Synotis triligulata (Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don) C.Jeffrey & Y.L.Chen, 329 1984. (syn: Cacalia ramosa Spreng. ex DC.; Senecio acuminatus f. breviligulatus Hand.-Mazz.; Senecio floribundus Wall. (ambiguous synonym); Senecio triligulatus Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don);
China (NW-Yunnan), Tibet, India (Arunachal Pradesh, Mishmi Hills, Darjeeling), Sikkim, Nepal, Bhutan, Thailand, Myanmar [Burma] (Chin, Kachin, Sagaing, Shan) as per Catalogue of Life;



MS March, 2020/02 Senecio sp. for ID : 15 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (4)

Location : Hmuifang, Mizoram

Altitude : ca. 1,450 m.
Date : 05-03-2020
Habit : Subshruby herb
Habitat : Wild

Synotis triligulata (Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don) C.Jeffrey & Y.L.Chen

To me looks different from images at Synotis triligulata

What are the species reported from your area ?

Synotis cappa, S.lushaiensis, and S.triligulata are recorded in Mizoram

Synotis pentantha (Merr.) M.Tang, C.Ren & Q.E.Yang ??

Phytotaxa: In conclusionSenecio pentanthus and Synotis triligulata are morphologically two distinct species. The former is a fairly widespread species occurring in Bhutan, China (Xizang, Yunnan), northeastern India, Myanmar, Nepal and northern Thailand whereas the latter is restrictedly distributed in Nepal. The following treatment, therefore, is necessary.

Synotis lushaensis (C.E.C.Fisch.) C.Jeffrey & Y.L.Chen looks more close?

Giving here the keys from Reinstatement of the Sino-Himalayan species Senecio pentanthus (Asteraceae, Senecioneae) MING TANG, CHEN REN & QIN-ER YANG – Phytotaxa 292 (3): 253–261 (2017):
Key to Synotis pentantha and its similar species
1. Capitula conspicuously radiate ……….2
–   Capitula minutely radiate …………..3
2.   Leaves with prominent, distinct veins beneath ………..Syn. lushaensis
–   Leaves with obscure veins beneath ………….Syn. vagans
3.   Corymbs dense, glomeruliform, 2–4 cm long ……..4
–   Corymbs more lax, spreading, 4.5–10 cm long ….5
4.   Leaves coarsely and deeply serrate, auriculate at the base …………..Syn. rhabdos
–   Leaves finely and shallowly serrate, exauriculate ……………Syn. glomerata
5.   Leaves broadly ovate, ovate-lanceolate or elliptic ……………6
–   Leaves narrowly lanceolate or narrowly oblong ……………..9
6.   Phyllaries 5; disc florets 2 or 3 ………Syn. penantha (Synotis pentantha is widely distributed in Bhutan, China (Xizang, Yunnan), northeastern India, Myanmar, Nepal, and northern Thailand (Fig. 5). It grows in open forests, on forest margins, or among scrub at elevations between 1100–2400 m above sea level)
–   Phyllaries 7–10; disc florets 5–10 ………………..7
7.   Capitula 3.5–4 × 1.5 mm; phyllaries 6–8 mm long; marginal florets ligulate, conspicuous ………S. triligulata
–   Capitula 4 × 2.7 mm; phyllaries ca. 4 mm long; marginal florets minute, filiform ………8
8.   Stems, veins on abaxial surface of leaves and peduncles all densely glandular fulvous-pubescent ………..Syn. saluenensis
–   Stems and leaves glabrous; peduncles pubescent ………….Syn. simonsii
9.   Leaves auriculate at the base ……………….Syn. auriculata
–   Leaves exauriculate …………….Syn. baoshanensis

Here are the keys from Flora of China:
40 (39) Leaves pubescent or thinly tomentose; ray lamina ca. 3.5 mm. 23 S. cappa
+ Leaves glabrous; ray lamina ca. 6 mm. 3 S. longipes
41 (39) Corymbs dense, glomeruliform, 2-4 cm. 33 S. glomerata
+ Corymbs more lax, spreading, 4.5-10 cm (42)
42 (41) Capitula ca. 4 × 2.7 mm; phyllaries 8. 36 S. saluenensis
+ Capitula 3.5-4 × ca. 1.5 mm; phyllaries 4 or 5 (43)
43 (42) Leaves ovate or elliptic, basally not auriculate; ray florets 3 or 4. 34 S. triligulata
+ Leaves narrowly elliptic or narrowly oblong-elliptic, basally auriculate; ray florets 2. 35 S. auriculata

So pl. post the high resolution images to check all these aspects.




4 images- 6 to 7 mb each.

I will go for Synotis triligulata



MS Feb.,2016/04 Shrub for ID : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)

Location : Hmuifang, Mizoram
Altitude : c. 1,400 m.
Date : 29/01/2016
Habit : shrub
Habitat : Wild

Inula sp.

Pl. check with Duhaldea cuspidata (Wall. ex DC.) Anderb. as per comparative images at Duhaldea

How does Duhaldea griffithii (C.B.Clarke) Anderb. plant look like??

Looks different as per Duhaldea griffithii in GBIF

What are the Inula species listed in your area?

Inula cappa, I.eupatorioides, I.nervosa & I.rubricaulis are recorded in Mizoram

Out of the four species listed, it appears close only to Duhaldea eupatorioides as per GBIF– specimen 1specimen2 and description in Flora of China.

However, I am a bit doubtful as leave nerves look a bit different and less in no., although nothing is specified in the description in FoC.
Specimens from GBIF at following look different:
Inula rubricaulis (DC.) C.B.Clarke, 1876
Can you post a high resolution image to check further.

1 high resolution image.

Yes, looks different from  Duhaldea eupatorioides too.

What are the Senecio species recorded in your area?

Senecio wightianus & S.wightii are recorded in Mizoram

I do not think it matches with either of the two as per images and details at Senecio wightii and Senecio scandens

If you have high resolution images, pl. send.

This is Synotis triligulata (Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don) C.Jeffrey & Y.L.Chen as per images and details herein and as per keys herein.



Requesting for ID of this plant : Attachments (1). 4 posts by 3 authors.

Location : Hmuifang (1,500 m. alt.). Date : 25-11-2013. Habitat : Wild. Habit : Herb or small shrub ?


Pl. check with Duhaldea cuspidata (Wall. ex DC.) Anderb. as per comparative images at Duhaldea

Thanks, sir

This is Synotis triligulata (Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don) C.Jeffrey & Y.L.Chen as per images and details herein and as per keys herein.





References:  Catalogue of Life  The Plant List Ver.1.1  GCC  World Flora Online  GBIF  Flora of China  FOC illustration  Annotated checklist of Flowering plants of Nepal  Bhutan Biodiversity Portal  Europeana (Specimen)  Research Gate (Specimen)
Distribution Pattern of Synotis (C.B. Clake) C. Jeffrey & Y.L. Chen (Senecioneae : Asteraceae) in Nepal Sudha Joshi (Shrestha)- Himalaya Pleione 11(2): 177 – 186. 2017. (Abstract- The distribution pattern of ten species of Synotis (C.B. Clarke) C. Jeffrey & Y.L. Chen in phytogeographical regions and bio-climatic zones in Nepal along with the species richness was studied. Central Nepal houses the highest number of species, followed by the east Nepal. West Nepal has the least number of species. Within the bio-climatic zones, the highest numbers of species are present in the temperate zone, followed by subalpine zone and then subtropical zone. Alpine zone houses only three species of Synotis. The species richness is peaked in the central Nepal and at the elevation of 2100 – 2200 m and 2400 – 2600 m.)

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