IUCN Red List Status: Vulnerable (VU)
Hydnocarpus pentandrus (Buch.-Ham.) Oken, Allg. Naturgesch. 3: 1381 1381 1841. (Syn: Chilmoria pentandra Buch.-Ham. (Unresolved));


Hydnocarpus pentandra:
After a lull of a short period,  there is another very pleasant wave of flowering of trees of Rani Bagh, Mumbai. Sharing some pictures of Hydnocarpus pendandra from Flacourtiaceae family.

– the first pic shows the female flower and 5 stigmas (pentandra) on top of the ovary. The second pic shows a mature female flower with just the ovary, the fruit is usually 5 cm, globose, hard and woody.


Hydnocarpus ¿ pentandra OR pentandrus ?:
Would like to know the reasoning for both spellings being used: Hydnocarpus pentandra AND Hydnocarpus pentandrus.
    Sites like NPGS / GRIN, The Plants List maintain Hydnocarpus pentandrus.
Am sure, .. and .. have given a thought too, to this discrepancy and have reasoned to keep Hydnocarpus pentandra in their notes

.. nomenclature is a debatable subject, I am not competant to make any comments on preferences, I just follow what BSI says.

Me too agree with you, .. … this subject could be as deep as Mariana’s Trench !! Would go with pentandra … faintly remember, ..  having told me that the trees are associated with male form of the epithet, hopefully not mistaking.

The end depicts the gender.
But gender in ICBN is very technical.
A tree is male, but if it has been given a feminine generic name then it is to be followed. In other words, even if a name ends with a masculine suffix, it will be considered as male even if it is not !!! It is so confusing all the time.

    Ideally the name should be Hydnocarpus pentandrus but interestingly in the original description it is written as Hydnocarpus pentandra (Buch.-Ham.) Oken Allg. Naturgesch. iii. (2) 1381 (1841) which is attached with the mail.
Basionym: Chilmoria pentandra Buch.-Ham. Trans. Linn. Soc. London 13(2): 501. (1822)
Hamilton’s protologue was unfortunately not free.
Article 62.1 of ICBN, Vienna code says: “62.1. A generic name retains the gender assigned by botanical tradition, irrespective of classical usage or the author’s original usage. A generic name without a botanical tradition retains the gender assigned by its author.”….. SEE ITS SO CONFUSING. It means, Pankaj Kumar is a girl if his dad says so :P….. but he is a boy if his dad doesnt say anything or he is a boy if his dad says so….
First step if to see what the original basionym was? In this case it was “pentandra” but at the same time, original generic name was also “Chilmoria”, obviously both with the same gender.
Recommendation 62A, of ICBN, Vienna code says: “62A.1. When a genus is divided into two or more genera, the gender of the new generic name or names should be that of the generic name that is retained.” hence the new name Hydnocarpus should have been used with pentandrus, but this was not the case.
    Article 61.1 of ICBN, Vienna Code says: “Only one orthographical variant of any one name is treated as validly published: the form that appears in the original publication, except as provided in Art. 60 (typographical or orthographical errors and standardizations), Art. 14.11 (conserved spellings), and Art. 32.7 (inproper Latin
Article 60.1 of ICBN, Vienna Code says: “The original spelling of a name or epithet is to be retained, except for the correction of typographical or orthographical errors and the standardizations imposed by Art. 60.5 (u/v or i/j used interchangeably), 60.6 (diacritical signs and ligatures), 60.8 (compounding forms), 60.9 (hyphens), 60.10 (apostrophes), 60.11 (terminations; see also Art. 32.7), and 60.12 (fungal epithets).”.
    Hence, when you transfer it to new genus it was supposed to retain the gender of generic name as “Hydnocarpus pentandrus” but this didnt happen according to the protologue where it is mentioned as
“pentandra”. So this name should be retained, according to me and it should be Hydnocarpus pentandra unless it was corrected by some one according to another article 32.7 of ICBN Vienna Code, that says, “Names or epithets published with an improper Latin termination but otherwise in accordance with this Code are regarded as validly published; they are to be changed to accord with Art. 16, 17, 18, 19, 21, 23, and 24, without change of the author citation or date of publication (see also Art. 60.11)”.
Hope this is understandable.
Unfortunately I dont know what is Mariana’s Trench !! 😛

Many thanks dear .. for the elaborate explanation regarding pentandrus and pentandra of Hydnocarpus.
Going with Hydnocarpus pentandra.

    About Mariana’s Trench …
Just as we know peak of Mt Everest is the highest place above sea level, so is Marian’s Trench lowest below sea level. More at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mariana_Trench.
To me the depth of subject discussed is analogous to that of Mariane’s Trench.

If you or anyone else are writing a scientific article on this plant then in accordance with Article 32.7 of ICBN Vienna Code you can change the spelling without changing the author citation or date of publication.

thanks for the info …
can you get the pdf version of the above document please.
{Hydnocarpus pentandra (Buch.-Ham.) Oken Allg. Naturgesch. iii. (2) 1381 (1841)}


can anyone tell me the difference between hydnocarpus pentandra and hydnocarpus alpina…??
what is the difference between the seeds of the both trees??

Leaves sometimes serrate (mostly with saplings) and Flowers in short fascicles, Fruits smaller (compare to H. alpinia) ….. H. pentandra (grows below 700m altitude).
Leaves entire and Flowers in long peduncles, Fruits larger (sometimes double the size of H. pentandra)…. H. alpinia (Grows mostly above 700m altitude, recently I have located few individuals in Thattakkad bird sanctuary Kerala at about 150m altitude)

i have seen hydnocarpus pentandra but i have not seen hydnocarpus alpina.
can you send me some pictures of it.


Sharing the images of Hydnocarpus pentandra:
Sharing the images of Chaulmugra (Hydnocarpus pentandra) from NBNP, Anaikatti, Coimbatore.

very nice, an important Ayurvedic plant

Fruit for ID-SC1 16/11/2012:
Pl.help me in identifying this Fruit Tree.
Location – Near Ratnagiri on 30.10.2012

… looks like Hydnocarpus pentandra (family Achariaceae, also placed in Flacourtiaceae).
Please wait for comments.

Yes indeed it look like Hydnocarpus pentandra only….


MAY BE HYDNOCARPUS SPP : Attachments (3).  4 posts by 4 authors.


Hydnocarpus sp.

Hydnocarpus pentandra

Attachments (10).  4 posts by 4 authors.

Common name: Kadu Kawath.
Bot. name: Hydnocarpus pentandra
Family: Flacourtiaceae
Location: Mumbai

Thank you … for these wonderful pictures.
Though I am familiar with the tree never got an opportunity to see the flowers in such proximity.
Known as മരോട്ടി – Marotty – in Malayalam. The oil from its seeds are used to treat many skin diseases including leprosy.

Thanks … for showing these very beautiful and unique flowers.. never seen before..


ANJAN46/46 Please identify this tree : 7 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (6)

Date: 10th January 2014
Place: Aralam Wildlife Sanctuary, Kerala
Habit: Short tree

Hydnocarpus sp.

Hydnocarpus species in efi

I think it is Hydnocarpus pentandra

YES. Hydnocarpus pentandra found near riverside


Mollem National Park :: Hydnocarpus pentandra :: DVMAR03/03 : 3 posts by 3 authors.
Mollem National Park Goa
Date: 23 APR 2011 … Altitude: about 200 m asl
Hydnocarpus pentandra (Buch.-Ham.) Oken (family: Achariaceae, Flacourtiaceae)

Nice pics …!!
Achariaceae is a new name for me..

very nice, crisp white flower pictures
the leaves are both pointed and of roundish tips?
is that normal or something to do with plant only? i wonder


ID- 120517GKE 1: 5 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (2)
Please identify these fallen and floating flowers in a riparian system in Kannur district of Kerala.

The flowers are of Hydnocarpus pentandra.

ID Kannur 01 : 4 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (2)
Please identify this shrub from riparian zone of Kannur District of Kerala

It is Hydnocarpus pendandra.-Flacourtiaceae.

Kabini river bank,
Kuruva dweepa, (Kuru islands) Kerala
Oct 2009
Size: Comparable with Sapota / Chikoo / Manikara Zapota

This is Hydnocarpus sp. belongs to Flacourtiaceae

Pls check these good links on Hydnocarpus pentandra (Buch.-Ham.) Oken – FLACOURTIACEAE

Hydnocarpus pentandra is called ‘Kadu Kawath’ ‘कडू कवठ’ / ‘Kastel’ ‘कास्‍तेल’ in Marathi.

ID Request- Tree from Kodar- PKA : 5 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (7)
Seen this tree near Kodar, North Karnataka.
Fruits were approx. 2 inch in dia..
Requesting ID for this..

Looks like an Annonaeae member ?

Hydnocarpus pentandrus (Buch.-Ham.) Oken [Achariaceae].


254 ID wild plant Hydnocarpus pentandrus: 18 images

Please confirm ID wild plant,
Location: near Vannappuram Thodupuzha Idukki Dist. Kerala PIN:685607
Altitude: 1500fsl
Flower date: 10.01.2022, 01.30pm
Habitat: wild, moisture, roadside, wasteland
Plant habit: tree overgrown, erect, branches, hard woody stem, long lasting
Height: 08 meters
Leaves: alternate, ovate, apex, serrated margins, size:15×8cm or less
Flower: diameter:16mm, greenish yellow, good fragrance
Fruit: drupe globular brown, diameter up to 11cm, not edible
Seed: brown 04 nos., triangular, size:4×3cm, uses for oil extraction, strange smelled oil
Camera: mobile Samsung Galaxy A21s


Fruit for Id-ID17012022SH1: 1 high res. image.

Fruit for Id pl.
Location – Ratnagiri,Maharashtra.
Date – January, 2022

Hydnocarpus pentandrus (Buch.-Ham.) Oken [Achariaceae].


Achariaceae: Hydnocarpus pentandrus (Buch.-Ham.) Oken: 1 high res. images.
synonyms: Hydnocarpus wightianus Blume, Hydnocarpus laurifolia (Dennst.) Sleum., Hydnocarpus inebrians Wall.
location/date: Thrissur Distr., Kerala, November 2002