Nigeria to Ethiopia and Zambia, India to Myanmar, SE. Mexico to S. Tropical America, Trinidad: Bolivia, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burundi, Cameroon, Congo, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Ethiopia, French Guiana, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Honduras, India, Kenya, Mexico Southeast, Myanmar, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Peru, Rwanda, Sudan, Suriname, Tanzania, Trinidad-Tobago, Uganda, Venezuela, Zambia, Zaïre as per POWO;



grass Setaria ID from Hooghly 8/10/12 sk1:
This is a very common grass growing along roadside, edge of ditches and waste places. I was waiting for its inflorescence and found a few today.

Species : Setaria palmifolia (J.Koenig) Stapf ?
Habit & Habitat : roadside, edge of ditches, waste places, shady places, height 2.5 feet, but can grow more; leaf avg. 19 cm or more x 4 cm, stem all over hairy
Date : 8/10/12, 8.45 a.m.
Place : Hooghly

The dense inflorescence and hairy stems suggests it is Setaria poiretiana. However, wait for some more time for the whole inflorescence to mature and post the close up of mature spikelets and inflorescence. Definitely not S.palmifolia whose general appearance of the population itself is different.

Attaching images of the same grass taken today (11/10/12). This grass is all over hairy, including both surfaces of leaves.

A correction in description – stem of this grass is not hairy, long trailing and purple coloured, yet to see if there is any root on the nodes.

Wonderful ! Yes it is Setaria poiretiana. Kindly check local floras to see if it is a new record for Bengal.
This used to be one of my favourite grasses for flower arrangement in Kerala Agricultural University.


Fwd: [efloraofindia:211226] POEACEA ID from Bangladesh SM 188- 2 : 4 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)

Setaria sp.

Setaria palmifolia/barbata?

Setaria poiretiana


MS Oct,2019/02 Setaria sp. ? for ID : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (3)
Location : Aizawl, Mizoram

Date : 24-10-2019
Habit : Grass

Setaria barbata (Lam.) Kunth??

Setaria poiretiana

ID of grass sp.-1 from Assam KD 05 Nov. : 7 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (9)
Attached images are grass sp. Please ID the plant.  
Date :31.10.2014
Location: Assam
Family : Poaceae
Genus & species : ??
Habitat: Grows wild on sides of railway tract
Habit : Herb

Please check probability of Setaria poiretiana (Schult.) Kunth.

I think my specimen donot match with Setaria poiretiana (Schult.) Kunth.(http://apps.kew.org/herbcat/getImage.do?imageBarcode=K000281854) but hope match with Setaria palmifolia ( http://apps.kew.org/herbcat/getImage.do?imageBarcode=K000885916  & http://www.efloras.org/object_page.aspx?object_id=95567&flora_id=2  eBa�.. e.K.Xp3..�!.”> http://apps.kew.org/herbcat/getImage.do?imageBarcode=K000885916. So please validate.

Quite possible Sir, but I do not know how to differentiate palmifolia, plicata, barbata and poiretiana.

There are various species of Setaria in India having such plicate leaves.

Some of the distinguishingly visible characters are as follows:
1. Setaria barbata – The actual Setaria barbata does not have plicate leaves, though sometimes the basal portion may be plicate. Most Setaria barbata in herbaria are misidentified and actual Setaria barbata is a rare plant.
2. Setaria poiretiana – This is an ornamental plant that has escaped into the wild whereby the original dense panicled nature as shown in the Holotype at Kew has got lost and is represented by several short and spaced horizontal racemes with densely packed spikelets with subtending bristles visible among a few spikelets and hairy sheath and rachis. It is now invasive and found all over roadsides and gardens in coastal areas with high rainfall areas like Kerala, Assam, WB, etc. Hence, the photographs in this thread are those of this species. It matches with K000281854 and K000281855 with respect to the spaced racemes and densely packed spikelets but probably broken down in its hybrid vigour as it escaped into the wild.
3. Setaria homonyma – This is a rather common plant in North India with short and spaced horizontal racemes but with loosely scattered spikelets each with a subtending bristle.
4. Setaria palmifolia – This is usually found only in forest areas with dense shade and is a taller plant with a long raceme, with scattered ascending racemes of spikelets with short and occasional bristles.
5. Setaria paniculifera – This is also found in densely shaded forest areas and are giant grasses having giant panicles with occasional but long subtending bristles.
6. Setaria megaphylla – This is a garden plant having very large plicate leaves
7. Setaria plicata – This is a very dwarf perennial plant with small plicate leaves and short panicles. It is rather rare and found from only a few collections in India, Srilanka and Myanmar.
Other Setaria species with plain leaves (not plicate) in India:
8. Setaria verticillata – dense cylindrical panicle with sticky bristles (due to retrorse barbs)
9. Setaria intermedia/ tomentosa – dwarf plant with narrow panicle
10. Setaria italica – dense heavy drooping panicle due to weight of seeds – found in cultivation
11. Setaria pumila/pallide-fusca – small cylindrical short spike like panicle with small spikelets (mostly in peninsular india)
12. Setaria glauca – small to medium length spike like panicle with larger spikelets and glaucous nature of stem. (mostly in northern India)
13. Setaria viridis – similar to glauca, but with larger green panicles and bristles (in higher altitudes and trans-himalayas)
14. Setaria sphacelata – tall grass with very long spike like cylindrical inflorescence – usually grown as fodder grass
15. Setaria forbesiana – similar to viridis but more open and drooping panicle
16. Setaria geniculata – similar to pumila, but with several geniculate branches from the base
If seen under a microscope, one can observe the differences in comparative sizes of the floral parts and the rugose nature of the upper lemmas, stamens, ligule, hairyness, leaf surface, venation pattern, indumentum of basal portion of stem, etc.
However, it should be noted that a “species” is just an artificial system of classification and the actual ability to naturally interbreed to produce fertile offsprings has not been tested, though various observations of intermediate forms may be visible. Rarity of a species is actually the measure of our ignorance about the species. The various ‘species’ presently reported may also be a result of hybridisation, polyploidy and other genetic reasons and may not be true ‘species’. One need to go deep to find that out by repeated field and lab experiments. Even genetic experiments (genome sequencing) only tells the amount of difference in genetic character, but may not always clearly amount to describing or distinguishing species. Characters also depend on the expression of gene due to environmental factors including effects of other gene and their expressions, silencing of genes, etc. So, a mixture of morphological characters, anatomical characters, genetics and biogeography needs to be considered for assigning species status to a taxa. Until then, one needs to respect the variations observed by various taxonomists and put all those information in one place to capture all variations across all populations.



Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *