water caltrop, water chestnut, buffalo nut, bat nut, devil pod, Singhara (सिंघाडा), Pani-fol (পানিফল);



Date & Place : 27/8/12, Baruipara (Hooghly) & 29/8/12, Kamarkundu (Hooghly)
earlier group posts :


Fwd: ‘Water Chestnut’ (Trapa natans) in a Kashmir Lake : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (3)
Further to my recent post re: an aquatic plant at Thane, I am attaching 3 images I took during a wonderful shikara ride to view and photograph lotuses on my last visit to Kashmir. The ‘Water Chestnut’ is abundant, floating in Kashmir Lakes.
I will leave it to … to decide what ‘Accepted Name’ he adopts – there has been much difference of opinion about the taxonomic treatment and nomenclature of Trapa in Kashmir. 
This aquatic, previously considered part of the Trapaceae family but now included within Lythraceae, has lax rosettes of triangular, coarsely toothed leaves floating on the surface, and with submerged leaf-stalks often with large inflated elliptic air-bladders. Flowers white, petals 4.
Fruits top-shaped, with 2-4 sharp horns.
I also have some images of Nymphoides peltata which show close-up detail not available from existing images on eFI which I intend to post shortly.
And Salvinia natans images worth adding to those already on eFI.





Water chestnut – efloraofindia | Google Groups : 13 posts by 7 authors. Attachments (4)

Sending photos of Water chestnut or Singhara plants growing in a wet land at Dombivli, Thane Dt.

Trapa natans

Other small plants in water are some species of Spirodela.

Thanks … for the ID and …  Now it is not the fruiting season. I will send some photos when in fruit.

yes it is the fruiting season now. They are on sale in market. Fruits are tasty :)).

We call this Pani Fal in Bengali

Are those snails on top of the leaves?  Where do the fruit grow? Underwater? Have never seen these and thought they were only available abroad. (Have only had them in a Chinese restaurant.)

Single fruits are borne on long underwater stalks. Fruits are on water surface or under water, floating. 

In warm climate (know of Delhi) we generally have larger fruited T. natans ssp. bispinosa. ssp. natans is common in Kashmir with smaller fruits. What would this one be?

Last October while on a trip from Lucknow, our cab driver got boiled water chestnuts from roadside vendors. They were served with green chutney. From what he said in Hindi, I understood it to be the root. I haven’t seen them in Tamil Nadu.

The fruits of Trapa natans ssp natans in Kashmir are generally sold boiled and peeled, with stalks removed. Those of ssp. bispinosa are often sold (in Delhi markets; same must be truw for Lucknow) along with stalks which are very stout. That could be reason for confusion.

to all my experts: seasons greetings

Looks like Bihar or nearby west Bengal to me. I may be wrong though.
They have lot of plantation of Trapa natans there.

Can we see Trapa natans plants or the fruits from these fileds… did you you take any pics of the plants and fruits…
The plant leaves arrange themselves in a mathematical model… just like the sunflower seeds…
Pani-phal is in season right now… in Bengal.. and no wonder so expensive…
Harvesting them means so many man- hours under difficult working conditions…
Cant the fields be flooded and pani phal harvested as they do the Cranberries in the northeast USA??
Also: Trapa natans are a dreaded nuisance in NE USA:
exotic food of one country is dreaded nuisance of another…
just like the Rajanigandha is flower of romantic ideas in India/ Bengal in particular, where as used by Funeral homes mainly, and hence symbol of mourning in USA …
No telling what / how humans think in different situations, climates/ countries…

Ok… glad you like the rest of the info—- but you missed the questions I asked in the first sentence….
did you take any pictures of the plant or the pani phal???


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