Triumfetta pentandra A.Rich., Fl. Seneg. Tent. 1: 93 1831. (syn. Triumfettaneglecta Wight & Arn.);
tree-um-FET-a — named for Giovanni Battista Triumfetti, professor of botany … Dave’s Botanary
pen-TAN-druh — bearing five stamens … Dave’s Botanary

commonly known asfivestamen burbark • Marathiनिचर्डी nichardi • Teluguచిరు సిత్రిక chiru sitrika
Distribution: tropical Africa, Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka
As per efi thread: Differences between these two species is mainly based on whether spines on the capsule is glabrous (Triumfetta rhomboidea) or with a line of spreading hairs on the dorsal side (Triumfetta pentandra). ON going through the posts in efi I find it is very difficult to check this with naked eyes.

Other factor is the number of stamen in the flowers, about which different sources talk about differently as below:

 

 

Triumfetta rhomboidea

Triumfetta pentandra

Flora of Pakistan

Stamens mostly 15, rarely fewer but not less than 10

Stamens mostly 5, rarely up to 10

BSI Flora of India:

Stamens 8 – 15

Stamens 5 (rarely up to 10).

Flora of China

Stamens 10

Not found

Flora of North America

Stamens 10–15

Not found

 

 

Flora of Zimbabwe

Not mentioned

Stamens usually 5

Most of our postings show 10 stamen. In view, I feel that we should take all these posts as Triumfetta rhomboidea and not Triumfetta pentandra.


Yes, flower with 5 stamens can be considered as Triumfetta pentandra; further the capsule is ovoid in T.pentandra; it is globular in T.rhomboidea


 

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Triumfetta rhomboidea ? : Attachments (5). 4 posts by 4 authors.

On 11/10/09 in Ananthagiri HIll forest in Rangareddy district of Andhra Pradesh.


 

… to me this looks to be T. pentandra.
… flowers, about 0.5 cm, more crowded near the apex of stem, the leaves are also different. (not able to decribe)
… the flowers are relatively larger, about 1 – 1.2 cm, are found along the stem at regular intervals.

…, please wait for comments, a small chance that I am mistaking.


To me the flowers seem to have five stamens, and evidently T. pentandra. Most specimens identified as T. rhomboidea, really belong to T. pentandra, having 5-10 stamens. The spines on capsule should have spreading hairs.

InT. rhomboidea there are 10-20 stamens and spines are glabrous.


 

Good information sir, much thanks.

I was used to confuse with both these species in identification, its clear now.

 


Pachmarhi … about 3600 feet ft asl
Date / Time: 18 SEP 13 at 01:02 PM … Altitude: about 3670 ft asl
Triumfetta pentandra A. Rich. … (family: Malvaceae; also placed in Tiliaceae)
Dear friends, there must be some name in Hindi for this plant. I could see this plant in many places of Pachmarhi.
… a view from Priyadarshini Point (Forsyth Point) … named for Captain James Forsyth of the British Army … Wikipedia.

 

can you explain how to distinguish between Triumfetta pentandra and T. rhomboidea apart from counting the stamens?


… flowers of T. pentandra are just about the size of its fruits – about 5 – 7 mm dia … you may take a look in the photo above.

While those of T. rhomboidea are large – about the twice the size of the fruit – about 5 mm dia.


thank you …, this is very helpful.
I have to examine more of these plants. I find that T. rhomboidea is quite variable. I will get back with you.
Have you seen the description in Flora of Pakistan in which T. pentandra is supposed to have petals as long as the sepals?
And the distribution is as follows:” Common in the northern parts of the Punjab and N.W.F.P. According to Parker (l.c.) it occurs west of Indus and is not common.”
Cooke does not mention T. pentandra at all, nor does Hooker, who says that T. rhomboidea is a very variable plant. BSI’s flora gives a very sketchy description of both.
Does it mean that T. pentandra has spread over large parts of India relatively recently?
If anyone can shed light on this I would be very interested.


… the petals almost as long as sepals holds good for all the three (annua, pentandra, rhomboidea) flowers that I am familiar with – in the forests around Mumbai. I think some species of plants got missed out during colonial times – whatever the small list, it would be interesting to build the list.


Dr. Almeida in his ‘Flora of Maharashtra’, Vol 1 lists 5 species of Triumfetta :
1.T.pilosa
2.T.rhomboidea
3.T.pentandra
4.T.rotundifolia
5.T.annua
Am familiar with the first three.
While T.pentandra is an annual undershrub, T.rhomboidea & T.pilosa are perennial herbs.
Besides other features, Dr. Almeida differntiates the 3 mainly on the morphology of their fruit.
T.pilosa has fruit with hispid bristles.
T.rhomboidea has globose fruit with sharp bristles.
T.pentandra has ovoid fruit with sharp bristles ciliate down one side.

Have these 3 on my property at Shahapur. Have also encountered T.pentandra in the Borivali National Park.

My photographs of T.pilosa are available at this link

For T.rhomboidea please check theselinks
and for T.pentandralink 


Thank you … for the additional information and the links.


Many thanks … for the links to Triumfetta species.

Looking at the fruits in links of T. pilosa, I will have to re-look at what I know of T. annua

via Species‎ > ‎T‎ >  Triumfetta pentandra A.Rich. … family: Malvaceae ~ Tiliaceae

Flowers of India Discussions at efloraofindia more views in flickr more views on Google Earth
tree-um-FET-a — named for Giovanni Battista Triumfetti, professor of botany … Dave’s Botanary
pen-TAN-druh — bearing five stamens … Dave’s Botanary
commonly known asfivestamen burbark • Marathiनिचर्डी nichardi • Teluguచిరు సిత్రిక chiru sitrika
botanical namesTriumfetta pentandra A.Rich. … synonymsTriumfetta cuneata Hochst. ex A. Rich. • Triumfetta neglecta Wight & Arn. … The Plants List (2013). Version 1.1.
September 13, 2008 … along Ghodbunder Road, Thane


 

Can you check the number of stamen here ? I am unable to find out.


 

 

I too am unable to count because of picture quality.

But I am very sure that it is pentandra; fruits clearly indicate so, and so does the flower to fruit ratio (size).

Attaching two cropped versions of above picture … 1) showing flowering branch end, 2) showing the fruit profile.

My observation: flower clusters rapidly crowd towards the end of branch in T. pentandra, the apex especially, is crowded with buds. In T. rhomboidea, the clusters are comparatively far-spaced.
Attachments (2)

I think fruits are too young and may develop more (?).
But I will go with you under the present circumstances.

 

 


 

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Truimfetta pentandra : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (3)

……………….. I am enclosing the images; normally the flower has 5 stamens; Capsule ovoid, densely tomentose, 6.5-7 mm long, 4.5-6 mm in diam., with ascending, uncinate spines with a line of spreading hairs on the upper side.

 


 

Dr. Almeida spent the day at my farm at Shahapur on Sunday (16.10.09)

Sending photographs of some of the plants identified by him.  

My apologies for the poor quality of the photographs as I was too busy recording what the great man was saying.


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Is this Triumfetta rhomboidea ?: Photographed this wild plant at Pune on 14.10.11.
I think it is  Triumfetta rhomboidea.
Plz confirm.


 

I think Triumfetta pentandra A.Rich. as per keys herein.


Yes …, u r right. This is mine from Janjam district of Orissa


I think Triumfetta pentandra A.Rich. as per keys herein.


To me too, … posted plant is T. pentandra; however … posted plant is T. rhomboidea.


Yes, … I agree with you. Five stamen in … case along with ovoid fruits. I can see 10 stamen in … case.


 

Differences between these two species is mainly based on whether spines on the capsule is glabrous (Triumfetta rhomboidea) or with a line of spreading hairs on the dorsal side (Triumfetta pentandra). ON going through the posts in efi I find it is very difficult to check this with naked eyes.
Other factor is the number of stamen in the flowers, about which different sources talk about differently as below:

 

 

 

Triumfetta rhomboidea

Triumfetta pentandra

Flora of Pakistan

Stamens mostly 15, rarely fewer but not less than 10

Stamens mostly 5, rarely up to 10

BSI Flora of India:

Stamens 8 – 15

Stamens 5 (rarely up to 10).

Flora of China

Stamens 10

Not found

Flora of North America

Stamens 10–15

Not found

 

 

Flora of Zimbabwe

Not mentioned

Stamens usually 5
Most of our postings show 10 stamen. In view, I feel that we should take all these posts as Triumfetta rhomboideaand not Triumfetta pentandra.
Awaiting your feedback pl.

 

 


I had posted 3 species of Triumfetta found commonly in northern Western Ghats, for validation and comparison.
I think, the fruits and flowers together give a better picture of their identity.
rhomboidea flowers are clearly twice as big than the pentandra.
rhomboidea fruits are comparatively smaller and appear spherical than those of pentandra.


Yes, flower with 5 stamens can be considered as Triumfetta pentandra; further the capsule is ovoid in T.pentandra; it is globular in T.rhomboidea.


Thanks, …

… is saying opposite of what you said regarding fruits.

But I think ultimately key hinges on the number of stamen as hairyness of spine is difficult to be judged with naked eyes which I felt after going through numerous posts.


Eflora of Pakistan, eflora of Zimbabwe, kew says fruit is ovoid in T.pentandra; it is globular in T.rhomboidea


I and … are saying the same about the fruits … I used the word spherical for globular.


Sorry, …, for the misunderstanding. Yes you are right.


 


A plant seen growing wild.

Triumfetta Species, may be Triumfetta pentandra suggested by …


Looks close. Full frontal of leaf images would have been more easier to ID.


Thanks … I could find one more image.


… is correct


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