Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 793 1891. (Syn: Andropogon ciliatus (L.f.) Thunb.; Andropogon quadrivalvis L.; Anthistiria barbata Desf.; Anthistiria ciliata L.f. [Illegitimate]; Anthistiria ciliata Nees; Anthistiria scandens Roxb.; Anthistiria semiberbis Nees [Invalid]; Themeda chinensis (A.Camus) S.L.Chen & T.D.Zhuang; Themeda ciliata (L.f.) Hack.; Themeda ciliata subsp. chinensis A.Camus; Themeda dacruzii Birari; Themeda echinata A.Camus ex Keng; Themeda yuanmounensis S.L.Chen & T.D.Zhuang);
Indian Subcontinent to N. Thailand, Andaman Islands: Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, East Himalaya, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand, West Himalaya; Introduced into: Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Brazil South, California, Cape Provinces, China South-Central, China Southeast, Comoros, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Fiji, Florida, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, Iraq, Jamaica, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Louisiana, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mexico Central, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Oman, Queensland, Rodrigues, Réunion, Seychelles, Socotra, Solomon Is., Turkey, Vietnam, Windward Is. as per POWO;

Themeda quadrivalvis is a species of grass known by the common names grader grass, habana grass, and kangaroo grass, not to be confused with Themeda triandra, which is also known as kangaroo grass.

It is native to India,[1][2] Nepal,[2] and Malaysia.[3] It can also be found in many other places as an introduced species and often a noxious weed. It occurs in the United States, New Caledonia, Fiji, Mauritius,[2] Thailand, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, China, the Middle East and tropical America.[1] It is a troublesome exotic weed in Australia, especially in northern regions.[2][4] It is also an agricultural weed in crops such as sugar cane and lucerne.[2][5]
This species is an annual grass growing up to 2 meters tall. The usually folded leaves are up to 60 centimeters long.[3] The seed heads are rounded or fan-shaped and are accompanied by leaflike bracts. The grass becomes orange, red,[4] or golden brown at maturity.[2] The clustered spikelets in the seed heads have some tubercle-based hairs and twisted awns,[2] which can be up to 5 centimeters long.[5] The awn is hygroscopic, twisting when moist and drilling the seed into the soil. This species is similar to Themeda triandra, a native species which tends to be smaller and more brown in color.[1]
Grader grass is a prolific producer of seed; there can be up to 1000 seeds in a single seed head.[6] The seed is dispersed by graders, on fur and clothing, and as a contaminant of pasture seed supplies.[5] The seed is sometimes found as a contaminant of bird seed, as well.[3]
(From Wikipedia on 10.4.13.)

Themeda quadrivalvis
A Large annual grass widely distributed in M.P. and other drier part of India. Photograph from Satpura Tiger Reserve Hoshangabad M.P.


Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze SN Dec19 : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (2).
Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze, wild grass from Siddapur area of Karnataka

Thanks …, this is a long time since we conducted Poaceae Week, now a Poaceae Month is much needed at the earliest..


Grass for Id from Pelhar, Maharashtra Nov – 2015 : 5 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (2)
Please identify this grass sp. from Pelhar dam found near water bodies.
Height appx 3 fts.

Themeda sp.

Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze

Themeda quadrivalvis


Grass for ID : Nasik : 08DEC20 : AK-16: 1 image.
A wild grass, it seems to have dried up.

Resembles Iseilema anthephoroides

Themeda quadrivalvis

Grass for ID : Nasik : 11DEC20 : AK-24: 3 images.
Grass seen in a grassland.


Themeda quadrivalvis

MS,Nov.,2021/63 Grass for id.: 4 images.
Location : Khawbung
Date : 13-03-2009
Habit : Grass
Habitat : Wild

Themeda quadrivalvis (I think the awned spikelets have fallen off. Otherwise it could be something new)

Grass for ID : Nasik : 29DEC21 : AK – 26: 4 images.
A wild grass seen in Nasik last month (29.12.21).
These grasses are very confusing for me.
Could they be Themeda Species?

Looks more like Themeda quadrivalvis


Poaceae: Apluda mutica: 1 image.
location/date: Chilenahalli, Bangalore Distr., Karnataka, July 1997

Apluda will have narrowed leaf base and no big awns. This one is Themeda quadrivalvis




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