Galium acutum Edgew., Trans. Linn. Soc. London 20: 61 1846. (Syn: Galium acutum var. acutum ; Galium acutum var. trichanthum Cufod.; Galium asperifolium var. setosum Cufod.);
Pakistan to SC. China as per WCSP ;
China South-Central; East Himalaya; Nepal; Pakistan; Tibet; West Himalaya as per Catalogue of life;
Common name: Tiny Bedstraw • Hindi: Kura, Kutub • Nepali: च्यांगुया Chyanguya
Much branched perennial herb with procumbent interlaced branches, with glabrous 4-angled stems; leaves usually in whorls of 6, crowded, glabrous, drying black, linear-oblanceolate, 4-7 mm long, tip spinescent; flowers 2-3 mm across, pale yellow to white, in terminal and axillary cymes on 4-8 mm long peduncles; pedicel barely 2 mm; fruit smooth, 1-1.5 mm across.
Location Kalatope, Chamba, Himachal
Altitude 2100 mts
Habitat wild/periphery if fields
Plant Height: 10 inches
It is Galium … Perhaps G. acutum
Rubiaceae Week: Galium acutum from Mussoorie Chakrata Road near Baratkhai: Galium acutum Edgw., Trans. Linn. Soc. London. 20: 61. 1846. Much branched perennial herb with procumbent interlaced branches, with glabrous 4-angled stems; leaves usually in whorls of 6, crowded, glabrous, drying black, linear-oblanceolate, 4-7 mm long, tip spinescent; flowers 2-3 mm across, pale yellow to white, in terminal and axillary cymes on 4-8 mm long peduncles; pedicel barely 2 mm; fruit smooth, 1-1.5 mm across.
Usually found among shrubs and tall herbs, photographed from Mussoorie Chakrada road from near Baratkhai.
Clear shots of a tough-to-shoot plant. Thanks Sir for providing the identification..
Many thanks for showing the series of Galium.
That is the beauty of this group. So many new plants in such a short span… Thanks … for sharing this wonderful photos.
Galium acutum Edgw from Chakrata
SK1492 09 Oct 2018 : 4 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (9) – around 300 kb each.
Date: 21 August 2018
Habit : Wild
Which Galium ??
Pl. check with species available in efi site at
Galium acutum Edgew.
Galium acutum : much branched, mat-forming
Galium aparine : branched from base
Let us find analyse the two species to get better idea about the two:
Galium aparine L.:
Flora of Pakistan: Annual climbing herb, stem with reflexed hairs or prickles. Leaves 6-8 in a whorl, 5-40 x 4-6 mm, linear, narrowly obovate, oblong, oblanceolate-elliptic, usually narrower below the middle, mucronate or cuspidate, midrib and margin scabridulous, upper surface mostly hispid, sessile or shortly petioled. Inflorescence axillary, 3-flowered; peduncle stout, 1.5-2 cm long. Corolla white; lobes oblong, c. 1 mm long, pedicel straight, enlarged and up to 8 mm in fruit. Fruit 2-5 mm in diam., covered with dense hooked hairs or setae, mericarps sometimes separated and free.
Fl. Per.: March-July.
Distribution: Europe, North Africa, Asia minor, Siberia, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan and India
Checklist of Nepal: 2700-3600 m; Europe, W. Asia, N. America, widely naturalised in Asia
Flora of China: Herbs, annual, procumbent or clambering. Stems 30-90 cm high, 4-angled, 1-4 mm in diam., branched from base, retrorsely aculeate along angles, glabrescent to pilose at nodes. Leaves at middle stem region in whorls of 6-10, subsessile; blade drying papery, narrowly oblanceolate to narrowly oblong-oblanceolate, 10-60 × 3-10 mm, usually somewhat pilosulous or hispidulous adaxially, retrorsely aculeolate along midrib abaxially, base acute, margins flat to thinly revolute, retrorsely aculeolate, apex acute and shortly mucronate; vein 1. Inflorescences terminal and axillary, cymes 2- to several flowered; axes glabrous to aculeolate; bracts ± leaflike or none, 1-5 mm; peduncles 1-5 cm; pedicels 1-30 mm, finally elongating and sometimes curved directly under fruit. Ovary subglobose, 0.3-0.5 mm, with uncinate trichomes. Flowers hermaphroditic. Corolla yellowish green or white, rotate, 1.5-2 mm in diam.; lobes 4, triangular to ovate, acute. Mericarps subglobose to kidney-shaped, 2.5-5 mm, with a dense cover of uncinate trichomes 0.4-1.2 mm from swollen base. Fl. Mar-Jul, fr. Apr-Nov.
Forest margins, riversides, meadows, open fields, farmlands; near sea level to 2500 m. Evidently rare in China and possibly only introduced [originally in W Eurasia and the Mediterranean, but today nearly worldwide as an adventive].
Galium acutum Edgew.:
Flora of Pakistan: Prostrate to suberect perennial herb, stem 4-angled, ± glabrous, stem and branches very leafy. Leaves 6 in a whorl, minute, generally 5-8 x 1-3 mm, linear-lanceolate, aristate-acute-mucronate, glabrous, sessile, midrib conspicuous, margin often recurved. Inflorescence solitary axillary very rarely with 2 axillary flowers, peduncle very short, always shorter than flower, enlarged and straight in fruit. Corolla white, lobes ovate-lanceolate, acute, c. 1 mm long. Stamens shorter than corolla-lobes. Fruit glabrous-granulate, c. 2 mm in diameter.
Fl. Per.: August-September
Distribution: Temperate Himalayas, Nepal, Sikkim, India and Pakistan
Checklist of Nepal: 2000-4100 m; Himalaya (Kashmir to Bhutan), S. Tibet
Flora of China: Herbs, perennial, procumbent, much branched, mat-forming. Stems up to 30 cm, 4(or 6)-angled, glabrous, smooth or sometimes with scattered (very rarely more dense) short and straight hairs. Leaves in whorls of up to 6, sessile; blade drying papery and blackish, linear-oblanceolate to narrowly elliptic-oblanceolate, 2-8.5 × 0.3-1.5 mm, glabrous and smooth, occasionally with straight hairs, base cuneate, margins flat to thinly revolute, very rarely antrorsely aculeolate, apex acute, ± contracted and mucronate; vein 1. Inflorescences with terminal and axillary cymes, 1- to few flowered; peduncles (1.5-)3-8(-10) mm; pedicels (0.1-)0.5-2(-3) mm, glabrous, smooth. Ovary ellipsoid-obovoid, ca. 0.5 mm, didymous, glabrous. Corolla white, pale greenish, or yellowish, rotate, 1.2-3.5 mm in diam., glabrous to puberulent, lobed for 2/3 or more; lobes 4, lanceolate-spatulate, inside (i.e., adaxially) papillose, shortly acuminate. Mericarps ellipsoid, ca. 1 × 0.4-0.6 mm, glabrous, smooth or granular-verruculose, often on elongating pedicels. Fl. and fr. Jul-Oct.
Mountain rocks and slopes; 2000-4100 m. ?Sichuan, Xizang, ?Yunnan [India, Nepal, Pakistan].
After going through all these details, I will go for G. acutum
Galium acutum Edgew. ?? : 5 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (8)
Location: Deurali, Dolkha, Nepal
Date: 6 September 2017
Elevation : 7700 ft.
I guess it is matching more to Galium elegans Wall. ex Roxb.
Leaves are not three nerved as in Galium elegans (as per images herein) and as per the following:
So pl. check images at Galium aparine
SK62AUG6-2016:ID : 6 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (4)
Sharing some pictures for identification shot at Kakani, Nepal on 28 July 2016 at 6000 ft.
This looks like some Galium sp…
Galium aparine ???
Thanks, …, for the tentative Id.
I think it matches with images at Galium aparine
ANNOV25 Which Galium sp.? : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (3)
trekkking route to Mussoorie
Galium – species in eFIoraofindia (with details/ keys from published papers/ regional floras/ FRLHT/ FOI/ efloras/ books etc., where ever available)
Can be Galium aparine.
Thank you …
SK1351 05 AUG 2018 : 6 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (9)- around 500 kb each.
Location: Nagarkot, Nepal
Altitude : 7000 ft.
Date: 18 July 2018
Habit : Wild
Which Galium ..??
Species available in efi so far with images:
Pl. check with species available in efi site at Galium
Galium hirtiflorum Req. ex DC.
SK 2832 07 November 2020 : 9 posts by 2 authors. 7 images- 5 to 7 mb each.
Location: Kathmandu Valley
Date: October 2020
Habitat : Wild