South India, Himalayas to West China as per India Biodiversity Portal;

1000-3000 m; Himalaya (Kashmir to Bhutan), N. Burma, W. China as per Checklist of Nepal;

China (SW-Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou), E-Tibet, Afghanistan (Kunar / Nuristan, Nangarhar, Paktia / Khost), Pakistan (Sind, Kurram, Chitral, Swat, Hazara, Murree), Jammu & Kashmir (Poonch, Kashmir), Bhutan, India (Darjeeling), Sikkim, Myanmar [Burma] (Kachin, Shan), Nepal as per Catalogue of Life;

Common name: Cane Buckthorn • Hindi: chadua, chato, chentuli, chhedula • Oriya: kontus



Rosaceae? ABMAY01/17 : 5 posts by 3 authors. 10 images.
Hidden among the pear trees was this one which I had mistaken for a wild pear before. It does seem to belong to Rosaceae with similar leaves. Please help identify it.
Above Mcleodganj, Dharamshala, HP
19 May 2016
Pyrus pashia leaf below;
Pyrus pashia, right.

Beautiful clicks, … It appears Rhamnus sp. to me.

Oh, spines are also visible in the photographs.
So, it should be Rhamanus virgatus.

Also see my separate post on this plant.

I need help with the identification of this plant. I saw this tree growing in Shimla.

Its a medium sized tree. The berk is smooth, leaves are variable in size, lanceolate and coriaceous. I did not see it flowering hence cant provide any information for the same. The fruits are solitary axillary. Its in fruiting these days (26.7.16). The fruits are unripe and bear the remains of the style.

It may be Rhamnus triqueter Wall (Rhamnaceae) or R. purpurens Edgw. Leaves fascicled on dwarf shoot. Need some more information of this plant or any close up of fruit and leaves.

It looks me Rhamanus virgatus. R.triqutra is unarmed tree. whereas this image is armed.

It is Rhamnus virgatus. 1 image.






Rhamnus virgatus ATMAY2016/01 : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (6)

Rhamnus virgatus Roxb.
Unresolved name on The Plant List
Described in all the Floras of Himachal Pradesh
Similar name Rhamnus virgata Roxb. given in The Plant List.
Are these same names???

I could find the following references for Rhamnus virgata Roxb.

In view, it should be the correct name.
Your plant seem to match with images at Flowers of India

We have one post in efi: Rhamnus virgata Roxb. SN June 22 by … I am no sure if it is the same species or different.

I agree with …

SK690 01 AUG-2017:ID : 8 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (9)
Location: Nagarkot, Nepal
Altitude:6600 ft.

Date: 20 June 2017 

Appears some Rhamnus species

Rhamnus species so far in efi

To me also appear close to images at Rhamnus virgata

Thank you …! Nepali Names : काँडे पैंयु Kaande Painyu / भालु काँडा Bhaalu Kaandaa / फलामे Phalaame






Shrub for id from Chakrata:: NS March 2018 : 19 posts by 5 authors. Attachments (6)

Please suggest id for this shrub, recorded from Chakrata-Mussoorie road earlier this month.. (March’2018)

Kindly check for Rhamnus species

Thanks …, I thought of Rhamnus as well as Berchemia, but could not match with any…

Sir, I’ll check from Flora of Sirmaur

…, the leaves are opposite and interpetiolar stipules can be clearly seen. Please search for Canthium species in Rubiaceae.

Sir, but petals are clearly visible in this case

To me appears similar to images of Rhamnus virgata at Rhamnus virgatus ATMAY2016/01 & Flowers of India

For Rhamnus the petals have to be minute or so. What is seen is a calyx. I am not familiar with this plant but if we assume leaves to be subopposite then it can be Rhamnaceae. A dissected flower could have shown the styles, disc and minute petals inserted under it. Stipules seen are also intriguing but in all it may be Rhamnus.

Do you agree with this id?

Probably the closest match from the available links is Rhamnus virgatus only..
I will keep searching for exact information..

It appears close to Rhamnus virgatus.

According to The Plant List 

Rhamnus virgata is a different accepted species. and Rhamnus virgatus is not a Synonym of R. virgata. R. virgatus is still an unresolved name.
Flora of Sirmaur by Kaur and Sharma list Rhamnus virgatus as accepted name with R. dahuricus as a Synonym.
But the Plant List mentions R. dahuricus as a Synonym of R. virgata.

All appearing confusing.

Also check CoL


SK1354 06 AUG 2018 : 5 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (6) – around 600 kb each.
Location: Nagarkot, Nepal
Altitude : 6000 ft.
Date: 18 July 2018

Habit : Not sure, could be wild.

Rhamnus virgatus Roxb.  ??

To me also appear close to images at Rhamnus virgata

SK1345 03 AUG 2018 : 7 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (7)- around 600 kb each.
Location: Nagarkot, Nepal  
Date: 11 June 2018
Altitude: 6500 ft.
Habit : Wild
Small shrub !

Is it some Berchemia?

Rhamnus virgatus Roxb.  ??
efi thread

Thanks, … for the id.

To me also appear close to images at Rhamnus virgata






Rhamnus virgata Roxb. SN June 22 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (3).

Rhamnus virgata Roxb. Wild shrub from Nilgiri hills Tamilnadu


Date: 17 October 2010
Location: Paddar valley Kishtwar J&K
Altitude: 1845 meters asl
Plant habit/habitat: Wild Shrub

Plant height: 2-4 meters

Looks like Canthium species.

I am uploading another photo of thorny stem of plant.

I wonder if Canthium can grow in J & K

…, I would advise you that you should upload only those photographs which have flowers or at least fruits. To me it appears to be Prunus species

You are right … Canthium is far from possibility. Can it be Prunus spinosa?

Since plant with flower is not available I am uploading a closeup with fruit of the plant for further confirmation. The fruits are small berries of the size little more than barries of Solanum nigrum and are not edible.

It does look like a Rubiaceae member just like our Canthium or Randia

If you can collect the fruits please make a cross section and see how many ovary and how many ovules/ovary.

Randia can be possible, but then it should have opposite leaves, which I don’t see in this photograph.

What about Himalrandia?

This plant is wild shrub with a height of 2-4 meters. Stem is spiny at nodes with greenish bark which turns blackish in autumn and usually peels. Leaves opposite with reticulate unicostate veination. Fruits are barries of black colour arising from the base of nodes and are not edible. Locals didn’t use this plant as fuelwood because they believe that is produces noxious gases which can harm.

Does fruit have a stone like we have in Plums, cherries, Apricot, etc.??

Yes Sir, the fruit possess a stone and a thin layer of flesh covers
it. The flesh is soft and when pressed produces bluish ink like fluid.

It looks me Rhamnus virgatus. Anothera plant Tree from Nainital may be Fraxinus micrantha if it hans not petals. If it has petals then it is F.floribunda. It is on the site of Eflora of India by …


SK1910 12 May 2019 : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (8) – around 700 kb each.

Location: Phulchoki, Lalitpur, Nepal
Altitude: 2339 m.
Date: 8 May 2019
Habit : Wild 
Which Rhamnus ??

To me appears close to images and details at Rhamnus virgata Roxb. as per comparative images at Rhamnus

Yes …!


2 images.

Location : Mawmrang tlang

Altitude : ca 1,700 m
Date : 08-11-2019
Habit : Large shrub or tree

Habitat : Wild

Rhamnus sp.?

What are the species listed in your area?

I think it may be Rhamnus virgata Roxb. as per comparative images at Rhamnus

Only Rhamnus nepalensis is recorded in Mizoram

Thanks a lot …, your id is right

Both species showing no distribution in that region.



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