BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF CAROLUS VON LINNAEUS
The name Carl Linnaeus is immortalised with classification of plants and Binomial System of Nomenclature.Linnaean Schools of Plant Taxonomy and Linnean Societies were established in many parts of the world.
Born at Rashult ,Sweden on 23 rd May 1707,Linnaeus had his education at Vaxjo. Like many children,the young Carl feared rod and did not get interested in theological subjects.Instead he was learning more about nature,logic and classical Latin.Later he studied medicine at the University of Lund and Uppsala.
The beautiful garden at Uppsala and Burser Herbarium gave Linnaeus an impetus to study Natural History.His great teachers Celsius and Rudbeck encouraged him in his higher learning.Rudbeck planned the Lapland travels for him and a teaching assignment in botany at Uppsala.During another travel in Darlana,he met Sara Lisa Moraea who became his wife later.With a view to broaden his outlook he went to Holland.In 1735 he received his medical degree from Haderwijk University under Prof.Gorter.During this time he visited Boerhaave and Gronovius,the well-known Dutch Botanists at Leiden.Linnaeus showed his manuscript “Systema Naturae”to Gronovius who was not only impressed but undertook its immediate publication.Boerhaave recomended Linne to John Burman of Amsterdam Garden and to George Clifford,a rich Director of the East India Company.For two years he worked at Hartecamp where Clifford had a famous garden full of plants from the East.During this period linnaeus published 12 works including Musa Cliffortiana,Genera Plantarum,Flora Lapponica and Bibliotheca Botanica.On a short visit to England he met Sir Hans Sloane,Philip Miller and Professor Dillenius.Before returning home Linnaeus visited Paris and stayed with Jussieu and made field trips to Versaille and Fountainbleau.He founded the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences and served as its 1st President in 1739.Later he was appointed Physician to Admiralty.He married monandrian Lily Sara Lisa Moraea at Falun in 1739 and next year became Professor at Uppsala. In 1747 he published the Flora Zeylanica.
Linnaeus taught botany and attracted many students from far off countries.He was knighted in 1753 as “Polar Star” and ennobled in1762.He published his Species Plantarum(1753) and 12 editions of Systema.It can be rightly said that Linne is the father of the Binomial System of Nomenclature.He sent many pupils to all corners of the globe who in turn sent him the tea plant from China, jute from india, and tobacco from America.The “apostles’ sailed on high seas and sent seeds from tropical jungles. He described many new genera in commemoration of his friends,students,benefactors and men of learning.David Gorter, the author of Flora Ingrica (1761)had excellently composed a verse on Linnaean system of plant identification which reflects the glories of Linnaean age.
On January 10th,1778,Linnaeus had his eternal sleep at Hammarby.His friends and students erected a memorial inscribing it to the “Prince of Botanists”.Linnean Society of London was founded to spread his ideas;memorials were built as mark of respect.Bicentenary of Linnaeus is celebrated throughout the botanical world.With acceptance of binomial nomenclature for plants,botanical latin and generic concept by International code,Linnaeus was immortalised.
“Vivat Scientia ! Vivat Linnaeus”
IMPORTANT WORKS OF LINNAEUS
1732 Iter Lapponicum
1733 Iter Dalekarlicum
1735 Systema Naturae
1736 Fundamenta Botanica
1736 Bibliotheca Botanica
1736 Musa Cliffortiana
1737 Critica Botanica
1737 Flora Lapponica
1737 Genera Plantarum
1738 Classes Plantarum
1748 Flora Suecica
147 Flora Zeylanica
1748 Hortus Upsaliensis
1749 Materia Medica
1749 Amoenitates Academicae
1751 Philosophia Botanica
1753 Species Plantarum
1763 Genera Morborum
1767 Mantissa Plantarum
1774 Systema Vegetabilium
An Exhibition on the Life and Works of Linnaeus was organised in important centres of the country.The exhibits included Publications of Linnaeus,Linnaean Herbarium as Microfiche edition,Portraits of Linnaeus,Photographs of Monuments and Linnaean Plants from India.A function was held at Indian Museum Complex,Calcutta with live Linnaean taxa displayed at Industrial section,Botanical Survey of India .
The text of this document was printed as brochure of 6 pp with an image of of Linnaeus and a hand drawing of Dryas octopetala L.by Linnaeus in Ms-Iter Lapponicum.
The exhibition was held at Waltair,Madras,Coimbatore,Trivandrum,Calicut,Peechi, Hyderabad,Pune ,Bombay,Jodhpur,Allahabad,Delhi,Dehradun,Lucknow,Shillong,Bhubaneswar,Bhagalpur,Tirupati,
Jadavpur University,Calcutta as well as Howrah in the Central National Herbarium .Few herbarium specimens,live plants and portraits of makers of Indian Botany were displayed during the visit of
President of India.
Sri D.C.S.Raju,F.L.S.,F.B.S.,F.I.S.T.E, acknowldeges Dr.S.K.Jain and Dr M.P,Nayar,Dr G..H.M.Lawrence and Dr Cramer for their help and inspiration to execute this special project .
A special exhibition on Marine plant resources and mangrove flora of India was organised at Tirupati.
Live collection of wild relatives of crops were displayed during International Conference on Genetics