commonly known as: black indrajau, dyeing rosebay, dyers’s oleander, ivory tree, pala indigo plant, sweet indrajao • Gujarati: દૂધલો dudhalo • Hindi: दुधी dudhi, इन्द्रजौ indrajau, काला कुडा kala kuda, करायजा karayaja,कुडा kuda • Kannada: ಅಜಮರ ajamara • Konkani: काळाकुडो kalakudo • Marathi: भूरेवडी bhurevadi, काळा कुडा kala kuda • Malayalam: ഭന്തപ്പാല bhanthappaala, കമ്പിപ്പാല kampippaala, നിലപ്പാല nilappaala• Sanskrit: असित कुटज asita kutaj, hyamaraka, स्त्री कुटज stri kutaja • Tamil: இரும்பாலை irum-palai, பாலை paalai, வெட்பாலை vet-palai • Telugu: అంకుడుచెట్టు ankuduchettu, చిట్టిఅంకుడు chiti-anikudu, కొండజెముడుkondajemudu ;
The leaves are applied as a poultice for mumps and herpes and sometimes, they are also munched to relieve toothache. In folk medicine, the dried and powdered roots of Wrightia along with Phyllanthus amarus (keezhanelli) and Vitex negundo (nochi) is mixed with milk and orally administered to women for improving fertility. The bark and seeds are effective against psoriasis and non-specific dermatitis. It has anti-inflammatory and anti-dandruff properties and hence is used in hair oil preparations;
The wood is the most sought after part, as it is used in all types of turnery. The wood is used in famous ‘Channapatna toys’;
Small deciduous tree. Leaves opposite 7-10 cm, elliptic. Flowers in lax cymes 3-4cm diameter.
Milky sap oosed on cutting a twig.
In Holarrhena antidysenterica, the follicles (fruits) are connected at the tip whereas, in Wrightia tinctoria mostly they are distinct/separate rarely they are connected.

Wrightia tinctoria: Today at kanakeshwar,Alibag
Wrightia tinctoria
Marathi name : Kala-kuda 

–  here attaching mine. This plant is locally used for curing tooth ache. My dad had used this, as prescribed by a local healer and found to be effective.. I heard this plant is also useful for treating Psoriasis and other skin problems


Request Species Id – DKV 19042011-1: Tree seen in the forests near Mhow, Dist Indore, Madhya Pradesh during a night trek with the Youth Hostels Association of India, Indore District Unit. The local guide used a name like “Dudhia” which seemed so apt.

– It looks like Wrightia. Close up of flower may help. … posted beautiful picture of this plant few days back.

Wrightia tinctoria. This is a common tree in Chennai and Mysore.  I have photographed this tree recently near my house (a road side tree).

29042011PJ1 ID request: Pl find attached photo for id

Date/Time-: 29/04/11   –    08:45
Location- Place, Altitude – Kaiga , Uttar Kannada ,Karnataka, 380 mtrs
Habitat- Garden/ Urban/ Wild/ Type-   wild
Plant Habit- Tree/ Shrub/ Climber/ Herb- Tree
Height/Length- 4m

– This is Kala Kuda {Wrightia tinctoria].

–  this is Wrightia tinctoria
marathi name  :- काळा कुडा

its very much confusion in kala kuda and pandhra kuda the local marathi name..
Kala kuda is Holarrhena pubescens (bark dark colour)
Pandhra kuda or Dahi kuda is Wrightia tinctoria (bark whitish)
Infact in many marathi literature it has been confusing..  this foto is
Wrightia tinctoria

– Just for comparison. Wrightia bark. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y2U4-9HiPgk

– My information (Useful Plants of India, CSIR) is reverse, as rightly written by .. and ..

Kala Kuda, Indrajau, mitha indrajau refer to Wrightia tinctoria
dola-kuda, pandhara-kuda, karwa indrajau, kadu indrajau refer to
Holarrhena pubescens

– Agreed there is a bit of confusion in the local [Marathi / Hindi] names.
Dr. Almeida in his ‘Flora of Maharashtra’ Vol 2 has confused matters even further. Accordingly :
Holarrhena antidysentrica [ syn. H.pubescens – what I know as Safed Kuda] is Kuda
 Wrightia arborea [what I know as Tambda Kuda] is Dhordudha Kuda.
Wrightia tinctoria [what I know as Kala Kuda] is Safed Kuda.
Wrightia tinctoria var.rothii is Kala Kuda.
From my experience in the field…. this is one area where I chose not to follow Dr. Almeida’s dictat.


140412 BRS 350 for id. request.:

This is Kala Kuda [Wrightia tinctoria].


Trees of Lalbagh, Bangalore – Wrightia tinctoria – Sweet Indrajao Tree: The leaves are applied as a poultice for mumps and herpes and sometimes, they are also munched to relieve toothache. In folk medicine, the dried and powdered roots of Wrightia along with Phyllanthus amarus (keezhanelli) and Vitex negundo (nochi) is mixed with milk and orally administered to women for improving fertility. The bark and seeds are effective against psoriasis and non-specific dermatitis. It has anti-inflammatory and anti-dandruff properties and hence is used in hair oil preparations.

The wood is the most sought after part, as it is used in all types of turnery. The wood is used in famous ‘Channapatna toys’.



images of Wrightia tinctoria from Sathy.:

Sharing the images of Wrightia tinctoria from Sathy, Erode District.
Date: 26.12.2011
Location: Sathy Road, Erdoe Dist.
Habitat: Rurual, Road side.

Habit: Tree

Wrightia tinctoria (Flower & Fruit):  Photographed on Friday, 3rd Feb., at Matheran.



14022012 BS-1 Small Tree for id from Maihar MP: (14 pictures) Pls id this Small Tree from Maihar MP

Growing Wildly/ Small tree or shrub about 6-8 feet high/
Leaves simple and opposite about 12-15 cm in length

No flowers were seen. Fruit about 3-40 cm long cylindrical

I think Wrightia tinctoria of Apocynaceae family.

For me also Wrightia tinctoria

What about Holarrhena antidysenterica? just a speculation, as the plant has dried up… may be Wrightia… as both are very close..

In Holarrhena antidysenterica, the follicles (fruits) are connected at the tip whereas, in Wrightia tinctoria mostly they are distinct/separate rarely they are connected. Leaves are also different. Here the leaves seen in the last 2 pictures are of Wrightia.

Yes, you are right … Thanks for clarifications…..


Small tree at Sandhan Valley : Requesting ID of a small tree seen at Sandhan valley, near Sangamner, Maharashtra.

Wrightia tinctoria पांढरा कुडा

Yes it is

Thank you …!

Little confusion about the local names..

when I searched on Flowers of India, the local name for Wrightia tinchtoria is given as Kala Kuda (काळा कुडा) and Holarrhea pubescens is named as Pandhra Kuda (पांढरा कुडा).


Affirmative. This is Wrightia tinctoria. Please check these links to add further to your confusion :

Just spoke to Dr. Almeida. Contrary to what I previously believed….
Wrightia tinctoria is Safed Kuda because the leaves after they dry turn white, whereas in Holarrhena pubescens they become dark.


Sweet Indrajao : Attachments (2). 1 post by 1 author.

I love Apocynaceae family Members 😀 😀 Sweet Indrajao Botanical name: Wrightia tinctoria Family: Apocynaceae (oleander family) May 15/2013 Mumbai

Wrightia tinctoria :: BR Hills Karnataka :  Attachments (3). 4 posts by 4 authors.
Wrightia tinctoria

Small deciduous tree. Observed on way to BR Hills Karnataka. May 2013.

Leaves opposite 7-10 cm, elliptic. Flowers in lax cymes 3-4cm diameter.

Milky sap oosed on cutting a twig. Corona nicely observed.

Nice pictures. The tree is very common in Mysore city, often planted in avenues and parks.

The timber is used for making toys (Channapatna toys).


Yeoor hills visit report May 15/2013 (mixed thread): 1 correct image as above.  Attachments (1). 3 posts by 2 authors.

Visited yeoor hills Part of Sanjay gandhi national park, Mumbai, Maharashtra on May 15/2013

Sweet Indrajao
Botanical name: Wrightia tinctoria Family: Apocynaceae (oleander family)

Wrightia tinctoria : ‘Indigo’ foliage :  7 posts by 5 authors. Attachments (1).

The withered leaves of Wrightia tinctoria bearing a unique cerulean hue, indicative of the blue dye – Pala Indigobeing yielded from the leaves. Clicked yesterday in Borivali National Park, North Mumbai.

Excellent observation & documentation.

So nice to see this!! Tho’ there are quite a few W.tinctoria trees in Lalbagh, this has escaped observation!!  TFS….

Thanks for posting this.
If you press fresh green leaves onto paper under very high pressure you get brilliant blue impressions. I had experimented also onto cotton and silk fabric.

Thank you …, for your comments. Am yet to see the blue leaf impressions on paper / fabric, thanks … am eager to try it out soon.


Confirm if Wrightia tinctoria? :  3 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (4).

Found in Bangalore
2nd May

Yes, Wrightia tinctoria

Yes Very good pictures


ARJUL68 Tree for ID : 4 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (3).
July 2014

Nice photographs. Could be Wrightia tinctoria.
Pods are usually united at the tip, I think.

Could this be Holarrhena pubescens. Bit confused.

Yes this tree does look like Wrightia tinctoria.
I also referred the discussion in efi thread


Tree For ID : Bangalore : 04DEC14 : AK-12 : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (3)

Tree seen by the roadside on 9/11/14.

No flowers or fruits when the pictures were taken.

Wrightia tinctoria

Thanks for the id. Have seen Wrightia tinctoria before, couldn’t guess without the flowers.

Wrightia tinctoria – 201214 – RK – 5 : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (2).
Pala IndigoLalbagh, Bangalore.

I find the pods interesting! Meeting at the ends – wonder what purpose it could serve ?

Resembles to Wrightia tinctoria

ANAPR39 Wrightia tinctoria R.Br. : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (9)

Family: Apocynaceae
Date: 14th April 2015
Place: Bangalore Rural, Karnataka

Habit: Tree

very nice

the petals we see in bengal tend to be a bit wider  than what they seem here

do you have the entire bush or if mature …. then the tree

No I dont ma’am, we were in a very congested spot, could not back up far enough to get a habit shot. It was a tree though.

Seen at Borgad Conservation Reserve, in July.

Kindly validate.

Affirmative. Please check the archives of this group for my photographs of this.

Images by tspkumar


TSPDEC2015-17-190: Images of Wrightia tinctoria (Apocynaceae) : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (5)

It is my pleasure to share few images of Wrightia tinctoria (Apocynaceae 

Habit: Tree 

Habitat: Dry deciduous forest 

Sighting: Tumkur, Karnataka, about 800 msl. 

Date: 18-05-2014, 16-07-2014, 21-07-2014 and 19-04-2015


It is my pleasure to present few images of Wrightia tinctoria  (Apocynaceae) 

Habit: A medium sized tree. 

Habitat: Wild, Dry deciduous tree. 

Sighting: Huliyurdurga, Tumkur, Karnataka, about 800 msl 

Date: 17-04-2016

Tree for ID 05/07/17 from Yawal, Jalgaon, Maharashtra : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)

I think Wrightia species.

Seems like Wrightia tinctoria

20082017BHAR1 : 3 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (3)
Found inside a Dry  decidious forest near Chennai.
Big tree.

Wrightia tinctoria


Dattaji Salvi Udyan  Thane

Date: April 8, 2018 … Altitude: about 11 m (36 feet) asl
Wrightia tinctoria  R.Br.


Please check this link for my latest article in ‘Star of Mysore’ :

Very well written article on Wrightia tinctoria. Thanks, …, for sharing.


May 2008- Tippur, Mysore distt.; In Vanasthalipuram N.P. in Hyderabad, A.P. on 4/4/08; SGNP- 16/6/09; 11 May 2010: Kalenahalli, Mysore district;  in Yeoor- June’10; Mukali, near Attappadi, Kerela- May 15, 2010; 8/9/10- Ludhiana, Punjab; CBD Belapur hills, Navi Mumbai; from Delhi; Kanheri Hills (part of Sanjay Gandhi National Park);
White flowering tree for Identification – 22May2008Raghu1 – indiantreepix | Google Groups Tree for Id2- 010409-Jm2 – indiantreepix | Google Groups Pics of my today’s visit to SGNP – indiantreepix | Google Groups
Fwd: Urgent id please – indiantreepix | Google Groups Wrightia tinctoria-110410-RK-3 – efloraofindia | Google Groups White Flowering tree | IDreq 24Jun10AR01 – efloraofindia | Google Groups

Dried leaves of Wrightia tinctoria – indiantreepix | Google Groups

For ID 200709 ET – indiantreepix | Google Groups

Wrightia tinctoria (lack indrajau, dyeing rosebay, dyers’s oleander, ivory tree) – indiantreepix | Google Groups

Species Id 080909 DKV1 – indiantreepix | Google Groups

Tree for ID : Zarwani Forest, Gujarat : 10DEC19 : AK-7 : 7 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (3)

Tree seen inside the Zarwani Forest Area in Nov.

To me it seems to be Wrightia tinctoria.

Experts, kindly validate

yes. indrajav of herbal use. no flowers?

No flowers, only pods.

I wd think the same !


Nagla forest  … part of Sanjay Gandhi National Park

Date: December 21, 2019 … Altitude: sea level to about 600 ft asl
Holarrhena pubescens  Wall. ex G.Don

Does not it look a bit different from images at Holarrhena pubescens

Thanks … At Holarrhena pubescens, at this time of writing, has all pictures showing leaves in their green time. Posted pictures are showing colours during its fall time. I am confident about the ID. I am hoping someone validates my ID to assure of no ambiguity.

Could it be Wrightia tinctoria?

Thanks very much … for pointing to the correct ID. Many thanks … for arresting the error. Correcting my notes at flickr.


Wrightia tinctoria: The attach plant is Wrightia tinctoria of Apocynaceae, recorded from my home town Warud from Maharashtra.

what a nice illustration… of sweet indrajav *Wrightia tinctoria * that you just presented…,
I recently spotted Holarrhena pubescens, the regular indrajav in a local garden…. may be they both flower and fruit at the same time?
I need to go back and check for the fruits as they set in…. can you also look out for the seedpods in a months time may be….

Wrightia tinctoria is a glabrous plant. This should be either W. arborea or W. pubescens.

Not W.tinctoria. May be other species of Wrightia. Please check the characteristic fruits, which are long and joined at the end even when the fruit dehisces. Leaves are quite different in W.t.

The fruit about which … is saying is visible in this film.

As per FoC, W. arborea has corona shorter than anthers. So this plant (corona longer than anthers) may qualify to W. pubescens.
But I need some inputs from you all………. pictures in Wikipedia have pubescens on leaves & inflorescence.
But they are glabrous in these links:

/wp-content/uploads/attachments/tpod-1-6.html & Flickr
Another link for W. pubescens (?).. Flickr….
…here the corona is completely different from the posted picture here. And I have questions also about the distribution of W.pubescens in India (and MH).
Let’s explore further…

Thanks …, for the response. The following links provide keys to different species of Wrightia:

Yes it is W.arborea

its a Wrightia arborea

Please see my post for W. arborea.
Need time to comment on the images in this thread but they are not W.arborea.

Please refer to … observations above (corona longer than anthers) and the leaves are also pubescent but this characteristic is not well seen in these images.
…, we have W. pubescens in Mahaharashtra.

Even though the leaves in the posted pictures are resembling that of Wrightia pubescens, the corollary corona as well as the petals are somewhat (rather clearly) differ from the ones in the following links. And I don’t think it can be a variation:
Let’s re-search further…

Firstly …, I stand corrected on Wrightia pubescens distribution.
It is not reported from Maharashtra (confirmed by Shrikant Ingalhalikar) and not mentioned in Flora Maharashtra by M.R. Almeida.
I also agree with your observation on corollary corona looking distinctly different.
Will have to wait a little while longer for the matter to resolve.

Please apply FoC keys and let us know the possible answer(s).
I have applied FoC keys and another (and with available information in posted images plus from my own collection) I keep coming back to W. pubescens despite of the fact that it has so far not been reported from our region.

Woody shrub for Id 10072013CS1 : Attachments (2). 6 posts by 4 authors.

This plant was being used in panchpatra kashayam in a village. From my gleanings it loks like Wrightia sp possibly W. antidysentrica. Can some body identify this woody shrub.

By looking at the spent fruits seen in the picture, I guess this to be of Wrightia pubescens. More details may be helpful.

wow where could you see the spent fruits. I did confuse between the two species. Both are hosts to the leaf webber observed in abundance on the plants. The damaged leaves turned a bluish grey. The plants are all in this stage and I could not get any more details. I may visit teh village again so hopefully get flowers etc. Thank you for the ID

Brilliant …!  It is now called Wrightia arborea [Tambda kuda]. My photographs of this are available at these links :

Thanks …. Your posts with detailed pictures are very helpful.

I opted the name W. pubescens because Flora of China treats this and W. arborea separately. The latter species is characterized by the fruits with prominent lenticells (white dots on the surface!) which are obvious in the pictures of (fresh) fruits posted by you. I could not see such lenticells from the pictures posted by … here.

But, I think you are correct by calling the posted plant as W. arborea due to the probable size of the fruits, which are seemingly narrower in W. pubescens.

…, the dried and dehisced fruits (of the previous year) are seen just above the fingers in the 2nd picture.

sorry to say that it doesn’t look like Wrightia arborea to me……The leaf shape and numbers of lateral nerves are not typical. In the W. arborea I know there are usually 10 – 12 lateral nerves and the leaves are broader in the middle.
If the leaves are tomentose (not sure from the picture) then could it be S. tinctoria ssp. rothii which has puberulous leaves? Otherwise the shape as well as the old follicles look to me like W. tinctoria.


Re : Woody shrub for Id 10072013CS1: :

You could be right, but don’t think you can go by the number of lateral veins. Also the fruit look much broader than those of W.tinctoria. Please check the photographs and these links :

Will send photographs of the fruit of W. tinctoria later if required.

Could manage to find only these photographs (3) of the pods of Wrightia tinctoria now.

thanks for your nice photos. This is quite interesting.
Available literature mentions striate follicles for W tinctoria and also for W tinctoria ss. rothii. (as compared with the more lenticelled ones of W. arborea)
In a book by S. G. Neginhal, Forest Trees of the Western Ghats the location given for W. tinctoria ssp. rothii is dry forests of Hyderabad north to the Circars so I don’t know if this is where the posted tree was found or not.
As for the leaves, I’m just going on my observations of the trees in question and my herbarium samples. It seems to be a consistent character.

Found a few more photographs and another link : efi thread

Though I am enjoying the scintillating discussion on this species, it has made me more confused. The one thing I can do to help is wait to go back again and post more photos of flowers and pods

Yes its Wrightia tinctoria

You’re right


(14/Apr/2021 ART 2) Is this Wrightia tinctoria?: 10 images.
Date: 2021/Apr/6
Location: Palani, Dindigul District, Tamil Nadu
Can you please confirm if this tree is Wrightia tinctoria?

Obsolutely correct

Glad to share a couple of pictures of Wrightia tinctoria in full bloom.
(“A slender, inconspicuous tree that becomes very beautiful when it flowers at the hottest time of the year.” — Trees of Delhi, Pradip Krishen)
Date: 2021/May/8


Is this Wrightia tinctoria_Tree_ Hyderabad: 4 images.

Is this Wrightia tinctoria?
Tree location- Velamala, Hyderabad
Tree Habit- Wild
Height- appx 20 feet
Leaves were tomentose
Pods were observed on tree.
Observed on 24th July 2021.
Kindly help in identification.

Absolutely you’re right ma’am

Yes. Very luxuriant growth. Very common here. It is on my street about 100 ft from my house. The wood is very valuable and used for making world famous Channapatna toys. It has many other medicinal uses.


Wrightia tinctoria (Roxb.) R.Br. :: Virar, Thane :: Apr 1, 2007 · JUN23 DV490: 3 images.

Wrightia tinctoria (Roxb.) R.Br.
Virar, Thane :: Apr 1, 2007 · 5:29 PM IST :: about 54 m (177 ft) asl
Many thanks to Siddarth Machado and Bharat Godambe for validating the ID at iNaturalist


Apocynaceae: Wrightia tinctoria R.Br.: 1 image.
location/date: Semadoh, Melghat Wildlife Sancuary, Amravati Distr., Maharashtra, November 1994


Apocynaceae: Wrightia tinctoria: 4 high res. images.
Wrightia tinctoria with blooming at Andhra university campus, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh. On 20/04/2024