Hygrophila auriculata (Schumach.) Heine (Images by Nidhan Singh &  Geeta Arun (Inserted by J.M.Garg))


Hygrophila balsamica Raf. (Images by S. Kasim (Identified S. Koley & A. Sinha & Vijayasankar Raman) (Inserted by J.M.Garg))



Hygrophila heinei Sreem. (Images by Muthu Karthick, N, Identified by R. Kottaimuthu (Inserted by J.M.Garg))


Hygrophila phlomoides Nees (Images by Karuna Kanta Das, Identified/  Validated by Surajit Koley & Subir K. Ghosh (Inserted by J.M.Garg))


Hygrophila polysperma (Roxb.) T.Anderson (Images by Surajit Koley (Inserted by J.M.Garg))


Hygrophila serpyllum T.Anderson (Images by Satish Phadke & Dinesh Valke (Inserted by J.M.Garg))


Hygrophila triflora (Roxb. ex Nees) Fosberg & Sachet (Images by Surajit Koley (Inserted by J.M.Garg))


FLOWERING PLANTS OF INDIA, DICOTYLEDONS, Vol-I (Acanthaceae-Avicenniaceae) authored by S. Karthikeyan, M. Sanjappa and S. Moorthy and published by BSI, Kolkata in 2009 is an important document for names, authority and distribution of Acanthaceae species in India.

As per this document (Karthikeyan et al., 2009) following species of Hygrophila occur in India:

  1. Hygrophila anomala (Blatt.) M.R. Almeida
  2. H. balsamica (L.f.) Raf. [var. balsamica; var. thymus]
  3. H. difformis (L.f.) Blume
  4. H. erecta (Burm.f.) Hochr.
  5. H. griffithii (T.Anderson) Sreem.
  6. H. heinei Sreem. [var. heinei; var. birbhumensis (B.P. Guha) H.B. Naithani & S. Biswas
  7. H. incana Nees
  8. H. madurensis (N.P. Balakr. & Subr.) Karthik. & Moorthy
  9. H. phlomoides Nees [var. phlomoides; var. roxburghii]
  10. H. pinnatifida (Dalzell) Sreem.
  11. H. polysperma (Roxb.) T. Anderson
  12. H. pusilla Blume
  13. H. ringens (L.) R. Br. ex Steud. [var. ringens; var. assurgens; var. cochinensis]
  14. H. schullii (Buch.-Ham.) M.R. Almeida & S.M. Almeida [synonym of H. auriculata (Schumach.) Heine]
  15. H. serpyllum (Nees) T. Anderson [var. serpyllum; var.  hookeriana]
  16. H. stocksii T. Anderson
  17. H. triflora (Roxb. ex Nees) Fosberg & Sachet

Scrutiny of these names in The Plant List indicate that one is synonym.   

Binomial Habit Notes Ref. Distrib.
Hygrophila balsamica (L.f.) Rafin Herb Plains, Moist
Local ities
Flora of Tamil
Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
All districts
Hygrophila heinei Sreemadh. Herb Plains,
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987; Gamble 1957
Pudduk kottai, Thanjavur
Hygrophila quadrivalvis (Buch.-Ham.) Nees (syn. of Hygrophila ringens) Herb Plains,
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Tiruchchira ppalli
Hygrophila salicifolia (Vahl) Nees(syn. of Hygrophila ringens) Herb Plains,
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Madurai, Nilgiri, Tiruchchira ppalli, Tirunelveli
Hygrophila schulli (Hamilt.) M.R.Almeida
& S.M. Almeida (syn. of Hygrophila auriculata)      
Herb Plains,
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987


Botanical name Family Common name
Hygrophila ringens Acanthaceae Erect Hygrophila
Hygrophila schulli  = Hygrophila auriculata (Schumach.) Heine Acanthaceae Marsh Barbel
Hygrophila serpyllum Acanthaceae Marsh Carpet


Flora of Davanagere District, Karnataka, India By B. K. Manjunatha, V. Krishna, T. Pullaiah (2004- Keys & description-
Hygrophila auriculata &
Hygrophila salicifolia Nees (syn. of Hygrophila ringens)


Flora of Medak District, Andhra Pradesh, India By T. Pullaiah, Chintala Prabhakar, B. Ravi Prasad Rao (1998)- Details-
Hygrophila auriculata


1997 IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants edited by Kerry Scott Walter, Harriet J. Gillett
Hygrophila pinnatifida (Dalzell) Sreem.- Indeterminate- Karnataka

A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon -, Volume 12 By M. D. Dassanayake (1998)- Details-
Hygrophila helodes Heine (? Hygrophila helodes Nees is a synonym of Hygrophila costata Nees)


Flora of Madhya Pradesh: Chhatarpur and Damoh By G. P. Roy, B. K. Shukla, Bhaskar Datt (1992)- Details-
Hygrophila auriculata



Inland Wetlands of India: Conservation Priorities by V. S. Vijayan Sálim Ali Centre for Ornithology and Natural History, 2004 – Wetland conservation532 pages-
Hygrophila balsamica
Hygrophila griffithii
Hygrophila pinnatifida
Hygrophila : 3 posts by 2 authors.

I have updated eFI (efloraofindia) page on Hygrophila

Attempts have been made to incorporate most of the species available in India & nearby areas with details & keys directly or through links as far as possible. It’s quite possible that there may be some discrepancy in the accepted names & synonyms taken from other links.

Species discussed so far in efloraofindia are given at the bottom of the page in the form of links against Subpages. On clicking them one can see all the details.

If someone can provide complete list of Indian species with source references it will be wonderful.

Any comments/ corrections are welcome.

I have added list of species of Hygrophila in India based on Karthikeyan et al. (2009).

Thanks a lot, …, Species at other links matches with it.

Hygrophila page with images of species in efloraofindia
: 1 post by 1 author.
Pl. go through Hygrophila page with images of species (done by me) in efloraofindia.

If you find any mis-identification, pl. let us know. If anybody can send images of other species of this genera (for incorporation in the website), it will be really nice.
Also, if anybody is interested to take up the activity of inserting images on efloraofindia pages from efloraofindia posts, pl. let us know.