Neolitsea cassia (L.) Kosterm., J. Sci. Res. (Jakarta) 1:85, 95, 123, 147, 152. 1952 (Syn: (≡) Laurus cassia L. (basionym); (=) Litsea zeylanica Nees & T. Nees; (=) Neolitsea zeylanica (Nees & T. Nees) Merr.);
commonly known as: grey bollywood, smooth-barb bollygum • Kannada: ಬಿಳಿ ನಿಸಂಗಿ bili nisangi, ಮಸ್ಸಿಮರ massimara • Konkani: कानवेल kanvel • Malayalam: കീഴമ്പഴം keezhambazham, പ്രാവരി praavari, വെള്ളക്കൊടല vellakkodala, വെങ്കണ venkana • Marathi: चिरचिरा chirchira, कानवेल kanvel • Tamil: மொளகா செம்பக பாலை molagaa cembaga paalai, படபடா patapataa • Telugu: కుక్క కర్పూరమ kukka karpooram
Names compiled / updated at


Lauraceae tree for identification 210114MK001: Attachments (8). 12 posts by 4 authors.
Please help me in identifying this tree of height 15 metre.
Place: Karaiyar Dam, Tirunelveli dist.,
Date: 06 Oct 2013
Habitat: semi-evergreen forest, on roadside


Yes. It is Neolitsea cassia (L.) Kosterm.

.. According to the revised THE PLANT LIST , now the plant is called- Cinnamomum cassia (L.) J.Presl, Prir. Rostlin 2: 44 1825.

In such case, the next available name for this plant is Neolitsea zeylanica (Nees) Merr. I think.

Let me search literature and type again. Kindly note that I believe in revisions. I check the Plant List quite often but in many occasions I have found it highly elusive. I have treated this plant as Neolitlea cassia in my revision of the genus as clarified by Kostermans. Now I will check it once again. Till then, I call it Neolitsea cassia (L.) Kosterm. It is now easy to check a Linnaean type.

We can not 100% rely on The Plant list in this case as it based on The record derives from WCSP (in review) (data supplied on 2012-03-23) which reports it as an accepted name with original publication details: Prir. Rostlin 2: 44 1825. Underlying record is not opening as it is under review (most likely for such mistakes).
GRin revised in 2009 in this case agrees with what … has stated- Neolitsea cassia (L.) Kosterm., J. Sci. Res. (Jakarta) 1:85, 95, 123, 147, 152. 1952 with (≡) Laurus cassia L. (basionym), (=) Litsea zeylanica Nees & T. Nees & (=) Neolitsea zeylanica (Nees & T. Nees) Merr. as its synonyms.
Other links also point what … is saying:

I completely agree with … for the uncertain results of The Plant List. Many of Indian endemics are yet to be resolved.. Even some genera (for eg. Haplanthodes) are waiting for the clarification there
I believe Neolitsea cassia (L.) Kosterm. is in synonymous with Neolitsea zeylanica (Nees & T. Nees) Merr. The protologue of both seem to be referring same plant.
Image of a herbarium sheet of Cinnamomum cassia (L.) J.Presl, preserved in Kew Herbarium seems to be quite different from Neolitsea cassia (L.) Kosterm.

Thanks, …, More discussion in an earlier thread on the same issue: QUERY :: confusing identity of Laurus cassia:

Kindly look at the entry on Laurus cassia in the book entitled “Order out of Chaos” published by the Linnean Society of London.

I realized that the book Order out of Chaos may not be available to all. Hence I clarify here that the type of Laurus cassia was not designated. However, the text says that the original materials are available as follows:

Original material: Herb. Hermann 5: 120, No. 146 [icon] (BM); Herb. Hermann 4: 11, No. 146 (BM); Herb. Hermann 2: 67, No. 146 (BM); [icon] in Burman, Thes. Zeylan.: 63, t. 28. 1737; [icon] in Rheede, Hort. Malab. 1: 107, t. 57. 1678. (adopted after the above said book for common interest).
It is clearly mentioned there that the current name of the plant is Neolitsea cassia (L.) Kosterm.
I am accepting this name for the present plant.
I call it Neotitsea cassia in my revision of the genus in India (unpublished).
The lists given by various agencies online are not fully dependable.


Shrub for id 270110MK3 : Attachments (8). 18 posts by 9 authors.
Please id this shrub found on the dry landscapes and slopes of Satyamangalam RF.
Altitude: 1000 msl
Date: 23 Jan 2010

Is it Cinnamomum camphora?

Bud shape, parallel venation suggest Lauraceae, possibly a Cinnamomum species?

This shrub has no aromatic smell in leaves.

The leaf morphology and its architecture suggest the plant belongs to genus Cinnamomum sp but without floral character its hard to denominate species. I am not taking aroma and multicostate veination  as a character because many lauraceae plant have it in them like C tamala and all spice plant from this family but Cinnamomum has good aroma but I  confirmed the genus from my side.

May be Neolitsea species.

The Drupes (0.8cm across) possessing a basal rim of perianth tube and the elliptic leaves narrow downs to Neolitsea.
Could this be Neolitsea scrobiculata ?

That would most likely rule out Lauraceae. Hopefully someone else can be of assistance here

The Plant in the attached photo is ……………………………….
Neolitsea menglaensis Yen C. Yang & P. H. Huang, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 16(4): 39. 1978.
The two main reasons for this is….
  1. The leaves are trinerved.
  2. Leaves are trinerved only at the base [character visible in photo no d 042].
  3. Glabrous above,

Neolitsea menglaensis is correct identification

Good to see a long identified plant by me is in the path to get recognized…

It is Neolitsea, for sure and it belongs to the cinnamomum plant family Lauraceae.

I have a humble and friendly request to … Please don’t refer flora of China at least to id the Western Ghats and southern Eastern Ghats plants. That would be useful for North East and Western Himalayas. For Example you idied the plant in these pictures as Neolitsea menglaensis. This species that has distribution only (?) in
China and Indo-China. It cant (many not) be distributed in the Western Ghats.
Distribution and phyto-geography is one important aspect that a taxonomist has to taken in to consideration with considerable importance.
Here menglean itself indicates that it can be a Chinese place name.
Another thing is that so far, there are 5 species of Neolitsea have been reported from Kerala and Tamil Nadu. N. mengleansis is not there. I doubt this species is there in S. India.
Regarding the pictures, Please ref. page 1239 of flora of the Presidency of Madras by Gamble. I agree with… To me also this is Neolitsea scrabiculata.  
This plant is Endemic to India.
In India, it has distribution only in Karnataka, TN and Kerala.

Please note down some important characters for N scrobiculata:
leaves having long petiole. Leaf blade has pits and furrows (hence the name scrobiculata; scrobiculate = a surface having pitted or furrows). Berry globose sitting  pretty well on a cup shaped fruiting perianth (developed from a persisting calyx).

Please have a look at the folowing links. If you still think that this is Neolitsea menglaensis please check it with FRI, Pondicherry. It could be a new distribution record for South India.

i need to have a thorough literature survey for this. Will get back to you sooner.

Neolitsea menglaensis for comparison of floral buds of three different photographs sent during these communication.

Neolitsea cassia once again. This is the correct name to be adopted as per the book Order out of Chaos, published by the Linnean Society of London and the British Museum of Natural History.,


Piperaceae, Lauraceae and Thymelaeaceae Fortnight: SN 44 : 6 posts by 5 authors. Attachments (1).
Neolitsea scrobiculata (Meisner) Gamble, Lauraceae female tree with fruits from Kolli hills. Tamilnadu
Piperaceae, Lauraceae

The accepted name is now N. cassia (L.) Kosterm.

As per different links given at Neolitsea, two are stated to be different.
Pl. clarify

Thanks … for id confirmation of N. cassia (L.) Kosterm 


Agumbe :: Neolitsea cassia FOR VALIDATION :: DVJAN60 : 7 posts by 4 authors. 6 images.
Agumbe Dakshina Kannada, Karnataka
Date: 26 DEC 2014 Altitude: about 700 m asl
¿ Neolitsea cassia ? … (family: Lauraceae)

Nice shots of Neolitsea cassia.

The morphology of the plant resembles to Neolitsea ustraliansis

Neolitsea australiensis is not found in India as per Wikipedia.

Oh yes. As per my unpublished revision, the following eight species are occurring in India:
N. cassia, N. cuipala, N. fischeri, N. gamblei, N. mannii, N. pallens, N. sanjappae and N. umbrosa.


ANFEB12 Neolitsea cassia : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (7)

Family: Lauraceae
Date: 1st February 2015
Place: Agumbe, Karnataka

Habit: Tree


ANAPR57 Lauraceae tree for identification : 4 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (12)

Family: Lauraceae
Date: 19th April 2015
Place: Chamarajnagar, Karnataka

Habit: Short tree
Underside of the leaves are not glaucous.

Identified as Neolitsea sp. maybe Neolitsea umbrosa (Nees) Gamble by … but leaves in the tree I photographed are not as glaucous as in Neolitsea umbrosa.

I suspected the same. It is the variable species, N. cassia instead.
N. umbrosa does not occur in that area.

Thank you …


QUERY :: confusing identity of Laurus cassia:
My query stems from findings about synonymy of Neolitsea cassia – while intending to gather its common names in regional languages of India.
My findings:
The Plants List (2010). Version 1 – Neolitsea cassia (L.) Kosterm. … no synonyms recorded
NPGS / GRINNeolitsea cassia (L.) Kosterm. … synonyms: Laurus cassia L. (basionym) • Litsea zeylanica Nees & T. Nees • Neolitsea zeylanica (Nees & T. Nees) Merr.
Neolitsea cassia seems to be comparatively less discussed on internet in context of common names; and hardly in online dictionaries. BUT Laurus cassia has several entries in online dictionaries of South Asia, especially in Sanskrit.
The confusion:
Would like to know which of the following is true:
1) Laurus cassia L. is basionym of Neolitsea cassia (L.) Kosterm.
2) Laurus cassia L. is synonym of Cinnamomum cassia (Nees & T.Nees) J.Presl
OR please help me with any other clarification.

Laurus cassia L is a basyonym of Neolitsea cassia (L.) Kosterm.

Many many thanks to him.
With this as fact, there seems to be some confusion in the past because of which:
Laurus cassia L. is a synonym of Cinnamomum cassia (Nees & T.Nees) J.Presl … The Plants List
And just a few minutes back stumbled on this finding
Laurus cassia Nees & T. Nees is a synonym of Cinnamomum cassia (L.) C. Presl …
The Plants List
Thus coincidentally, there are two identities of Laurus cassia as well as Cinnamomum cassia.
I now believe mentions of Laurus cassia in the online dictionaries and old literature must be L. cassia Nees & T. Nees … syn. of Cinnamomum cassia (L.) C. Presl – therefore are not related to Neolitsea cassia (L.) Kosterm.

If one want to get confused, The plant list is the best place to visit. But it can also be used for checking cross references. Best database to me (in addition to GRIN) to rely are eFl China and Tropicos (whose records The plant list uses by does not always follow).
Laurus cassia L. and Laurus cassia Nees & T Nees are synonyms, and latter can’t be basionym for any name, as it is a later homonym of former. Even The Plant List and Tropicos agree with it (being synonym of Cinnamomum cassia (L.) C. Presl (which without doubt is based on Laurus cassia L.)
Strangely no one lists Neolitsea cassia (L.) Kosterm and Cinnamomum cassia (L.) Presl. as synonyms, but since basionym is same, they have to be.
But then there is a big catch. GRIN considers Neolitsea zeylanica (Nees & T Nees) Merr. (based on Litsea zeylanica Nees & T. Nees as synonym of Cinnamomum cassia (L.) Nees, whereas both Fl. China, Revised Flora of Ceylon and The Plant List consider as distinct taxa belonging to a separate genera.
I hope I am not wrong.

In spite all efforts I could not resolve the issue how Laurus cassia L. could be the basionym of three combinations, of which at least two: Cinnamomum cassia (L.) D. Don (Persea cassia (L.) Spreng. being its synonym) and Neolitsea cassia (L.) Kosterm. cassia are quite distinct:

I would request members to help resolving this issue. Perhaps any one having access to Journal of scientific research 1: 85. 1952. (J. Sci. Res. (Jakarta)) can help resolve the issue, where combination under Neolitsea was proposed by Kostern.
The two are very distinct plants:
Cinnamomum cassia (L.) D. Don is Chinese cinnamon, Chinese cassia, the source of Cassia oil or Oil of cinnamom.
Neolitsea cassia (L.) Kostern. is Wild cinnamon, Dawal Kurundu in Sri Lanka, the source of Bellary leaf oil
Hope some one brings out a clear picture of synonymy.

Many thanks, … for the eagerness. Me too hope – somebody digs into this confusion and give us a clear picture. By now I am sure that Laurus cassia in dictionaries refer to Cinnamomum cassia, a plant of commercial use.

Many thanks … for the pictures showing Neolitsea cassia and Cinnamomum cassia … also showing them to be distinct species.
My query was about the popular name Laurus cassia.

This is one very strange.
You will be more shocked to see 7 Laurus cassia on IPNI :).

7 Laurus cassia on IPNI … indeed a popular name ! Very very interesting.

Nilgiris :: Lauraceae for identification :: 291213MK001 : Attachments (9).  7 posts by 4 authors.

Please help me in identifying this Lauraceae tree found in an evergreen forest of Nilgiris. Is this a Cinnamomum sp.?
Height: about 5 m
Leaf: 12 cm long
Bark and stem aromatic

Location: Doddabetta RF, Nilgiris
Date: 10 Dec 2013
Alt.: 2500 m asl

Are these photos from one plant or from different plants? I think there are some mixing up?

it could be a species of Neolitsea genus. Flower buds are covered by perulate scales and few genus in Luaraceae have them as futures. Based on the three veined leaves and perulate buds in addition to my familiarity of the genus from W.Ghats I made the “guess”. Need more details to arrive at species.

As pointed out by …, the photos may be a mixture of two species. However, the photos with deeply trinerved leaves represent Neolitsea cassia (L.) Kosterm. of family Lauraceae.


Cinnamomum sp from Periyar – indiantreepix | Google Groups : 3 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (1)
I think it is Cinnamomum sp, photo taken from Periyar on 10-5-09, please id it

This is Neolitsea sp. not Cinnamomum. I am afraid to come to the species because of lack of fruits.

I think it is Neolitsea cassia (L.) Kosterm. as per images herein.



Nilgiris: Lauraceae Tree for identification 030913MK03 : Attachments (6). 5 posts by 3 authors.
Please help me to identify this Lauraceae tree commonly found in the evergreen forests of Nilgiris.
Is this any Cinnamomum sp.?
Leaf not more than 15 cm long.

I think this is a Neolitsea sp.

Looks like Neolitsea to me too

I think close to images at Neolitsea cassia (L.) Kosterm.

Yes. Neolitsea cassia.


Neolitsea sp. ? : 6 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (4)
Found in Jawadhu hills of Eastern ghats Tamilnadu.

Yes. This is Neolitsea cassia.

Leaves Look like Cinnamon camphora (Capphor, Kapoor)

If the inflorescence is paniculata, then yes, Cinnamonum.

Thanks, …, for the id.
To me also appear close to images at Neolitsea cassia rather than those at Cinnamomum camphora

Nilgiris :: Lauraceae for identification :: 291213MK002 : Attachments (13). 12 posts by 7 authors.
Please help me in identifying this Lauraceae tree found in an evergreen forest of Nilgiris. Is this a Litsea sp.?
Height: about 5 m
Leaf: 12 cm long
Bark and stem aromatic
Location: Doddabetta RF, Nilgiris
Date: 10 Dec 2013
Alt.: 2500 m asl

this tree is quite common in the area and can grow up to 10 m tall

May be Neolitsea sp

It is not Neolitsea.

Whether Beilschmeidia is occurring in that area.

I too think that this could be a species of Neolitsea may be N. zeylanica.

Leaf buds reminds me of Actinodaphne sp..

I was about to say the same thing as …

In Actinodaphnae the leaves are almost clustered at the branch tip.
Please refer:

The last photograph shows the leaves clustered at branch tip..

It looks like Actinodaphne but the leaves are not verticillate.
The photographer is advised to collect specimen and send to me. It could be interesting.

Okay. Try Neolitsea cassia.

Thanks, … But fruits look different that at Neolitsea cassia (L.) Kosterm.

Yes, I have noticed this difference.
Here the plant appears to be entirely glabrous. Careful observation shows that the leaves are strongly 3-nerved at base, which are seen in Neolitsea and Cinnamomum. Now the fruits are arranged in axillary umbels, as in Actinodaphne, Litsea and Neolitsea.  Actinodaphne has however verticillate and penninerved leaves and Cinnamomum has paniculate inflorescences. Litsea will have penninerved leaves. Thus the only option (without flowers) appears to be Neolitsea.  Next, the location and complete glabrescence and leaf shape suggests N. cassia. However the fruits in N. cassia are usually subglobose and up to 10 mm in diam. Here we find ovoid-oblong fruits. Thus this should be a variety or even a new species related to N. cassia but the necessary formalities for proper assessment and taxonomic comments (whether a variety or new species) requires study of dried specimens and preparation of herbarium specimens.  Hence I am drawing attention of the photographer for taking further necessary action.


The above link leads on to a page where the fruits are oblong unlike the globose fruits of Neolitsea zeylanica (N. cassia, based on Laurus cassia is an unresolved name) and N. foliosa. This represents N. zeylanica Nees & T.Nees var. rigescens Meisn. described from the Nilgiri hills.

Neolitsea zeylanica (Nees & T.Nees) Merr. = Litsea zeylanica Nees & T.Nees.
Here under Litsea zeylanica the variety rigescens was described by Meisner. To be transferred under Neolitsea.

Thanks a lot, …, But I did not find any reference on net of N. zeylanica Nees & T.Nees var. rigescens Meisn.
Should I keep it under Neolitsea cassia ?

Thank you. I have got full reference at this end and access to images of all the type specimens from a number of European herbaria.
Usually references of varieties are not available it net and you have to search literature for them.
Initially I thought that the oblong fruits from Doddabetta should be described as a new species but now I have realized that there is no further associated difference and fruit character alone does not merit recognition of a distinct species. At this stage I came across the type specimens of Litsea zeylanica var. rigescens from the Nilgiris bearing oblong fruits. This variety has to be transferred under Neolitsea cassia.
I am at present finalizing the manuscript on Neolitsea. I hope that it will be published soon and most of the confusions in Indian Neolitsea will be clarified.
As regards the name Neolitsea cassia, … pointed out some anomalies in this name in a thread of eFI. I have written to an expert for clarification. I am trying to find out the thread and put here.

I think this is the link shared by …

Yes, simply a new combination will bring the correct name for the Neolitsea tree of Dodabetta on the Nilgiris.

The problems that have centered around the names Neolitsea cassia, Cinnamomum cassia, Laurus cassia, Litsea zeylanica, Neolitsea zeylanica, Neolitsea foliosa and so on will be clarified in near future I hope.

…, that will be wonderful to happen. At present, it is all chaotic. We all look forward.


Identification-Reg : 9 posts by 5 authors. Attachments (1)

Identification required for attached Cinnamomum sp.
Place: Salem 
Altitude: 1500 msl
June, 2018

Could not find a match with species available so far in efi at Cinnamomum.
Is it really a Cinnamomum species as inflorescence looks different ?

this is a case study in what NOT TO DO when requesting an ID. First is the Subject line- make it unique. Pictures must be clear. thoughtful
not something you “snatched ” in passing.
preferably parallel to the camera sensor (in old days it was the film plane) and if one had transmitted light picture to show the veins it would be better still then the stem/trunk bark and Overall HABIT of the plant or the tree and its Habitat how many in the community of the plants, esp if in wild. soil type : dry  desert,  wet clay rocky etc

This appears to be a Neolitsea sp. [Lauraceae].

Is it Neolitsea?

Thanks, …, for genus id. Yes to me also appear close to images at Neolitsea cassia (L.) Kosterm.

There are heavy knots in Neolitsea with regard to nomenclature and delimitation. With this images this appears to be completely glabrous and in that case this is referable to N. foliosa but the conspicuous areolation of leaf venation characteristic of the species not visible. The other possibility is of N. cassia which is a disputed name and the next name for the same is N. zeylanica which lacks such conspicuous areolation of leaf minor venation and there will tomentellum on the young shoots. Hence without examining the specimen it is difficult to decide which name out of these two can be applied here.



The following link relates to this subject with a long chain of discussion initiated by …
The problem is now solved. Here is the link: 

The Linnaean name Laurus cassia can be used now only as Neolitsea cassia (L.) Kosterm. (as treated in Indian Floras).  Any other combination with this Linnaean name will have to be treated as a synonym of this name.  The name Neolitsea zeylanica (Nees & T. Nees) Merr. is a synonym of N. cassia. As regards the combination made by D. Don (1825) as Cinnamomum cassia (L.) D. Don and treated as an accepted name in Flora of China, in the strict sense, this will be now a synonym of Neolitsea cassia. However, the plant which D. Don (1825) had in mind, i.e. Cinnamomum cassia  sensu D. Don, non (L.) D. Don will now be called as Cinnamomum aromaticum Nees, the next available legitimate name. In case someone is interested to know more about my present research, he/she can contact me personally.

I feel someone has to come forward with a proposal to conserve the name “Cinnamomum cassia”, a plant having much commercial value.

Thank you very very much … for resolving this huge jumble of taxa.
I will download and read the article after I register at Phytotaxa. Though I am not sure whether anybody can register there.
I am sure this article will be helpful to many.

Open access paper in Phytotaxa needs payment from author. So most authors are choosing locked access, accessible to subscribers only. Authors get a PDF for personal use only.

Okay, thanks … I am happy that the ambiguity related to Laurus cassia is resolved.


MS, April, 2023/19 Lauraceae for id: 4 images.
Location : Hmuifang, Mizoram

Altitude : ca.1,450 m
Date : 18-04-2023
Habit : Middle-sized or large evergreen tree
Habitat : Wild

Lindera ?

Appears close to images of Neolitsea cassia at


Tamil names of Neolitsea cassia (L.) Kosterm.:

Please help in validating the English transcribed names of Neolitsea cassia (L.) Kosterm.
மொலகா செம்பக பாளை molakaa cempaka paalai, படபடா patapataa
Reference: Tamil names of Botanical names by Yercaud Ilango

I found one transcribed name – moolaga shembaga palai in one of the XLS document – Plants of Tamil Nadu database (ENVIS), that you had given me the link to..

The words moolaga and molakaa perhaps refer to molagaa (மொளகா (not மொலகா), a modified version of Milagaai மிளகாய் for chilli). So, I suggest the spelling molagaa cembaga paalai  மொளகா செம்பக பாலை. The other name patapataa படபடா looks okay.


Names of Plants in India :: Neolitsea cassia (L.) Kosterm.:
Neolitsea cassia (L.) Kosterm.

nee-oh-LIT-see-a — neo (new); Litsea (genus name meaning little or small) … Dave’s Botanary
KASS-ee-uh — from an ancient Greek name “kasia” used by Dioscorides … Dave’s Botanary

commonly known as: grey bollywood, smooth-barb bollygum • Kannada: ಬಿಳಿ ನಿಸಂಗಿ bili nisangi, ಮಸ್ಸಿಮರ massimara • Konkani: कानवेल kanvel • Malayalam: കീഴമ്പഴം keezhambazham, പ്രാവരി praavari, വെള്ളക്കൊടല vellakkodala, വെങ്കണ venkana • Marathi: चिरचिरा chirchira, कानवेल kanvel • Tamil: மொளகா செம்பக பாலை molagaa cembaga paalai, படபடா patapataa • Telugu: కుక్క కర్పూరమ kukka karpooram

botanical namesNeolitsea cassia (L.) Kosterm. … homotypic synonymsCinnamomum cassia (L.) J.Presl • Laurus cassia L. • Persea cassia (L.) Spreng. … accepted infraspecificsNeolitsea cassia var. rigescens (Meisn.) Chakrab. … homotypic synonymsLitsea zeylanica var. rigescens Meisn. … and more at POWO, retrieved 17 November 2023
Note: Litsea zeylanica Nees & T.Nees … synonym of Neolitsea cassia (L.) Kosterm. … in GBIF Secretariat. GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset via accessed on 2023-11-17

Bibliography / etymology
Links listed as references in the notes below, may not remain valid permanently. Portals / websites have a tendency to re-organize / revise their content, leading to change in URLs of pages in their site. Some sites may even close down at their own will.

~~~~~ ENGLISH ~~~~~
written and spoken widely, in most parts of India
grey bollywood, smooth-barb bollygum
~~~~~ KANNADA ~~~~~
written in: Kannada (ಕನ್ನಡ) … spoken in: Karnataka
ಬಿಳಿ ನಿಸಂಗಿ bili nisangi
ಮಸ್ಸಿಮರ massimara
~~~~~ KONKANI ~~~~~
written in: DevanagariKannada, Malayalam, Urdu, Roman … spoken in: Goa, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Kerala
कानवेल kanvel
~~~~~ MALAYALAM ~~~~~
written in: Malayalam (മലയാളം) … spoken in: Kerala
കീഴമ്പഴം keezhambazham, പ്രാവരി praavari, വെള്ളക്കൊടല vellakkodala
വെങ്കണ venkana
~~~~~ MARATHI ~~~~~
written in: Devanagari (मराठी) … spoken in: Maharashtra, Karnataka
चिरचिरा chirchira, कानवेल kanvel
~~~~~ TAMIL ~~~~~
written in: Tamil (தமிழ்) … spoken in: Tamil Nadu
மொளகா செம்பக பாலை molagaa cembaga paalai, படபடா patapataa
~~~~~ TELUGU ~~~~~
written in: Telugu ( తెలుగు) … spoken in: Andhra PradeshTelangana
కుక్క కర్పూరమ kukka karpooram
Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Telangana
~~~~~ Last updated: 17-11-2023 ~~~~~

Both Malayalam and English spellings are correct

One Tamil name is corrected …



GRIN  The Plant List 

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