The visual differences between closely allied Sonneratia alba & S. caseolaris are :
a. The filament colour is crimson red in S. caseolaris and white in S. alba.
b. Calyx flat, not enclosing the ripe fruit: S. caseolaris & Calyx cup shaped, enclosing the ripe fruit: Sonneratia alba. (In case of S.alba, the calyx lobes are reflexed.)

1. Calyx lobes 6-8, tube angular; Petals 6-8; Stigma not umbrella- shaped…..S. alba
1. Calyx lobes 4 or 5, tube not angular; Petals absent; Stigma umbrella-shaped… S. apetala

actually the petals are very narrow and white in S. alba; whereas it is pinkish in S.caesolaris.

Between Sonneratia alba or S. caseolaris: The very visible difference between them is colour of stamens (stamen bunch is not seen in any of the image). In case of S. caseolaris, the stamen base is crimson in colour.

Binomial Habit Notes References Distribution Common name
Buch. -Ham.
Moderate sized
Mangrove Flora of Tamil
Nadu, VOL. I, 1983
Cuddalore Marai maa



Botanical name Family Common name

Sonneratia alba Lythraceae Sweet-Scented Apple Mangrove
Sonneratia apetala Lythraceae Sonneratia Mangrove
Sonneratia caseolaris Lythraceae Apple Mangrove

× hainanensis W. C. Ko et al.
 (No distribution in

Sonneratia ovata (Sonneratiaceae)-A New Distributional Record for India from Andaman and Nicobar Islands M. P. Goutham-Bharathi(1), M. Kaliyamoorthy(1), S. Dam Roy(2), P. Krishnan(1), Grinson George(1*) and C. Murugan(3)-  Taiwania, 57(4): 406–409, 2012 406 –
ABSTRACT: Sonneratia ovata Backer was found from Havelock, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, representing a new addition to the mangrove flora of India. This species lacks petals and is characterized by the finely warty calyx, the lobes of which are red on the inner side and by the adpressed calyx lobes in fruit. Since S. ovata is considered rare as a whole, conservation measures are imperative for managing the mangrove diversity of the Islands with special reference to this species.

Sonneratia ovata Backer (Lythraceae): status and distribution of a Near Threatened mangrove species in tsunami impacted mangrove habitats of Nicobar Islands, India– by P. Nehru & P. Balasubramanian- JoTT Short Communication 4(15): 3395–3400- December 2012 | 4(15): 3395–3400 

Plant Wealth of the Lower Ganga Delta: An Eco-taxonomical Approach By Kumudranjan Naskar (1993)- Details with keys
Ecology and Biodiversity of Indian Mangroves By Kumudranjan Naskar, Rathindranath Mandal (1993)- Details-
An Excursion Flora of Central Tamilnadu, India By K. M. Matthew (1995)- Details-
Sonneratia : 1 post by 1 author.  

I have updated eFI (efloraofindia) page on Sonneratia

Attempts have been made to incorporate most of the species available in India & nearby areas with details & keys directly or through links as far as possible. It’s quite possible that there may be some discrepancy in the accepted names & synonyms taken from other links.

Species discussed so far in efloraofindia are given at the bottom of the page in the form of links against Subpages. On clicking them one can see all the details.

If someone can provide complete list of Indian species with source references it will be wonderful.

Any comments/ corrections are welcome.