Lactuca violifolia (Decne.) C.B.Clarke, “C. B. Clarke, Compos. Ind.. 1876” 269 1876. (syn: Cicerbita violifolia (Decne.) Beauverd (ambiguous synonym); Prenanthes violifolia Decne.) as per Catalogue of Life;
Lactuca violifolia (Decne.) C.B.Clarke, “C. B. Clarke, Compos. Ind.. 1876” 269 1876 (Syn: Cicerbita violifolia (Decne.) Beauverd; Prenanthes violifolia Decne.) as per The Plant List Ver.1.1
Melanoseris violifolia (Decaisne) N. Kilian, Fl. China. 20-21: 225. 2011 (syn: Prenanthes violifolia Decaisne in Jacquemont; C. violifolia (Decaisne) Beauverd) as per Flora of China
Prenanthes volaefolia, differing from P. brunoniana in triangular slightly lobed leaves and single or few flower-heads on long stalk. 
Flora Simlensis and Flora of Muscsoorie describe only two species as per following Key
1. leaves ovate or triangular, not variable, heads few, solitary or subsolitary, on long stalks: P. violaefolia
2. leaves variable, heads many in terminal panicles: P brunoniana
from Flora Simlensis
Stems 1-6 ft heads numerous, panicled leaves of various shape: P brunoniana
stems 12-18 inch heads few solitary long stalked leaves always triangular: P violaefolia

Dcne, in Bot. Jacq. Voy. 100, t. 108 ; stem very slender simple quite glabrous or with soft hairs at the top of the petiole, leaves long- petioled ovate-cordate deltoid or hastate tip and auricles obtuse or acute entire or obscurely sinuate-toothed glaucous beneath, petiole simple or winged or dilated at the base, heads racemose or subpaniculate narrow pendulous long peduncled 5-8-fld., achenes ellipsoid shorter than the white pappus. Lactuca violaefolia, Clarke Comp. Ind. 269.

WESTERN HIMALAYA ; from Kashmir to Kumaon, alt. 9-12,000 ft.
A small very slender species, a foot high, simple or sparingly branched. Leaves 1-2 in. long and broad ; petiole of the lower 3-8 in., simple or dilated at the base, sometimes into a foliaceous orbicular toothed auricle, rarely with a pair of oblong pinnules below the blade, nerves radiating from the tip of the petiole. Heads few, subsolitary, pendulous ; invol. bracts 1/2 in., outer very small, inner linear obtuse. Achenes 1/6 in., contracted at both ends, but not beaked. Prenanthes violifolia Decne.
(From FBI (1882) from IBIS Flora)


ID Request-121010-PKA3 : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (5)

ID requested for this herb from Chikka.
Date/Time: 27-09-2010 / 08:10AM
Location: Chikka (On the way to Hampta Pass, Manali region)

Habitat: Wild
Plant Habit: Herb

… has identified this one as ” Prenanthes brunoniana“.

Yes Prenanthes brunoniana, florets 3-5, leaves undivided.

Can it also be Prenanthes violaefolia Decne. ?

I think it should be Prenanthes violaefolia as per another thread.


Bot name: Prenanthes brunoniana
Date/Time: 27-09-2010 / 08:10AM
Location: Chikka (On the way to Hampta Pass, Manali region)
Habitat: Wild
Plant Habit: Herb

Very good pictures!

I think it should be Lactuca violifolia as per images. keys and details herein.

Images by Anurag N Sharma (Id by Bibhas Amonkar & P Santhan) (Inserted by J.M.Garg) (For more images & complete details, click on the links) 

ANNOV32 Asteraceae for identification : 8 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (3).

1st November 2014

This looks like Prenanthes (violaefolia ?).

Lactuca species

Is this a Prenanthes sp. or Lactuca sp.?

Lactuca violifolia (Decne.) C.B.Clarke (= Prenanthes violifolia Decne.)

Should we take it as Melanoseris violifolia (Decaisne) N. Kilian, Fl. China. 20-21: 225. 2011. syn: Prenanthes violifolia Decaisne in Jacquemont; C. violifolia (Decaisne) Beauverd in view of Flora of China

I think it may be Prenanthes violifolia but florets here are 10 instead of florets 3-8 in a head as per keys in another thread.
Pl. give your feedback.

I am able to count 7-8 florets in each head in this specimen. P. brunoniana has 3-5. It appears P. violifolia.


Images of Prenanthes violaefolia at FOI look different from those available at Prenanthes
In view, you are requested to pl. check & let us now.

That is confusing. At the BSI efloraofindia site, the description says:
6. Prenanthes violaefolia Decne.
Herbs, biennial or perennial; stems 10-50 cm high, slender, glabrous or with soft hairs, erect, solitary or sparingly branched. Leaves ovate-cordate, deltoid, hastate, sinuate-toothed or entire, 2-8 x 1.5-9.5 cm, auricled; petiole long, simple, winged or dilated at the base.

This description doesn’t say that the leaves can be lobed or deeply cut, as the pictures on Prenanthes show. The species name violaefolia would imply that the leaves are approximately like those of Viola species. The plant by late Krishan Lal ji
FOI shows entire ovate-cordate leaves, which agrees with the description.

It may well be that the leaves of this plant are so variable that they can be deeply sinuate, in which case both plants at FOI and Prenanthes belong to P. violaefolia. I am unable to comment any more convincingly.

Thanks, … I don’t see any leaves at FOI (I think leaves seen are of some other plant).
Pl. also see


Cicerbita violaefolia? ABOCT2016/06 : 7 posts by 3 authors.
This one is from my trek to Ilaqa in September. I assumed it to be the Cicerbita violaefolia then but now with other Prenanthes species here, I am not sure. Please advise. 

Mcleodganj-Triund-Ilaqa, Dharamshala, HP
3100m and above
03-04 September 2016

Yes, Lactuca violifolia (Syn. Cicerbita violifolia, Prenanthes violifolia).

Thanks, …,
Will you also comment on images of … at Prenanthes violaefolia ?

This is a key from FLORA OF CHANBA and FLORA OF KULLU by Prof. M. Sharma of Punjabi University, Patiala. This may be of some use.
1. Leaves very variable; stems 0.5-1.5m long; heads many, in terminal panicles; florets 3-5 in a head: Prenanthes brunoniana (Lactuca brunoniana)
1. Leaves always ovate or triangular; stems 0.3-0.6m long; heads few, subpanicled or racemed or solitary; florets 3-8 in a head: Prenanthes violifolia (Lactuca violifolia)
According to this key, posts on page Prenanthes violifolia of efi do not matches with the description of Prenanthes violifolia.

Thanks, …

My information was from available literature on Flora of H.P.  Now, … can help us in clearing doubts.


Melanoseris sp. for identification – YS Apr2020/03 : 4 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (4)
Please help to identify this Melanoseris sp. Clicked from Jalori Pass, Himachal Pradesh, in Sept., 2019.

Thanks … Looks likely to be Lactuca violifolia, which is now accepted as Melanoseris violifolia (DC.) N.Kilian according to POWO and CoL.
But leaves in my photos looks different. Either they really are different or just are at young stage of development.

I think leaves are fine as per plantillustrations  FOC illustration 


SK 2814 01 November 2020 : 12 posts by 2 authors. 2 images- 5 to 6 mb each.
Location: Kathmandu Valley
Date:  October 2020 
Elevation: 2700m.
Habitat  : Wild

Cucurbitaceae ?

Melanoseris cyanea ?

May be Lactuca species like Lactuca violifolia

Melanoseris brunoniana (Wall. ex DC.) N.Kilian & Ze H.Wang ??
Lactuca brunoniana

What about my suggestion?

I cannot say. Melanoseris brunoniana (Wall. ex DC.) N.Kilian & Ze H.Wang is found there and images from efi looks matching.

Lactuca brunoniana seems to be a much larger plant than Lactuca violifolia
I find your plant to be more closer to Lactuca violifolia (as far as leaf shape and height of the plant is concerned).


SK 3242 19 December 2021: 5 very high res. images.

Location: Jumla, West Nepal
Altitude: 3000m.
Date: 24 August 2021 
Habit : Wild

Melanoseris violifolia (DC.) N.Kilian. Syn : Prenanthes violifolia Decne. ??

Cicerbita I hope.

I have suggested ID. Any possibility ?

Yes, appears close to images at Lactuca violifolia

Thank you … !


Can you Help Identify VOF flower: 1 very high res. image.

Could you help identify this flower please!
Location – Valley of flowers
Date – 17th August 2022
It does look like a BellFlorwer (Campanula) but i am unable to categorize it!

Pl. check

Detailed images are required for proper id.
I think it is Lactuca violifolia (Decne.) C.B.Clarke, as per images and details herein.



Catalogue of Life  The Plant List Ver.1.1  GCC  Annotated checklist of the flowering plants of Nepal  The Plant List (Unresolved)  IIIM (Herbarium)  Flowers of India  plantillustrations  The Plant List Ver.1.1  Flora of China (Melanoseris violifolia (Decaisne) N. Kilian, Fl. China. 20-21: 225. 2011. syn: Prenanthes violifolia Decaisne in Jacquemont; C. violifolia (Decaisne) BeauverdFOC illustration  India Biodiversity Portal GBIF  IBIS Flora