far from lab. 


Black seeds of Senna sophera???? It must be new discovery Dr. …. Let me know the reference for your quote. Here is image of Senna sophera seeds from wikipedia

Thank you Sir for the link related to identifying various Cassia species. Thank you once again for pasting here the related data.

But it makes more difficult to me to ID this plant. The 8 to 9 pairs of leaflets (i counted 3 leaves from three different plants) tells me that it is Senna sophera, but slightly curved & torulose (had to search for its meaning!) young pods tell me otherwise.
So, i would have to check the mature pods physically and also those glands on petiole before i can make a conclusion.


Bengali dictionary didn’t help me except that KAAL also means ‘cold’ or ‘winter'(?). There is no word as KAASUNDAA (U is pronounced as OO). KAASUNDI or KAASUNDA is there, meaning a type of pickle, usually made of green mango and i knew it beforehand.
I think searching the Bengali root for the KAALKAASUNDAA may not give any result. Instead should we move to Sanskrit for its origin? It’s bad that i do not know Sanskrit.


It is definitely not S. occidentalis which has less than 6 pairs of leaflets, flattened pods. You can see what torulose means (constricted between seeds). I have attached image of S. occidentalis.
Now you should concentrate on whether it is Senna sophera var. sophera (leaflets 4-9 cm long, braches not purple), or var. purpurea ( leaflets less than 3 cm long, braches slender and purple). From appearance it appears var. sophera to me.


Today i shot some more close-ups of this plant. This is definitely not S. occidentalis as … already mentioned. It is, i think, Senna sophera var. sophera.


Great work … I liked the eflora design, too 🙂


The ‘design’ was a sudden flash of an idea while i was counting the seeds! Would have loved if i could manage the entire word, efloraofindia.


May I request everybody to consider Senna floribunda (Cassia floribunda) too? Had collected the same from Arunachal Pradesh during my Ph.D. work.
http://apps.kew.org/herbcat/getImage.do?imageBarcode=K000789268


Senna florinbunda is a shrub or tree, leaflets only 3-5 pairs, there are clavate glands between all pairs of leaflets except uppermost, pods are compressed and much broader (12-15 mm). It is rather closer to Senna surattensis


Two step identification keys for Senna occidentalis and Senna sophera from MM Bhandari’s flora.  

Bracts acute, 2-4 flowers- Senna occidentalis
Bracts obtuse, more than 4 flowers- Senna sophera.
It may be added in identification keys. 


In continuation of previous mail 

Petioles not grooved with large gland at the base- Senna occidentalis
Petioles grooved with a conical gland at the base- Senna sophera
From flora of Madhya Pradesh, published by BSI. 


Thanks … for useful information. I will add this to the key to make it more stronger.


Thanks to All, once again, for this very elaborate discussion. Attaching another image of the gland.


Thank you very much for relating this medieval lyric by Malik Mohammad Jaisi. I was deeply moved by the evocative spirit of his Basant Khand when I first learnt about it some years back.


Have seen both in South Kachchh and they are also documented in Thakar’s treatise on the plants of Kachchh [1926].
In Gujarati, Cassia purpurea [i.e. Senna sophera var. purpurea] is known as કાળી કાસુંદરી [Kaali Kasundari]. In Kachchhi, some of its descriptive names are Kaari Sundari and Shyam Sundari.
From what I gather, ‘Kaali’ signifies the diagnostic ‘darker’ appearance [purple twigs] of the variety purpurea. In contrast, the variety sophera is simply known as Kasundari while S. occidentalis is Kasundaro in Gujarati.
I’ll make it a point to photograph these when I go there this year. 


It is interesting to note that SHYAM (= KRISHNA) is also known as KAALAA in Bengali, for his dark complexion! So, ‘Shyam Sundari’ in Kachchhi sounds similar to Benagali KAALKAASOONDA!


Fwd: Viracha.विरचा : 6 posts by 3 authors.

I would like you to help me. The plant has long white smelly roots, the animals do not eat. The height of the plant is 3-5 feet with coppery coloured leaves and
is available in marshy lands. The local Name of the plant is VIRCHA. What is the botanical name/other names of this plant and its ayurvedic usages? 

please let us know the region … is it Maharshtra OR Gujarat ?
I will try to check in my available resources. 


Thanks, …, I think it may be from Gujarat as most of his postings are from there.

All character is maching with Cassia sophora ?


References:

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *