Trema orientalis (L.) Blume , Mus. Bot. 2: 62 1856. (syn. Celtis glomerata Hochst.; Celtis guineensis Schumach.; Celtis madagascariensis Bojer (ambiguous synonym); Celtis orientalis L. (ambiguous synonym); Celtis rigida Bl.; Sponia affinis Planch.; Sponia africana Planch.; Sponia andaresa Comm. ex Lam.; Sponia argentea Planch. (ambiguous synonym); Sponia burmannii (Bl.) Planch.; Sponia commersonii Decne. ex Planch.; Sponia guineensis Planch.; Sponia nitens Hook. fil. ex Planch.; Sponia orientalis (L.) Decne. (ambiguous synonym); Sponia orientalis var. affinis (Planch.) Baker; Sponia orientalis var. commersonii (Planch.) Baker; Sponia rigida (Bl.) Decne. (ambiguous synonym); Sponia scaberrima (Bl.) Miq.; Sponia strigosa Planch.; Sponia wightii Planch.; Trema affinis (Planch.) Bl.; Trema africana (Planch.) Bl.; Trema argentea (Planch.) Bl.; Trema burmannii Bl.; Trema commersonii (Planch.) Bl.; Trema grevei Baill.; Trema grisea Baker; Trema guineense (Schumach. & Thonn.) Ficalho; Trema nitens Bl.; Trema orientalis var. argentea (BI.) Lauterb.; Trema orientalis var. rigida Lauterb.; Trema rigida Bl. (ambiguous synonym); Trema scaberrima Bl.; Trema sieberi Bl.; Trema strigosa (Planch.) Bl.; Trema wightii (Planch.) Bl.);
South Africa (Limpopo, North-West Prov., Mpulamanga, KwaZulu-Natal, E-Cape Prov.), Swaziland, Senegal, Gambia, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Mali, Burkina Faso, Benin, Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad, Sudan, South Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, Central African Republic, Bioko Isl. (Fernando Poo), Annobon Isl., Sao Tome, Principe Isl., Gabon, Congo (Brazzaville), Equatorial Guinea, D.R. Congo (Zaire), Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi, Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Angola, Caprivi Strip, Namibia, Australia (N-Northern Territory, Queensland: Cape York to Bundaberg), Java, Seychelles, La Runion, Mauritius, Madagascar, Comoros (Mayotte, etc.), peninsular Malaysia (Main Range and near Kuala Lumpur), Sri Lanka, India, W-Himalayas, Nepal, Myanmar [Burma] (Bago, Chin, Sagaing, Taninthayi, Yangon), Thailand, Laos, Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas, New Guinea, Bismarck Arch. (New Britain), Sumatra, Lesser Sunda Isl., Vietnam, Andamans (South Andamans), Nicobars (Central Nicobars, Great Nicobar Isl., Little Nicobar Isl.), Bangladesh, Solomons, American Samoa (Tutuila, Ofu, Ta’u), Bonin Isl. (Chichijima, Keetaajima, Nakohdojima, Anijima, Otohtojima, Nishino-shima, Hahajima, Mukhojima, Imohtojima), Volcano Isl. (Kita-Iwojima, Iwojima, Minami-Iwojima), Gilbert Isl., Marshall Isl. (Eniwetok), Northern Marianas (Maug, Asuncion, Agrihan, Pagan, Alamagan, Guguan, Sarigan, Anatahan), Palau Isl. (Babeldaob, Koror, Ngarakabesang), Southern Marianas (Saipan, Tinian, Rota, Guam), Wake Isl., Saudi Arabia (Asir), Oman (Dhofar), N-Yemen, China (Fujian, SW-Guangdong, W-Guangxi, SW-Guizhou, Hainan, Sichuan, Yunnan), Taiwan, Tibet, Japan (Yakushima Isl., Tanegashima Isl.), Ryukyu Isl., Hawaii (I) (Kauai (I), Oahu (I), Molokai (I), Lanai (I), Maui (I), Hawaii Isl. (I)) as per Catalogue of life;
Indian charcoal tree, Indian Nettle, Indian nettle tree, oriental nettle, pigeon wood, poison peach, Wight’s sponia • Bengali: জীবন jiban • Hindi: जीवन jivan, जीवन्ती jivanti, क्षयनाशिनी kshayanashini, पार्वतीparvati, प्राणक pranak • Konkani: खर्गुल khargul • Malayalam: അമരാത്തി amaraaththi, ആമത്താളി aamaththaali, പൊട്ടാമ pottaama,പൊട്ടാമരം pottaamaram • Marathi: घोळ gol, कापशी kapshi, खरगोळ khargol • Sanskrit: जीवनी jivani, jivanti, प्राणक pranaka • Tamil: பேய்முன்னை pey-munnai • Telugu: బొగ్గు చెట్టు boggu chettu, చారపప్పుచెట్టు charapappuchettu, మొరలిmorali, ప్రుయాలవృక్షము pruyalavriqshamu;
Birds love to be around when there is flower (insectivorous) and fruit (frugivorous). An ideal plant as avenue tree; It is very fast growing and useful for producing charcoal;


Request for ID : 280511 : AK-2:
Taken at Khandala, Maharashtra on the 24th of March, 2011.

Its Trema orientalis (L.) Blume

ID REQUEST 03062011 PJ3 :
Id  requested for the following attachment.

Date/Time-: 18/05/11   –    13:30
Location- Place, Altitude – Kaiga , Uttar Kannada ,Karnataka, 380 mtrs
Habitat- Garden/ Urban/ Wild/ Type-   wild
Plant Habit- Tree/ Shrub/ Climber/ Herb- tree
Height/Length- 12 mtr

Trema orientalis. The stem-bark is one of the several adulterants for Ashoka (citation needed!).

Yes, Trema orientalis from me too. Family: Ulmaceae. Grown as an avenue tree.

Yes this is Trema orientalis (L.) Blume of  Cannabaceae family.

Trema  orientalis is a common tree at Cooch Behar. The tree is commonly known as Indian Nettle Tree. In Bangla it is known as Chikan/Jiban. It is known as Gio in Hindi. The fruits are very small and these are relished by number of birds. Attaching an image of Bluethroated Barbet eating the fruits of Trema.


Trema orientalis (L.) Blume from Hooghly:

Attaching images of Trema orientalis (L.) Blume.
Species : Trema orientalis (L.) Blume.
Bengali name : CHIAN GACH or JIBAN GACH
Habit : Habitat : wild shrub or small tree
Date : 18/8/12, 2.04 P.M.
Place : Hooghly
Links visited :

Yes, …, your ID is right.
Trema orientalis (L.) Blume
Syn: Celtis orientalis L.; Sponia wightii Planch. Good set of photographs.

Yes it is Trema orientalis, that birds love to be around when there is flower (insectivorous) and fruit (frugivorous). An ideal plant as avenue tree.

I have also read about the birds feeding on its fruits, a book specially mentions red vented bulbuls among others.


ID reqd PM 290112 001:
Photographed this small tree at Matheran on 27th Jan., 2012, ID help pls.

This could be Trema orientalis of Cannabaceae family

Share … view.


Trema orientalis: 4 images.
Sharing few photographs of Trema orientalis (Family: Cannabaceae).
Location: Darya Ghat (Enroute Dhakoba).
Date/Time: 11-01-2013 / 11:40AM
Habitat: Wild
Plant Habit: Tree.

Really very nice closeup shots of the flower. I have seen tree with pink/red flowers. Can it be a variation or diff. Species?

Yes it is Trema orientalis.

To me it seems to be Trema orientalis. This tree is very common at this place (Cooch Bihar, West Bengal).
And birds relish its fruits.

identification no190913sn1 : Attachments (3). 3 posts by 3 authors.
Kindly help in identification.
location: ambyvalley rd., lonavala, mulshi, pune
plant habit:tree
height:about 7-8ft.

Trema orientalis

Trema orientalis


Fwd: Need help with indian nettle tree : 4 posts by 3 authors.
Do you have any idea where I can get Indian nettle saplings/ seeds for our guest house in Mudumalai (moist decidious) and Bangalore farm land (Dry decidious)

I think he mean Trema orientalis for Indian nettle tree.

… may try his luck in nurseries around Lalbagh (Siddapura area). They sell varieties of seedlings of plants and tree species. Also check inside the Lal bagh (Government nursery) located near the rock. Furthermore, there are many forest nurseries nearby Bangalore. Check with the Forest deparment officers also. They are helpful.

Thanks for your advise.
The nurseries around Lalbagh area have silk cotton white. I am looking for silk cotton red which is more bird friendly
Also Indian nettle / charcoal tree is not in the radar of FD / other nurseries as nobody actually buys them. Hence I am on the lookout for other sources. The Indian nettle trees die after 5 to 7 years due to some stem borer or rotting near the base of the stem. So people dont grow these trees except estate people who use it for shade as it grows quickly. Again this tree is very bird friendly and the we see lot of pompodor and green footed green pigeons on them along with other fly catchers. But unfortunately all the trees which germinated from ow dung broght from another area and grew 7 years are dying. New saplings are not coming as we are in a moist deciduous / semi evergreen area of Mudumalai. Not sure how to make the plant regrow again in our area.

Good to find that you are interested in planting native trees which attract birds. One way of going about it is to plant pioneer trees of moist deciduous forests and then to plant umbrella species which are fig trees of those areas. Could ask Ncf at Valparai or Frlht at Bangalore for advice and saplings.

ID Please – plant found near Bangaon , 24 – Pgs (N), West Bengal – attracts many birds to its fruits!!
local people call the plant in bengali as “Jibon Gach

Trema orientalis (L.) Blume [Cannabaceae].

Tree from Lodi Garden : 4 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (5).
please ID this tree from Lodi Garden, Delhi. It is a medium height tree.

A chance for Muntingia calabura L.?

 I don’t think this is Muntigia calabura.

Could it be Trema orientalis?
Family: Cannabaceae

may be Trema orientalis ? need confirmation. …



Tree For ID : Way To Nasik : 21Sep14 : AK-27 : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (3).
Tree seen on a mountain slope, on way to Nasik.
Pictures taken on 1/8/14.
Trema orientalis?
Please confirm id.

Yes it is Tremma orientalis

ANDEC71 Please identify this tree : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (5)
Nelliyampathy, Kerala
November 2014

Trema orientalis (L.) Blume

Yes, Trema orientalis ..





ANDEC84 Trema orientalis : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (6)

Someshwara Wildlife Sanctuary, Karnataka
28th December 2014


Trema orientalis—-for sharing and validation : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (2)
Pics of Indian Charcoal Tree taken at Aambyvalley rd., Lonavala, Pune in Dec.14

Yes it is.


Please ID : 3 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (2)
Please ID the plant. I don’t have any picture of flowers of fruits
Place – Mohali, Punjab
Date of Click – 29th June, 2016
Temperature- 37degrees

Humidity – almost 75%

The leaves and bark suggest Trema orientalis, nothing more from me…

second picture reminds me of a Pablo Picasso pencil sketches of studies he did before painting a canvas in color.
ps don’t just look at the small pic, look at the whole if you want to see the picasso tree trunk


GRAM2016 Could this be Trema orientalis? : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (14)
Pictures were taken at Kasara, Maharashtra in Aug 2016.

Yes, most likely…!! nice images

GRAM 2017 Trema sp.? : 5 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (14)
Could this be Trema orientalis?
Pictures were taken at Kasara in the Sep 2016

Affirmative. This is the Indian Charcoal Tree [Trema orientalis].

Yes, very nice images!!

ID request 30042017PC2 : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (1)
Kindly identify this tree growing in Goa. I do not have amy more photos of the plant.

Please check for Trema sp. (Cannabaceae).
Trema in eFI.

Trema orientalis.

Fwd: TREMA ORIENTALIS : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1)
Attaching a collage of Trema orientalis (CHARCOAL TREE/ JIBANTI/ JIBON)

Trema male flowers : 12 posts by 5 authors. Attachments (5)- around 800 kb each.
Please find attached pictures of Trema sp. at Matheran Mid Dec 2018.
The attached flowers seems male flowers of Trema orientalis, is it correct?

These are flowers of Trema orientalis, but I am not sure whether they are male flowers. Hopefully someone will comment.
In my flickr collection, I have only these flowers.

Thanks … Went through your collection of beautiful very clear flowers of Trema orientalis.

yes you are 100% correct

Female flowers of Trema orientalis, April 2015, Surat
4 images.

Thanks … for showing the female flowers of Trema orientalis.

SYMBIOSIS : 1337 : 8 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (1)
Attaching a collage of Red whiskered Bulbul feeding on fruits of Trema orientalis.

nice, though its red whisker not really visible her. I know it can be tricky and very narrow, and may be the red os overpowered by its dark brown feathers. yet would you by any chance have a visible red whisker picture?

SYMBIOSIS : 1370 : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (1)
Attaching a collage of Blue throated Barbet feeding on fruits of Trema orientalis.

SYMBIOSIS : 1371 : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (1)
Attaching a collage of Asiatic Pied Starling feeding on fruits of Trema orientalis.

SYMBIOSIS : 1436 : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)
Attaching a collage of Black Hooded Oriole feeding on the fruits of Trema species.


id request Trema.: 2 high res. images.
Good evening sir, Please have a look at the attached images, it seems Trema politoria for me.

Captured – Neergarh Rishikesh.
alt – 490m  amsl.
Medium Sized tree

Please compare the images at :
Trema species.

Maybe Trema orientalis (L.) Blume only as per comparative images at Trema.


Trema tomentosa (Roxb.) H. Hara: 10 very high res. images.
Location: Kathmandu, Central Nepal
Altitude: 1500 m.
Date : 05 July 2021
Habitat : Wild

Beautiful presentation …
How does Trema tomentosa differ from Trema orientalis? To me this looks just like the familiar Trema orientalis.

What is your opinion … ?

Keys in Flora of China are based on the colour of the abaxial and adaxial leaf surface and its hairiness.

Trema orientalis (L.) Blume

I too agree with Trema orientalis

Will go for T.orientalis.

Yes …


SK 2918 12 July 2021: 13 very high res. images.
Location: Kathmandu Valley, Central Nepal
Altitude: 1500 m.
Date : 11 July 2021
Habitat : Wild

Trema orientalis

Trema orientalis (L.) Blume

POWO and IPNI gave Trema orientale (L.) Blume only. 

Inflorescence looks like Trema politoria (Wall. ex Planch.) Blume!—l/c/cannabaceae/trema-orientalis/trema-politoria

This also same Trema orientalis (L.) Blume, …

Will go for T.orientalis.


SK 2979 21 September 2021: 8 very high res. images.
Location: Dailekh, West Nepal
Altitude: 810 m.
Date: 13 August 2021
Habit : Wild Small shrub on a stone wall.
Trema… ????

Yes, it’s Trema

I know it is Trema … ! Looking for ID !

This is the list for Nepal : !

I think Trema orientalis only as per your other posts decided based on the keys in Flora of China.

OK … ! I was curious since the plant was on the rock cliff and very small shrub !


SK 3107 04 November 2021:  8 very high res. images.
Location: Surkhet, West Nepal
Altitude: 684m.
Date: 29 August 2021
Habit : Wild
Trema politoria (Planch.) Blume ??

I will go with Trema orientalis (L.) Blume only as per comparative images at Trema.

OK …


SK 3326 January 2022: 6 very high res. images.
Location: Kalikot, West Nepal
Altitude: 810 m.
Date: 13 August 2021
Habit : Wild
One more Trma on a stone wall for ID !

I think Trema orientalis (L.) Blume only.


Requesting a tree id 240822: 2 very high res. images.

A handsome tree of about 8-10 mts.
Leaves alternate, ovate with tapering tip and margin crenate-crenulate.
Flowers green-white and cymose.
Fruits axillary, green with persistent calyx and rust colored tip.
Adjoining agasthymalai reserve, TVM, KL.


Trema orientalis (L.) Blume: 4 very high res. images.
Location: Osho, Kathmandu, Nepal
Altitude: 1500m.
Date: 13 October 2022
Habit : Wild


Trema orientale (L.) Blume :: Thane, Maharashtra :: Jun 9, 2007 · JUN23 DV480: 2 images.

Trema orientale (L.) Blume
Thane, Maharashtra :: Jun 9, 2007 · 3:03 PM IST :: about 11 m (36 ft) asl
Many thanks to Radha Veach for validating the ID at iNaturalist.
Changeover in epithet (orientalis to orientale) was a surprise ! Perhaps someone can help us know the reason for the spelling changes that have affected many epithets in recent times


Cannabaceae: Trema orientalis Blume: 1 high res. image.
synonyms: Trema africana (Planch.) Blume, Trema guineensis (Schumach.) Ficalho, Trema nitens Blume
location/date: Tropical Forest Research Institute, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, October 1994


Cannabaceae: Trema orientalis: 2 high res. images.
Trema orientalis from Andhra University campus, Visakhapatnam Andhra Pradesh 

Synm: Celtis glomerata



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