Setaria verticillata (L.) P.Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. 51 1812. (syn. Chaetochloa brevispica Scribn. & Merr.; Chaetochloa brevispica Scribn.; Chaetochloa verticillata (L.) Scribn. .; Chamaeraphis italica var. aparine (Steud.) Kuntze …; Chamaeraphis verticillata (L.) Porter; Cynosurus paniceus L.; Ixophorus verticillatus (L.) Nash; Panicum acuminatissimum Nees ex Döll [Invalid]; Panicum adhaerens Forssk.; Panicum albospiculatum Swallen; Panicum aparine Steud.;  Panicum apricum Swallen; Panicum asperum Lam.; Panicum bambusifolium Desv.; Panicum floribundum Willd. ex Spreng. [Invalid]; Panicum italicum Ucria [Illegitimate]; Panicum kleinii Swallen; Panicum pompale Swallen; Panicum respiciens (A.Rich.) Hochst. ex Steud.; Panicum respiciens Hochst. ex A. Rich.; Panicum rottleri (Spreng.) Nees [Illegitimate]; Panicum rude Nees (Unresolved); Panicum rude Lam. ex Steud. [Invalid];  Panicum secundum Trin. ..; Panicum semitectum Swallen [Illegitimate]; Panicum vagum Scop. [Illegitimate]; Panicum verticillatum L.; Panicum verticillatum Rottler ex Spreng. …….; Panicum viride Desf. [Illegitimate]; Pennisetum respiciens A.Rich.; Pennisetum verticillatum (L.) R.Br.; Pennisetum verticillatum R. Br. ex Sweet; Setaria adhaerens (Forssk.) Chiov. ……; Setaria ambigua f. major Bujor. ..; Setaria aparine (Steud.) Chiov.; Setaria brevispica (Scribn. & Merr.) K.Schum.; Setaria carnei Hitchc.; Setaria decipiens f. major (Bujor.) Soó; Setaria depauperata Phil.; Setaria floribunda Spreng.; Setaria italica var. aparine (Steud.) Kuntze; Setaria leiantha f. subhirsuta Hack.; Setaria nubica Link; Setaria panicea (L.) Schinz & Thell.; Setaria pratensis Phil.; Setaria respiciens (A.Rich.) Walp.; Setaria rottleri Spreng.; Setaria teysmannii Miq.; Setaria verticillata f. ambigua (Guss.) T. Koyama …………………; Setaria verticilliformis Dumort.; Setaria viridis var. insularis N.Terracc.; Setariopsis verticillata (L.) Samp.);
 
Bristly foxtail, Whorled Pigeon Grass, bur bristle grass, bur grass, foxtail, hooked bristlegrass, rough bristle grass;
 
Setaria verticillata, commonly found in waste places. You can identify it from other species of Setaria from its retrose barbs on the bristles. For this try running your fingers from bottom to top of the inflorescence. If your fingers cannot run smooth, then the barbs are retrose (backward curved). In all other species, you can run your fingers smoothly without any hurdle;
 
Setaria palmifolia, S.paniculifera, S.poiretiana, S.plicata, S.barbata, S.megaphylla, S.homonyma are species not only having plicate leaves, but also has a branched, spreading inflorescence rather than a contracted panicle. S.italica, S.geniculata, S.intermedia, S.verticillata and S.gracillima, S.forbesiana, have contracted panicles, but leaves are not plicate. S.glauca, S.pumila, S.sphacelata and S.viridis also are not plicate leaved, but have very contracted panicles such that they look like a cylindrical spike. Out of these, S.italica is cultivated as a millet and S.sphacelata is cultivated as a fodder grass. Other Setarias mentioned in Flora of China are not reported from India. 
 

grass ID from Hooghly 15-7-12 SK1:

Found this grass beside a railway track.
Species : UNKNOWN
Habit & Habitat : about 4 feet high, beside a railline
Date : 4/7/12
Place : Hooghly


Could this be a Setaria species?


Yes probably Setaria italica


It is Setaria verticillata, commonly found in waste places. You can identify it from other species of Setaria from its retrose barbs on the bristles. For this try running your fingers from bottom to top of the inflorescence. If your fingers cannot run smooth, then the barbs are retrose (backward curved). In all other species, you can run your fingers smoothly without any hurdle.


I am immensely grateful to you for all the ID and identifying key to various grass species. I will give the ‘finger test’ a try whenever i find the grass again, maybe tomorrow morning. Meanwhile attaching more images of the same grass, recorded on 21/7/12.


I ran my fingers onto the inflorescence of this grass and found that my fingers did not run smooth, may i say an interrupted ride, and thereby indicating ‘retrose’ feature, as have been suggested by you.
But, i would like to draw your kind notice on the ‘keys’ available at ‘Flora of China’ to identify various Setaria species. Descriptions of leaves sizes of a few Setaria grasses are available there, namely, S. verticillata, S. italica, S. palmifolia, S. arenaria, S. faberi, S. parviflora, S. pumila, S. guizhouensis (two varieties), S. chondrachne, S. forbesiana (two var.), S. intermedia, S. yunnanensis, S. plicata (two var.), and S. viridis (three var.).
Of the above, the leaf size of my species, about 19.5 cm x 3.5 cm, (as can be seen in images no. grass_kmk_DSCN6535.jpg and grass_kmk_DSCN6536.jpg), matches only with Setaria palmifolia (leaf blades… 20-60 cm x 2-7 cm). But at the same time my leaves are not plicate and i think there is no ligule visible.
Could you please tell me more about the discrepancies in leaf blades?


This grass has been identified by … as Setaria verticillata. I ran my fingers over its inflorescence and found its ‘retrose’ nature.


I think this is heroic effort on your part to introduce us to the grasses of hooghly.. most of us dont pay attention to them unless we ant to add some texture to our gardens or landscaping… then we tend to go to the tall grasses in Prairie catalogues…
for lst few weeks I have wanted to say thank you for your tenacity… to stick with theis group that does not ordinarily get spectacular flowers… but are so important…


Setaria verticillata (L.) P. Beauv.


Setaria italica is the cultivated Foxtail millet. It is much bulkier and the branches are longer. Also, it does not have retrorse barbs.
S.verticillata has retrorse barbs, which … has confirmed by running his fingers on them.

Regarding leaf size, do not go by the keys as most of the descriptions are based on the type specimen and different herbarium collections. But there can be plenty of variation in nature depending on genetics, environment, climate, nutrition, rainfall, season, cattle grazing, soil, etc. Ideally, such descriptions should be based on study of large populations at several localities, but unfortunately these descriptions are just based on a few herbarium specimen. Also the leaf size of upper leaves are shorter than the lower leaves. Usually the middle leaves slightly below the centre are the largest. Along roadsides, which are constantly cleared of grasses and weeds, you can see very dwarf Setarias also which flower even at a few cm height, whereas in undisturbed localities, it grows taller. It can grow to giant size if it grows on fertilized agriculture fields or near a cow dung pit.
Setaria palmifolia, S.paniculifera, S.poiretiana, S.plicata, S.barbata, S.megaphylla, S.homonyma are species not only having plicate leaves, but also has a branched, spreading inflorescence rather than a contracted panicle. S.italica, S.geniculata, S.intermedia, S.verticillata and S.gracillima, S.forbesiana, have contracted panicles, but leaves are not plicate. S.glauca, S.pumila, S.sphacelata and S.viridis also are not plicate leaved, but have very contracted panicles such that they look like a cylindrical spike. Out of these, S.italica is cultivated as a millet and S.sphacelata is cultivated as a fodder grass. Other Setarias mentioned in Flora of China are not reported from India.


Setaria verticillata (L.) P. Beauv


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grass Setaria sp. From Hooghly 6/8/12 SK1: This should be Setaria verticillata (L.) P. Beauv., as in – https://groups.google.com/forum/?fromgroups#!topic/indiantreepix/vjuZ3lxp5z4. This grass, though may be called a dwarf version, also features retrose barbs.

Species : Setaria verticillata (L.) P. Beauv. ?
Habit & Habitat : common on roadside, shady place (under a Mallotus nudiflorus tree), leaves – 18 cm x 3 cm approx.
Date : 26/7/12, 10.10 A.M.
Place : Hooghly


Yes, it is Setaria verticillata.


Thank you again for confirming the ID. I have noticed that this Setaria species is quite common and with variable sizes of leaf, culm & inflorescence, as you have elaborated in one of my earlier posts (https://groups.google.com/d/topic/indiantreepix/vjuZ3lxp5z4/discussion).

photographed today 4th Nov 2011, wild at Pune
The bristles on the inflorescence were prickly, sticky, longer and thicker than Setaria viridis
Also the spikes of inflorescence were shorter in length as compared to Setaria viridis


This was identified as Setaria verticillata by  … on Indian flora

 

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Grass for validation: VG-1 : 07-10-2012 : Mumbai:  Please validate if this grass could be Setaria verticillata. The inflorescence is sticky, also evident in the second pic where two clusters have clung to each other. Photographed in Mulund, Mumbai.


This grass looks like Setaria verticillata (L.) P. Beauv as have been mentioned by you and it should have retrose barbs on the bristles. I have learned the feature from … in my post at – https://groups.google.com/d/topic/indiantreepix/vjuZ3lxp5z4/discussion.


Yes it is. And … is right. The ‘sticky’ nature is actually because of the retrose barbs which interrupt smooth flow of your fingers and hence appears ‘sticky’. The same is the reason why the two inflorescences cling to each other.



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Wild Grass for ID : MNP,Mumbai : 121012 : AK-3:  Another wild grass seen at Maharashtra Nature Park on 19/9/2010. Picture has been taken by …, Dy Director of the park, on my camera.


I think its Setaria viridis.


Kindly run your fingers on this grass from bottom to top of the inflorescence. If it is not a smooth flow, but interrupted, confirm that this is Setaria verticillata.


This was posted earlier and a possible id given by … as Setaria viridis.
Kindly confirm id.


This is also Setaria verticillata

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08/10/2012

sharing images of Setaria verticillata at Pune . Id courtsey … at Indian Flora

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Poaceae, Cyperaceae and Juncaceae Week: Poaceae- Setaria verticillata from Panipat BS-5 Attachments (2).

4 posts by 3 authors.
Setaria verticillata from Panipat
Having bristles and sticky
Pls Validate


Yes it is Setaria verticillata

1 post by 1 author.
Sharing images of Setaria verticillata from Pune 

Place, Altitude: Rajgurunagar near Pune … about 2044 ft asl
Date, Time: 07 DEC 09 … 03:31pm
Habitat: among scrub vegetation adjoining cash crop fields
Habit: erect herb; perhaps just about 2 ft (guess)

This plant is mot probably an escape from fields nearby.
My guess: this could be wheat.

Could be Setaria verticillata..


Setaria verticillata



 

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Attachments (5). 1 post by 1 author.
Setaria verticillata (Linn.) P. Beauv., Ess. Agrost. 51, 178. 1812.
Very common weed in early summer in cultivated beds, roadsides in Delhi
Taller grass with larger lax spikes and retrorsely scabrid bristles. 


4 posts by 2 authors.
This one was shot from crop field margins in Panipat.. I hope this should be Setaria verticillata (L.) P. Beauv. Please validate/correct…


Yes it is Setaria verticillata



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Grass For ID : MNP,Mumbai : 110214 : AK-2 : Attachments (1). 6 posts by 3 authors.

Grass seen at Maharashtra Nature Park, Mumbai on 19/9/2010.

Id please.


sp. of Setaria


The plant is Setaria intermedia for sure.


Setaria verticillata. You can confirm by running your fingers from bottom to top of the inflorescence, it will be not be smooth unlike other Setaria species, because of the retrorse (backward pointing) barbs on the bristles.


Thank you for the id.
I will remember these differentiating points and try out. 

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Grass for Id , Vasai, Maharashtra , Aug-14 : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)

Please identify this grass.


I think Setaria verticillata



Family: Poaceae
Date: 25th October 2015
Place: Savandurga, Karnataka

Habit: Herb
Habitat: Scrub forest


It is Setaria sp. may be S. verticillata


Yes, it is Setaria verticillata


 

Grass for ID : Bangalore : 21SEP20 : AK-24 : 7 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (4)
A wild grass seen last week (21.9.20).

The inflorescence was very sticky.


Setaria verticillata –  bristly foxtail    

Yes it is Setaria verticillata


 

Khalapur, MH :: Grass for ID :: ARK2020-096 : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (3) – 1 mb each.

Seen this grass growing wild near Khalapur in September 2020.
Is this some Setaria?
Requested to kindly provide ID.


Setaria verticillata


I too agree with …


 

 
References:

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