Amaranthus blitum subsp. oleraceus (L.) Costea (Images by Gurcharan Singh (Inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade))



Amaranthus caudatus L. (Images by D.S.Rawat & (Usha Desai – identified by Gurcharan Singh), (inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade)) 



Amaranthus cruentus L. (Images by (Pudji Widodo– identified by Surajit Koley) & (Arpita Rathore – validation by Mani ), (Inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade))



Amaranthus hybridus L. (Images by Gurcharan Singh (Inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade)) 



Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. (Images by (Alok Mahendroo – identification by Gurcharan Singh, validation by Tanay Bose), (Inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade))



(Images by (Siva Siva – Identified by Santhan P), (Inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade))




Amaranthus spinosus L. (Images by Bhagyashri Ranade) 


Images by (Prashant Desai – validation by Surajit Koley), (Inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade)



Amaranthus tricolor L. (Images by (Balkar Singh – identified by Surajit Koley), Aarti Khale & Surajit Koley (Inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade))



Amaranthus viridis L. (Images by Nidhan Singh, & (Surajit Koley – validation by Nidhan Singh), (Inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade))


Karthikeyan et al. (2009)
have mentioned following species of Amaranthus in India:

  1. Amaranthus blitum L.
  2. A. caturus B. Heyne ex Hook.f.
  3. A. caudatus L.
  4. A. dubius Mart. Ex Thell. (syn. of Amaranthus tortuosus Hornem.)
  5. A. graecizans L. [ssp. graecizans L; ssp. aschersonianus (Thell.)
    Costea, D.M.Brenner & Tardif, ssp. silvestris (Vill.) Brenan; ssp.
    thellungianus (Neveski ex Vassilcz.) Gusev]
  6. A. hybridus L.
  7. A. lividus L. [ssp. lividus (= Amaranthus blitum subsp. oleraceus (L.) Costea); ssp. polygonoides (Zoll. Ex Moq.) Probst (synonym of Amaranthus blitum L.)]
  8. A. palmeri S. Watson
  9. A. polygonoides L.
  10. A. retroflexus L.
  11. A. spinosus L.
  12. A. tenuifolius Willd.
  13. A. tricolor L.
  14. A. viridis L.


Karthikeyan, S., Sanjappa, M. and Moorthy, S. 2009. Flowering Plants of India, Dicotyledons, vol-I (Acanthaceea- Avicenniaceae). Botanical Survey of India, Kolkata. p.p. 71-73.  


From Floral Database of Tamilnadu : 

Binomial Habit Notes References Distribution
Herb Plains,
  All districts
Amaranthus caudatus L. Herb Plains,
Cultivated/ Escape, Native of Tropical America
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Amaranthus graecizans subsp. thellungianus (Nevski) Gusev. Herb Plains,
Dry Localities
Amaranthus hybridus L. subsp. cruentus (L.) Thell. var. paniculatus (L.) Thell. = Amaranthus cruentus L. Herb Plains,
Cultivated/ Naturalized, Native of Tropical America
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Amaranthus spinosus L. Herb Plains,
Dry Localities
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Amaranthus tricolor L. Herb Plains,
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Amaranthus viridis L. Herb Plains,
Dry Localities
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987


Botanical name Synonyms Family Common name
Amaranthus caudatus Amaranthaceae Love Lies Bleeding
Amaranthus cruentus ‘Hot Biscuits’ Amaranthus paniculatus Amaranthaceae Hot Biscuits Amaranth
Amaranthus cruentus Amaranthus hybridus subsp. cruentus Amaranthaceae Red Amaranth
Amaranthus hypochondriacus Amaranthus flavus, Amaranthus aureus, Amaranthus hybridus var.
Amaranthaceae Prince-of-Wales Feather
Amaranthus spinosus Amaranthaceae Prickly Amaranth
Amaranthus tricolor Amaranthus gangeticus, Amarannthus tristis, Amaranthus mangostanus Amaranthaceae Elephant-Head Amaranth
Amaranthus viridis Amaranthus gracilis, Amaranthus polystachyus, Euxolus viridis Amaranthaceae Green Amaranth


Amaranthus deflexus Linn. (No distribution in India)
Amaranthus graecizans subsp. graecizans (No distribution in India)


Amaranthus blitum Linnaeus (Syn: A. lividus Linnaeus)
Amaranthus cruentus Linnaeus (Syn: Amaranthus paniculatus Linnaeus; A. hybridus Linnaeus subsp. cruentus (Linnaeus) Thellung; A. hybridus var. paniculatus (Linnaeus) Thellung.)
Amaranthus hypochondriacus Linnaeus (Syn: Amaranthus hybridus Linnaeus var. hypochondriacus (Linnaeus) Robinson; A. hybridus subsp. hypochondriacus (Linnaeus) Thellung.)
Amaranthus tricolor Linnaeus (Syn: Amaranthus gangeticus Linnaeus)


Floriculture in India By Gurcharan Singh Randhawa, Amitabha Mukhopadhyay (1986)- Details-
Amaranthus bicolor Nocca ex Willd. is a synonym of Amaranthus tricolor
Amaranthus salicifolius H.J.Veitch is a synonym of Amaranthus tricolor
Amaranthus tricolor


Flora of Davanagere District, Karnataka, India By B. K. Manjunatha, V. Krishna, T. Pullaiah (2004)- Details with keys
An Excursion Flora of Central Tamilnadu, India By K. M. Matthew (1995)- Details-
Vegetables edited by G. J. H. Grubben (2004)- Good details-

Flora of Medak District, Andhra Pradesh, India By T. Pullaiah, Chintala Prabhakar, B. Ravi Prasad Rao (1998)- Details with keys

Amaranthus (Amaranthaceae) : 5 posts by 2 authors.

I have updated eFI (efloraofindia) page on Amaranthus (Pl. click).

Attempts have been made to incorporate most of the species available in India & nearby areas with details & keys directly or through links as far as possible. It’s quite possible that there may be some discrepancy in the accepted names & synonyms taken from other links.

Species discussed so far in efloraofindia are given at the bottom of the page in the form of links against Subpages. On clicking them one can see all the details.

If someone can provide complete list of Indian species with source references it will be wonderful.
Any comments/ corrections are welcome.

I have added list of Indian species based on Karthikeyan et al 2009.

Thanks a lot, …

ID key of various Amaranthus in the Bengal Plants (i am trying to grasp; and for future ref.) :-
Bracts awned or setaceous, equalling or exceeding the sepals; utricle dehiscent, circumscissile; leaves long-petioled :-
(i) stamens 5, sepals 5, …with spines… ———- A. spinosus L. (an erect spinescent herb)
(ii) stamens 5, sepals 5, … stems striate; leaves acute or acuminate; spikes thyrsoid; bracts recurved, much exceeding the oblong-lanceolate, acuminate sepals —– A. paniculatus L. (now syn. of Amaranthus cruentus L.) (a tall robust annual, cultivated)
(iii) stamens 5, sepals 5, … stems striate; leaves obtuse, rarely acute; spike thyrsoid; bracts hardly recurved, not much exceeding the obovate, mucronate sepals —– A. caudatus L. (a tall robust annual, cultivated)
(iv) stamens 3, sepals 3, leaves obtuse or emarginate; erect; flowers clustered in lower axils and also forming a long terminal spike; sepals long awned; stems branching above the middle —– A. gangeticus L. (now syn. of Amaranthus tricolor L.) (an erect stout annual, very variable in colour and shape of leaves, cultivated)
(iv b) ……do……; stems branching near the base; yielding several crops annually —– A. gangeticus var. tristis (Amaranthus tricolor L. subsp. tristis (L.) Thell. now a syn. of Amaranthus tricolor L.) (annual with ,many prostrate branches, cultivated)
(v) stamens 3, sepals 3, leaves obtuse or emarginate; diffuse; flowers clustered, all axillary, sepals short-awned ——– A. mangostanus L. (now syn. of Amaranthus tricolor L.) a diffusely branched annual, perhaps a feral state of A. gangeticus var. tristis)
Bracts acute, hardly awned, shorter than sepals; utricle indehiscent or rarely dehiscent; leaves obtuse, rounded or notched :-
(vi) stamens 3, sepals 3; utricle acute at the tip, rugose; clusters axillary and in terminal panicled slender spikes; leaves green —– A. viridis L. (a slender annual)
(vi b) ….. do ………; leaves with a pale crescentic , transverse band ——— A. viridis var. fasciata (a slender annual)
(vii) stamens 3, sepals 3; utricle blunt at the tip, membranous, orbicular or broadly ovate; procumbent; leaves small, 2-lobed; clusters all axillary ——- A. blitum L. (a procumbent annual weed)
(vii b) …..do ……; tall, succulent; leaves large, oblong or rounded; clusters axillary and in terminal, simple or lobed spikes ———- A. blitum var. oleracea (a tall succulent annual, cultivated)
(viii) stamens 3, sepals 3; utricle blunt at the tip, utricle rugose, ovoid, indehiscent or dehiscent; leaves obtuse, rarely retuse or 2-lobed; clusters all axillary —– A. polygamus L. (now a syn. of Amaranthus tricolor L.) (a prostrate annual weed)
(ix) stamens 2, sepals 2; utricle orbicular, compressed; clusters minute, all axillary; leaves small, linear-oblong, with rounded, obtuse or 2-lobed tip —– A. tenuifolius Willd. (a prostrate annual weed)
F. B. I has one more –

Amaranthus caturus Heyne (The Identity of Amaranthus caturus Heyne – Jstor) = tall, glabrous, leaves long-petioled elliptic-lanceolate acuminate thin, nerves very slender, clusters small globose soft green in very long and very slender axillary simple and terminal panicled spikes……. stem 2-3 ft., very slender……… Deccan Peninsula

I would further like to add that Amaranthus gangeticus L. of the “Bengal Plants” includes following species of Flora Indica ;-

  • A. gangeticus
  • A. oleraceus
  • A. lanceolatus
  • A. atropurpureus
  • A. tricolor
  • A. melancholicus
  • A. lividus
“Bengal Plants” also describes –
  • “The species separated by Roxburgh are well-marked races of this variety, and some of them, but more particularly the race described in the Flora Indica as A. oleraceus, possess many more or less distinguishable and definite subraces or cultivated forms.
About A. gangeticus var. tristis, the “Bengal Plants” describes –
  • “as variable in shape and coloration of leaves as the preceding variety (A. gangeticus), ……… but particularly the race named A. tristis, include a multitude of distinguishable subraces and cultivated forms……”