Viola betonicifolia Sm., Cycl. 37(1): Viola no. 7 1817. (syn: Viola betonicifolia subsp. australiensis W. Becker; Viola betonicifolia subsp. napaulensis (Ging.) Becker; Viola betonicifolia subsp. nepalensis (DC.) W. Becker; Viola caespitosa D. Don (ambiguous synonym); Viola inconspicua subsp. dielsiana W. Becker; Viola longifolia R. Br. ex Ging. (ambiguous synonym); Viola longiscapa DC. ex G. Don; Viola nilagirica Turcz.; Viola patrinii Matsum. & Hayata (ambiguous synonym); Viola patrinii var. caespitosa Ridl.; Viola patrinii var. chinensis Hayata (ambiguous synonym); Viola patrinii var. laotiana H. Boissieu; Viola patrinii var. napaulensis Ging.; Viola phyteumifolia DC. ex G. Don);
China (Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, ?Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, ?Shaanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang), Taiwan, SE-Tibet, Japan, Myanmar [Burma], Thailand, Vietnam, Java, Malaysia, Sumatra, Lesser Sunda Isl. (Alor, Bali, Timor), New Guinea, Australia (South Australia, Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania), Sri Lanka, Philippines, Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim, Afghanistan (Paktia / Khost), Pakistan (Kurram, N.W.Frontier Prov., Murree, Hazara, Chitral, Swat), Pakistani Kashmir (Baltistan), Jammu & Kashmir (Poonch, Kashmir), India (Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura, Meghalaya, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala), Sikkim, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka as per Catalogue of Life;
vy-OH-la or vee-OH-la — referring to the Violet genus … Dave’s Botanary
bet-on-ih-see-FOH-lee-uh — having foliage like betony (Stachys officinalis) … Dave’s Botanary 

commonly known asarrowhead violetbetony-leaved violetmountain violetshowy violet 

Stemless herbs. Leaves cauline, 4 x 1.5 cm, triangular, ovate, acute, serrate, base decurrent to the petiole, puberulus; petiole to 7 cm; stipule to 7 mm. Flowers axillary, solitary, white; pedicels to 20 cm; sepals 3 mm, lanceolate; lower petals pouched at base, 1.2 x 4 mm; anthers connate; ovary 2.5 mm, style 1.5 mm, stigma terminal. Capsule 1-celled; seeds many.

Flowering and fruiting: January-June
Indo-Malesia to Australia
(From India Biodiversity Portal
Viola betonicifolia from Manali – indiantreepix | Google Groups : 1 post by 1 author.
Uploading my photographs of Viola betonicifolia (Syn: V. patrinii) from Manali.

Small Herb at Baba Budangiri -03022014-PKA4 : Attachments (7). 8 posts by 4 authors.
Seen this small herb near Baba Budan giri (Altitude: approx. 5700 ft) in Karnataka.
Date/Time: 26-01-2014 / 05:15PM
Habitat: Wild
Plant Habit: Small herb (approx 4 cm in height).

Requesting ID…

Some Viola sp. ?

The plant appears like Viola sp. of the Family Violaceae. The species may be Viola betonicifolia J. E. Sm. For determination the floral parts has to observed.


Seems to be Viola betonicifolia J.E. Smith


ANSEPT52 Please identify this herb : 5 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (4).
Baba Budan Giri, Chikamagalur
14th September 2014

Identified as Viola sp.

Can this be Viola pilosa?

I think Viola betonicifolia

Images by R. Kannan (Inserted by J.M.Garg)


Viola patrinii : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (3)
Uploading Viola patrinii photos from my collection. Collected long back, many years over.
This plant is reported only from 3 locations in India. 
1. Yercaud- One can find the plant in the forest area near the botanical garden.
2. Kodaikanal: one can find the plant in the rabbit farm grass land
3. Bhaba-Budan-Giri hills: In the top. almost everywhere in the grass lands.
May be found in other places. Not known. 

Thanks, …
Flora of China does not give any range of Viola patrinii Candolle ex Gingins in Candolle in India.
This more closer to Viola patrinii auct. non DC.: Hook. f. & Thoms. in Hook. f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 1: 183. 1872. = Viola betonicifolia as per Flora of Pakistan (& China), both of which give its range in India.
Also it is closer to Viola betonicifolia as per illustrations:
than Viola patrinii Candolle ex Gingins in Candolle:

16-ID-TSP-23DEC2015-1-Bababudangiri: Plant for ID : 4 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (4)

Kindly identify this plant occurring on grassy slopes at high altitude.This individual was the only one of its kind in the near vicinity. At first I mistook it for a terrestrial Orchid…! 

Habit: Shrub 

Habitat: Grassy slopes 

Sighting: Bababudangiri, Chikmagalur, Karnataka, about 1600 msl 

Date: 29-08-2015

I too had seen this plant at same location. This is some Viola sp.. could be Viola betonicifolia..
Nice photographs.

On … clue I visited the efl page on Viola betonicifolia /species/m—z/v/violaceae/viola/viola-betonicifoliaa.
I think the uploaded images match with those in the efl page

Baba Budangiri Karnataka
Date: 14 NOV 2016 … Altitude: ~ 1733 – 1895 m ( 5686 – 6217 ft) asl
Viola ¿ betonicifolia ? … (family: Violaaceae)

Dear friends,
Please validate the ID; referred … post with … comment; and further Viola betonicifolia page at efi.

Thanks, … Pl.  Also See comparative images in EFI site.

Thanks …; I have seen the Viola page too. I am almost sure the posted plant must be Viola betonicifolia.
Will wait for the ID to get seconded.

I had come across this one @ Bababudangiri during Aug-2015-Identified as V.betonicifolia

I think yes, looks similar to mine from Manali.
efi thread.

Thank you very much … I too strongly think this to be V. betonicifolia.
The “arrowhead” leaf (seen in first photo), I think is a good characteristic for this species.


via Species‎ > ‎V‎ > Viola betonicifolia Sm. … family: Violaceae

Flowers of India Discussions at efloraofindia more views in flickr more views on Google Earth
vy-OH-la or vee-OH-la — referring to the Violet genus … Dave’s Botanary
bet-on-ih-see-FOH-lee-uh — having foliage like betony (Stachys officinalis) … Dave’s Botanary 
commonly known asarrowhead violetbetony-leaved violetmountain violetshowy violet 
botanical namesViola betonicifolia Sm. … synonyms: … status at The Plants List (2013). Version 1.1. 
November 14, 2016 … Baba Budangiri, Karnataka 


Viola betonicifolia in FOI :  5 posts by 2 authors.
I have doubts about images of Viola betonicifolia in FOI being correct.
Pl. see details at Viola betonicifolia Sm.

Hmm…. that is something to think about. Although I can’t point out any particular different feature, the general appearance does look different.

Thanks, …, Corrected now.


Viola species 03 from Paddar valley J&K:
Request for Identification

Kindly identify this Viola species
Location: Paddar valley J&K
Altitude: 2600 meters
Date: 19th April 2012

May be Viola betonicifolia

It resembles Viola kunawarensis

Looks different from Viola kunawarensis as per FoC illustration and FoP illustration
To me appears more closer to Viola betonicifolia Sm. as suggested by …

Looks V. betonicifolia

I guess ID is correct !


SK 3234 16 September 2021: 6 very high res. images.

Location: Jumla, West Nepal
Altitude: 2500m.
Date: 23 August 2021 
Habit : Wild

Viola betonicifolia Sm. ??

Yes, appears close to images at Viola betonicifolia


Request for id- eflora: 3 high res. images.
Location- Kurinjimala Sanctuary, Kerala
Date- 17 Oct 2022

I guess ID should be Viola patrinii Ging. !

Also check—z/v/violaceae/viola/viola-betonicifolia

POWO does not give distribution of Viola patrinii in our area.

GBIF, CoL, FoPI, IBP have it mentioned!



Catalogue of Life  The Plant List Ver.1.1  Tropicos  GRIN  Flora of China  Flora of Pakistan  Annotated checklist of Flowering plants of Nepal  Flowers of India  India Biodiversity Portal  Wikipedia  Viola betonicifolia – Growing Native Plants  PlantNET – FloraOnline  Viola betonicifolia in Dinghushan Plant Checklist1 @