Hygrophila triflora (Roxb. ex Nees) Fosberg & Sachet in Baileya 21: 145. 1981. (Syn: Adenosma triflora Roxb. ex Nees in Wall.; Ruellia triflora Roxb.; Cardanthera triflora (Roxb. ex Nees) Buch.-Ham. ex Nees in DC.; Synnema triflorum (Roxb. ex Nees) Kuntze) as per BSI Flora of India Checklist;                                                

Hygrophila difformis is known from India, Mayanmar, Bangladesh and Nepal. In India it is reported from Kerala, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal (Cook 1996).
(From IUCN Red List (LC) – 2013)


I think there is now reasonable evidence that the attached photos are of Hygrophila triflora (Roxb.) Fosberg & Sachet. This plant was photographed on 19-Dec-2012 at another place in Hooghly.
It is very possible that my earlier uploads at and at are same species.

On checking the links provided by you it seems to me that the earlier uploads (species) reported by you are not the same compared to the present ones.

On checking the links provided by you it seems to me that the earlier uploads (species) reported by you are not the same compared to the present ones.

I also agree with you, the plant in this thread looks different than the earlier two posts. I try to explain :-
  • This plant (in this thread) is not aromatic, or if any must be faintly, there were not too many so that i could explore more
  • on the other hand the plant in the link (decussate herb from Hooghly) is aromatic
  • there was no way to check for aroma in the third post (underwater garden) at
If we stress on the “Aroma” and other characters, as explained in my “decussate herb from Hooghly”, the plant in that post is most likely Hygrophila triflora (Roxb.) Fosberg & Sachet.
If you agree that the plant in this post is replica to the species at biolib.cz then this plant is Hygrophila triflora (Roxb.) Fosberg & Sachet. But the fact that it is not (if yes, very mildly) aromatic goes against the description of “Bengal Plants”.
My third species is without flowers, submerged in water and thereby it was simply a speculation, based on place, occurrence, habitat, and other morphological similarities.
However, all the three species (or is it one?) are adapted to aquatic habitat, have variable leaves (according to habitat), decussate and hairy; the two of them have similar flowers. The aroma is a point, but i have seen variation in smell in Telosma pallida.

please move all my threads under Hygrophila difformis (L. f.) Blume to Hygrophila triflora (Roxb. ex Nees) Fosberg & Sachet. BSI will tell you that H. difformis (L.f.) blume is restricted to E Himalaya.


decussate herb from Hooghly 2-12-12 sk:
This seems to be the same plant as in my earlier upload at.

But these pictures are recorded in unused fields very near the very ditch where i recorded the pictures in the above link.
  1. One similar photo is at – http://www.flickr.com/photos/eyeweed/4839920343/, but the ID might not be correct
  2. page 798 of Bengal Plants vol2
  3. page 799
Two species at The Plant List :-
H & H : small herb, erect, sometimes decumbent; avg. 1 ft high
Date : 02/12/12, 11.50 a.m.
Place : Hooghly

There is a post by … at – efi thread. Suggested id(s) are 1) Hygrophila heinei, 2) Species of Justicia


This plant is –

  • decumbent
  • aromatic
  • viscid
  • leaves opposite. the upper toothed
  • lower (leaves) often pinnatifid
  • if submerged pectinate (leaves)
  • rooting at base
  • adapted to aquatic habitation
According to The Plant List, Ruellia triflora Roxb. might be the Hygrophila triflora (Roxb.) Fosberg & Sachet.
Attaching more pictures, recorded yesterday.
This plant is Hygrophila triflora (Roxb.) Fosberg & Sachet, i think.

The day before yesterday i downloaded Flora Indica and found this plant may not be Ruellia triflora Roxb. copying a few points from F. I. iii. 52. –
R. triflora R.
  • flowers axillary, three-fold, one a common short peduncle, pretty large….
  • bracts oblong, hairy

please move all my threads under Hygrophila difformis (L. f.) Blume to Hygrophila triflora (Roxb. ex Nees) Fosberg & Sachet. BSI will tell you that H. difformis (L.f.) blume is restricted to E Himalaya.


Your Hygrophila triflora:
This link may be of some help in sorting out your Hygrophila triflora:
(… 1981), we proposed the new combination Hygrophila triflora (Roxburgh) Fosberg & Sachet, based on Rue Ilia triflora Roxburgh, Hort. Beng. 46, 1814. We did this in spite of Heine’s having placed this basionym in synonymy under Hygrophila …)
(H. difformis is a beautiful plant from India, Burma, Thailand, and the Malay Peninsula. It was first described by Linnaeus himself in 1781 as Rueliia difformis. It’s also been called Rueliia triflora, Synnema triflorum, and Hygrophila triflora …)


underwater garden from Hooghly 24-11-12 sk1:
A beautiful underwater garden in a roadside ditch hosts this herb

Species : UNKNOWN
H & H : aquatic herb, maybe 2 feet high
Date : 22/11/12, 11.58 a.m.
Place : Hooghly

Found something similar :-
  2. tropicalfishandaquariums
  3. aquaplant

Please ignore my earlier comment, this species can be anything, including Rotala & Hygrophila.

I imagine if this is some Limnophila sp.

I think this is Hygrophila triflora (Roxb.) Fosberg & Sachet, as in another post at – efi thread.

For the very same reason as in efi thread,  this plant also may not be Hygrophila triflora (Roxb.) Fosberg & Sachet.

KEW herbarium will tell you this is also Hygrophila triflora (Roxb. ex Nees) Fosberg & sachet.


Hygrophila species:

I have collected the acanthaceae member (may be Hygrophilla) will you please help me to identify it. i found one post on eflora india group Hygrophila Kunnur kerala. ID GK191216- 1 my specimen is exactly look like it.
My specimen shows five stamens in flowers. bilabiate corolla hairy outside, bluish white in colour.
Location  Sindhudurg District, Maharashtra

Hygrophila erecta (Burm.fil.) Hochr. ???

I checked all the species listed at Hygrophila.
I think it looks somewhat close to specimens (one and two) of Hygrophila triflora at GBIF.
I think it looks different from the images of Hygrophila erecta in GBIF.

Pl. see the following specimens:
One and two.

ID GK191216- 1 : 1 post by 1 author.
Please identify this plant from Kannur, Kerala 

The herb seems to be Hygrophila species, Petal character is wanting

It appears to be Hygrophila triflora as per discussions at Hygrophila species


Aquatic and Semi-aquatic Plants of the Lower Ganga Delta: Its Taxonomy … By K.R. Naskar (Hygrophila difformis (L.f.) Sreem. & Bennet syn. Ruellia difformis L. f., Cardanthera triflora Buch.-Ham. ex Benth. & Hook.)
The Plant List  GRIN (Hygrophila difformis (L. f.) Blume (Ruellia difformis L. f. (basionym))  Hortipedia  (Hygrophila triflora)
IUCN Red List (LC) (Hygrophila difformis Blume)
Excerpta Botanica. Sectio A: Taxonomica Et Chorologia, Volume 48 (1989- Hygrophila triflora (Roxb.) Fosberg & Sachet)
Baileya, Volumes 22-23 (1982- Hygrophila triflora (Roxb.) Fosberg & Sachet) Wikipedia (Hygrophila difformis Blume)