Psydrax umbellatus (Wight) Bridson, Kew Bull. 48: 762 (1993) (syn: Plectronia korthalsii K.Schum.; Canthium umbellatum Wight; Canthium umbellulatum Korth.);
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India to Indo-China: Andaman Is., Cambodia, India, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam as per POWO;
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Common name: Umbelled Canthium • Marathi: Arsul • Tamil: Nallamandharam, Alampamaram • Malayalam: Irumbarappan, njanjul, anakombi • Sanskrit: Kari
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As per eFI thread:
This appears to be Psydrax umbellatus (Wight) Bridson as 
flowers umbellate on a short very stout compressed peduncle as per IBIS Flora (Flora of British India) vis a vis cymes compressed shortly peduncled for Canthium didymum C.F.Gaertn. (syn. of Psydrax dicoccos var. dicoccos as per POWO) as per IBIS Flora (Flora of British India).
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Wight Ic. t. 1034 ; unarmed, glabrous, leaves elliptic obtuse or obtusely acuminate, flowers umbellate on a short very stout compressed peduncle, flowers 5-merous, fruit 1/4-1/3 in. broad oblong or subquadrate didymous, putamen rugose. Dalz. & Gibs. Bomb. Fl. 113 (not of Korth.). C. didymum, Bedd. Fl. Sylv. t. 221 ; Wall. Cat. 8413 A. C. lucidum, Schlecht in Pl. Hohen. n. 1377. Plectronia didyma, Brand. For. Fl. 276. Rubiacea, Wall. Cat. 8451, 8452.
WESTERN PENINSULA, on the Ghats, alt. 4-8000 ft., from the Concan southwards. TENASSERIM, Wallich, Heifer (Kew Distrib. 2972) ; AVA, Wallich.
An evergreen tree, 50 ft. Leaves very coriaceous, similar to the ordinary form of C. didymum, of which this is probably a variety. Korthal’s C. umbellatum, with a slender peduncle, is a very different plant.
(Attributions: IBIS Flora (FBI))
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Canthium tree for verification 220113MK01:
Please help me to resolve this id. Is this tree Canthium dicoccum var. umbellatum (Wight) Santapau & Merch. [syn: Psydrax umbellata (Wight) Bridson]? Or is this any other tree?

The key in K M Mathew’s ‘Flora of central Tamilnadu’ says the leaf to be oblanceolate (which is not here); but other descriptions match.The tree is not more than 3 metre high.
Date: 27 Dec 2012
Place: Kolli Hills, TN
Alt.: 1400 m asl

I agree with your id.


Its called Nalla balusu … I found this name in Vol 3 of Flora of Eastern Ghats
apparently no other language (other than Telugu has a name for it, ) perhaps it means its not found or is not popular in local population in other eastern states…



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ID Request- Canthium sp??- 01032014-PKA-March-04 : 6 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (4).

Looks like some Canthium Sp..
Location: Village Mahal, Chikmagalur region, Karnataka
Date/Time: 27-01-2014 / 11:20AM
Habitat: Wild
Plant habit: Tree


Canthium species so far in efi


Canthium dicoccum (= C. umbellatum)


Thanks a lot, … Psydrax umbellata (Wight) Bridson, Kew Bull. 48: 762 1993. (Syn: Canthium dicoccum var. umbellatum (Wight) Santapau & Merchant; Canthium umbellatum Wight; Canthium umbellulatum Korth.; Plectronia didyma var. umbellata (Wight) Gamble; Plectronia korthalsii K.Schum.) as per The Plant List Ver 1.1


Thanks for the nice pictures of Psydrax umbellata. Absolutely a perplexing group in Rubiaceae!!



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Amboli Ghat :: ID please :: DVJAN95 : 3 posts by 2 authors. 8 images.
Amboli Ghat Maharashtra
Date: 23 DEC 2014 … Altitude: from 400 m to 700 m asl
Not able to place this small tree (or large shrub) growing in wild, along the ghat; the cluster of fruits reminds me of an introduced plant that I sighted in Mahabaleshwar – Acnistus arborescens of nightshade family. Will be happy with genus ID.
The close ups are cropped versions of larger photos. The fruit could be measuring about 10 -12 mm across. 

Canthium umbellatum



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KHWLS- April2015-MK02 : 3 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (1)

Need ID for following:
Collection site: Kalsubai-Harishchandragarh Wildlife Sanctuary
Date: 15 February 2015
Collected by: …


Canthium dicoccum var. umbellatum (Wight) Santapau & Merchant



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26-TSP-ID-11JAN2016-3-Kottigehara:Tree for ID : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (6)

Kindly identify this tree. 

Habit: Tree 

Habitat: Wild, Semi-evergreen forest 

Sighting: Kottigehara, Chikmagalur, Karnataka, about 1200 msl 

Date: 28-11-2015


Psydrax umbellata (Wight) Bridson


Thanks again … You are so quick…!


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Bisle Ghat Karnataka
Date: 15 NOV 2016 … Altitude range: ~ 956 – 139 m (3136 – 456 ft) asl
Psydrax umbellata (Wight) Bridson … (family: Rubiaceae) 

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identification no. 100817sn1 : 6 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (4)
I am unable to identify this tree. Please help.
date/time:dec.16
location: Aambyvalley Rd., Lonavala, Pune
habitat:Wild
plant habit:Tree?
height:more than 7-8 ft.
other info:later i could see tiny pink cluster of flowers i suppose

This appears to be Psydrax umbellata (Wight) Bridson [syn. Canthium dicoccum var. umbellatum (Wight) Santapau & Merchant]. Rubiaceae.


Psydrax umbellata



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KAS Week::(Canthium diccocum – 05/10/2012-NJ):
Canthium diccocum – (Tupa in Marathi) on the way to Kas just before the plateau
Photo taken – end Oct.


This appears to be Psydrax umbellatus (Wight) Bridson as flowers umbellate on a short very stout compressed peduncle as per IBIS Flora (Flora of British India) vis a vis cymes compressed shortly peduncled for Canthium didymum C.F.Gaertn. (syn. of Psydrax dicoccos var. dicoccos as per POWO) as per IBIS Flora (Flora of British India).



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Rubiaceae week: Canthium diccocum at Matheran:
Came across this tree with shining leaves at “Sunset point, Matheran”.
Bot. name: Canthium diccocum
Marathi name: Tupa
Family: Rubiaceae


Excellent Close Up of flowers!!


This appears to be Psydrax umbellatus (Wight) Bridson as flowers umbellate on a short very stout compressed peduncle as per IBIS Flora (Flora of British India) vis a vis cymes compressed shortly peduncled for Canthium didymum C.F.Gaertn. (syn. of Psydrax dicoccos var. dicoccos as per POWO) as per IBIS Flora (Flora of British India).



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Psydrax dicoccos Gaertn: Attachments (1). 1 post by 1 author.

Psydrax dicoccos Gaertn (=Plectronia didyma(C.F. Gaertn) Bedd, Canthium dicoccum (Gaertn.) Merr.), Fam: Rubiaceae
small tree, Gopachandram, near Kamandoddi, Krishnagiri DT, Altitude around 850m
flowering, wild tree, near water stream,
the wood of the tree is called torch of the forest, because the fresh wood will burn well.
The bark and leaves are medicinal.


This appears to be Psydrax umbellatus (Wight) Bridson as flowers umbellate on a short very stout compressed peduncle as per IBIS Flora (Flora of British India) vis a vis cymes compressed shortly peduncled for Canthium didymum C.F.Gaertn. (syn. of Psydrax dicoccos var. dicoccos as per POWO) as per IBIS Flora (Flora of British India).




Canthium species for ID:
A medium sized tree.
Leaves opposite coriaceous. Ovate elliptic.
All flowers were dried. One can be observed in the photo. nearly 1cm or so.
Fruits green maturing to black.
This was IDed as some Canthium species by ….
I haven’t seen any Canthium species so far.


Psydrax diococcus (= C.umbellatum), I think.


Psydrax umbellata (Wight) Bridson is an correct name for
Canthium dicoccum var. umbellatum (Wight) Santapau & Merchant
Canthium umbellatum Wight
Canthium umbellulatum Korth.
Plectronia didyma var. umbellata (Wight) Gamble
Plectronia korthalsii K.Schum.
Plectronia umbellata (Wight) K.Schum.


The var. umbellatum seems to have prominent peduncle as in:
http://www.biotik.org/india/cantdium_12_en.html
So the posted picture could be of the typical var. of Psydrax diococcos Gaertn. (diococcos is said to be the correct spelling! Ref.: Bridson in Kew Bull. 40: 687. 1985.) Syn.: Canthium dicoccum (Gaertn.) Merr.
Tamil names: Koraa ªè£ó£ , Seeppu koraa ê¦ð¢¹ ªè£ó£


This appears to be Psydrax umbellatus (Wight) Bridson as flowers umbellate on a short very stout compressed peduncle as per IBIS Flora (Flora of British India) vis a vis cymes compressed shortly peduncled for Canthium didymum C.F.Gaertn. (syn. of Psydrax dicoccos var. dicoccos as per POWO) as per IBIS Flora (Flora of British India).


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