Lindernia rotundifolia (L.) Alston, Handb. Fl. Ceylon 6(Suppl.): 214 1931. (syn: Bonnaya rotundifolia (L.) Benth.; Gratiola rotundifolia L.; Ilysanthes hypericifolia Bonati; Ilysanthes madagascariensis Bonati; Ilysanthes oblongifolia Baker; Ilysanthes rotundifolia (L.) Benth.; Lindernia microcalyx Pennell ex Stehle; Lindernia rotundifolia (L.) Mukerjee (ambiguous synonym); Lindernia rotundifolia (L.) Standley & L. Wms. (ambiguous synonym); Torenia rotundifolia (L.) E.J. Cordemoy (synonym); Virchowia cubensis Bartl. & Schenk);
Common name: Roundleaf Lindernia, Roundleaf Flase Pimpernel • Malayalam: Tsjanga-puspam
Comores (Mayotte, etc.), Réunion, Mauritius, Madagascar, Kenya, Tanzania, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Uganda, D.R. Congo (Zaire), Ethiopia, Malawi, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sri Lanka, W-India, S-India, Fiji (introduced), Myanmar [Burma] (Yangon), Ecuador, Peru, Belize, French Guiana, Venezuela (Delta Amacuro), N-Brazil (Amazonas, Acre), NE-Brazil (Maranhao, Ceara, Pernambuco, Bahia, Alagoas), WC-Brazil (Distrito Federal), SE-Brazil (Espirito Santo, Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro), S-Brazil (Parana, Santa Catarina), Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Colombia (Amazonas), French Guiana, Paraguay, Lesser Antilles (Guadeloupe, Dominica, Martinique), Bolivia (Cochabamba, La Paz) as per Catalogue of Life;

Lindernia rotundifolia occurs in western and southern India – Tamil Nadu (Madurai, Pudukottai, Trichy), Maharashtra (Sindhudurg), Kerala (Vazhani in Thrissur) and Karnataka (S. Kanara). It is also distributed in Bangladesh, Mauritius, Madagascar, Sri Lanka (Cook 1996) and eastern and southeastern Africa (Fisher 1999).

It is found in rice fields, particularly after harvesting, along ditches and the edges of ponds and tanks (Cook 1996). This species is mostly distributed in areas below 1,000 m altitude and grow in open wet meadows, marshy areas or forests in Taiwan (Liang 2007).
It is used ornamental plants in aquarium and deserves a place amongst the foliage and it plays an important part removing nitrates from the water. However, this is a very fast growing plant that is classed as a weed by many horticulturists; many companies now refuse to propagate this plant as they look at it as a pest. In the aquarium it deserves a place amongst the foliage and it plays an important part removing nitrates from the water.
Citation: Mani, S. 2017. Lindernia rotundifolia. (amended version published in 2011) The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T176988A118617025. Downloaded on 27 October 2017.


Erect or diffuse herbs, rooting at lower nodes. Leaves 0.8-1.3 x 0.5-1 cm, ovate to orbicular, base and apex rounded, margin crenate to subentire, basally 3-nerved, sessile. Flowers solitary in leaf axils; pedicle 0.5-1 cm long, slender. Calyx deeply divided, lobes 5, 2-2.5 x 1 mm, lanceolate. Corolla c. 1 cm long, white with blue blotches at mouth and lobes; lobes orbicular. Stamens 2; staminodes 2, glandular-scabrid at base. Stigma 2-lamellate. Capsule c. 3 mm long, subglobose, equal to or slightly shorter than calyx. Seeds c. 0.5 mm long, oblong, pale brown.

Flowering and fruiting: August-November
Marshy areas
(Attributions- Dr. N Sasidharan (Dr. B P Pal Fellow), Kerala Forest Research Institute, Peechi from India Biodiversity Portal)

Hooghly Today : Ilysanthes parviflora (L.) Benth. : Attachments (5).  4 posts by 2 authors.
earlier upload – efi thread
ref :

Please check the latest update at – efi thread

This is also Ilysanthes rotundifolia Benth., as in – efi thread.


Hooghly : Ilysanthes rotundifolia (L.) Benth. ??? Attachments (6). 7 posts by 3 authors.
This one is growing beside waterbody (railway ditch), recorded on 12/5/13, prostrate-erect, erect part about 15 cm.

Please read it as Ilysanthes parviflora (L.) Benth. (Bengal Plants, vol2. p769), in place of Ilysanthes rotundifolia (L.) Benth.

The Plant List gives Ilysanthes parviflora (L.) Benth., Prodr. 10: 419 1846., as an accepted name.
However others give different author citations:
IUCN Red List (LC)Ilysanthes parviflora (Roxb.) Benth.
Annonated checklist of the flowering plants of Nepal (Lindernia parviflora (Roxb.) Haines with Ilysanthes parviflora (Roxb.) Benth., Prodr. 10: 419 (1846). as syn.)

I fail to reach a satisfactory conclusion right now. Bengal Plants” has only one species – Ilysanthes parviflora Benth.; F. B. I. iv. 283 Gratiola parviflora F. I. i. 140

Initially i thought it could be I. rotundifolia, because of this site – (source –
More so because of the illustration found in the pdf –
But, Flora Indica informs – flowers in Gratiola rotundifolia L. are white.
The Plant List is hesitant on G. parviflora though it suggests that it can be a synonymous with Lindernia parviflora (Roxb.) Haines.
Following efloras seem to support Lindernia parviflora (Roxb.) Haines. –

…, i missed the thread. Ur plant in post is Lindernia parviflora of scrophulariaceae (as per Flora of Orissa by Saxena and Brahmam). I have collected this species growing in moist places near kathajodi river, bhubaneswar and deposited in the Herbarium of Utkal University.

So, the accepted name should be Lindernia parviflora (Roxb.) Haines.
I hope i have understood it correctly.

The flowers in this thread are too big (please, see the attached screenshot) for Haines’ Lindernia parviflora.

Perhaps the confusion lies in the entries of Ilysanthes parviflora Benth. and Ilysanthes rotundifolia Benth.. in Flora of British India, vol4.

Both the entries use a common plate – Roxb. Cor. Pl. 3, t. 204.
The following sites seems to be correct –

Thank you

Thanks, …, I think you mean to say now that your posted plant in this thread is Ilysanthes rotundifolia (L.) Benth.

Yes, …, i think it is Ilysanthes rotundifolia Benth. of Flora of British India.

Lindernia rotundifolia (L.) Alston SN 15March 19 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (2)
Lindernia rotundifolia (L.) Alston,
pretty herb in the moist areas,
I saw it from western ghats area of Karnataka and Ambasamudram area of Tamilnadu

Flora of Kaiga_ID_23052014 PJ1 : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (1).
ID requested for the following photograph.
Flora of Kaiga_ID_23052014 PJ1
Date/Time-:22/05/14   –    11:30am
Location- Place, Altitude – Kaiga , Uttar Kannada ,Karnataka, 380 mtrs
Habitat- Garden/ Urban/ Wild/ Type-   wild  
Habit- Tree/ Shrub/ Climber/ Herb – herb
Length- 5 to 7cm

Nice photograph. Looks like some Lindernia sp. check for L. parviflora..

yes it looks like L. parviflora.

It should be Lindernia rotundifolia as per images at

Please help to identify this Scrophulariaceae herb found on river bank.
I already requested id of the same species in a different place here

Date/Time- 10-02-2011 / 11:00 AM
Location- Place, Altitude, GPSriver-shore in Satyamangalam RF; TN. c 350 msl
Habitat- Garden/ Urban/ Wild/ Type- wet shore
Plant Habit-Prostrate herb
Height/Length- c. 15 cm
Leaves Type/ Shape/ Size- c. 1.5 X 0.5 cm; sessile
Inflorescence Type/ Size- solitary
Flowers Size/ Colour/ Calyx/ Bracts- light violet; 0.5cm across

It could be Lindernia and very closely resembles both L. rotundifolia, L. crustacea

Looks like Lindernia parviflora

Lindernia parviflora

It is not L. crustaceae because the leaf margin is entire and penni-nerved.
It is L. parviflora of Linderniaceae because the leaf margin is entire (upper leaves sometimes serrate) and palmi-nerved (3 ribbed from base).
Please check for 2 yellow dots at the throat of the corolla.

It should be Lindernia rotundifolia as per images at

Indeed Linderna rotudifolia.


What is this riparian Scrophulariaceae? 241109MK3:
Date: 28 August 2009
Place: Tamaraparani river bank, Tirunelveli dist., TN
Please help to identify this small herb, growing in marsh. I could not get good pictures of it.

I have this plant and also eager to know the name, which is a nice aquatic rooted herb got from Alappuzha , Kerala, there can find variety of aquatic plants,

The leaves remind me of Veronica anagallis-aquatica

Lindernia rotundifolia..? A guess…

i want to go with Lindernia rotundifolia as said by …

…Pls check for Rotala indica (Willd.) Koehne because leaves are opp-decussate, no appendages between calyx lobes and flowers axillary.

Rotala indica, as far as I remember has very narrow leaves.

How about Veronica beccabunga?

Identified as Lindernia parviflora as per another thread: efi thread#

It should be Lindernia rotundifolia as per images at

Scrophulariaceae species from Assam KD 11 Mar 2020 : 7 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (3)- around 800 kb each.

Attached images are Scrophulariaceae sp.. Please ID of the species.
Date : 29.02. 2020
Location: Assam

Family : Scrophulariaceae
enus & species : ??
Habitat: Grows wild on open sunny place
Habit : Small herb

Check with Lindernia

Lindernia rotundifolia (L.) Alston ??

Thanks, … for the id.
I also think close to Lindernia rotundifolia as per comparative images at Lindernia


Goa, August 2021 :: Lindernia for ID :: ARK2021-114: 5 images.

This was clicked at Varca, South Goa in August 2021.
Guessing this to be some Lindernia.
Requested to please ID.

Lindernia rotundifolia (L.) Alston


270 ID wild plant Lindernia: 10 images.
Please ID wild plant,
Location: near Chellarkovil Waterfalls, Kumily, Idukki Dist. Kerala PIN:685607
Altitude: 3000fsl
Flower date: 08.01.2022, 03.25pm
Habitat: wild, moisture, marshy, streamside
Plant habit: creeping, branches, slender weak fleshy rigid stem 02mm base diameter, annual
Height: 08cm
Leaves: opposite, clustered, heart shaped, toothed margins, fleshy, size:01.5×1cm
Flower: axillary, diameter:04mm, white with blue shades, non fragrant
Camera: mobile Samsung Galaxy A21s

Check Lindernia rotundifolia

Yes, it is Lindernia rotundifolia, dear …, thank you very much for ID my plant,



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