I’m very interested in identification of common plants/trees in my city Bengaluru.
I’d like to know if there is a step-by-step process to taxonomically identify or at least short-list a particular tree/plant (by arrangement of leaves, veination etc etc).
I don’t mind spending a few days going through an informative resource. Is it possible for a lay-man to do so?
If so, could anyone here point me to useful references or resources on the same?

Yes, it is possible. Pl. Try with Trees of Delhi by Pradip Krishan based on leaf arrangement. It describes around 250 trees found In Delhi. It is also relevant to other cities. I do not know if there is a similar book available on trees of Bangalore.